Abstract

We describe a spatially resolved interferometric technique combined with a phase reconstruction method that provides a quantitative two-dimensional profile of the refractive index and spatial distribution of the optical contrast between the on-off states of electrically switchable diffraction gratings as a function of the external electric field. The studied structures are holographic gratings optically written into polymer/liquid crystal composites through single-beam spatial light modulation by means of computer-generated holograms. The electro-optical response of the gratings is also discussed. The diffraction efficiency results to be dependent on the incident light polarization suggesting the possibility to develop polarization dependent switching devices.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. H. Close, A. D. Jacobson, J. D. Margerum, R. G. Brault, and F. J. Mc Clung, “Hologram recorded on photopolymer holographic recording material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 159–160 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Asquini, A. D’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, “Optical characterization at wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 1549 nm of POLICRYPS switchable diffraction gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 398(1), 223–233 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Computer-generated holographic gratings in soft matter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 465(1), 371–378 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
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2009 (1)

C. Meneses-Fabian, G. Rodriguez-Zurita, M.-C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, N. I. Toto-Arellano, M. del, C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, and N. I. Toto-Arellano, “Phase-shifting interferometry with four interferograms using linear polarization modulation and a Ronchi grating displaced by only a small unknown amount,” Opt. Commun. 282(15), 3063–3068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

M. Y. Yokota, Y. Terui, and I. Yamaguchi, “Polarization analysis with digital holography by use of polarization modulation for single reference beam,” Opt. Eng. 46(5), 055801–055807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Computer-generated holographic gratings in soft matter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 465(1), 371–378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. Ferraro, S. Pelli, G. Righini, and S. Sebastiani, “Digital-holography refractive-index-profile measurement of phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Colomb, F. Dürr, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, and C. Depeursinge, “Polarization microscopy by use of digital holography: application to optical-fiber birefringence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44(21), 4461–4469 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

L. Eldada, “Optical communication components,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(3), 575–593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Asquini, A. D’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, “Optical characterization at wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 1549 nm of POLICRYPS switchable diffraction gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 398(1), 223–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5(10), 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

D. H. Close, A. D. Jacobson, J. D. Margerum, R. G. Brault, and F. J. Mc Clung, “Hologram recorded on photopolymer holographic recording material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 159–160 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abbate, G.

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Computer-generated holographic gratings in soft matter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 465(1), 371–378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, W. W.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allman, B. E.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Allman, B.E.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asquini, R.

R. Asquini, A. D’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, “Optical characterization at wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 1549 nm of POLICRYPS switchable diffraction gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 398(1), 223–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bellair, C. J.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brault, R. G.

D. H. Close, A. D. Jacobson, J. D. Margerum, R. G. Brault, and F. J. Mc Clung, “Hologram recorded on photopolymer holographic recording material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 159–160 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5(10), 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

R. Asquini, A. D’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, “Optical characterization at wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 1549 nm of POLICRYPS switchable diffraction gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 398(1), 223–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Charrière, F.

Close, D. H.

D. H. Close, A. D. Jacobson, J. D. Margerum, R. G. Brault, and F. J. Mc Clung, “Hologram recorded on photopolymer holographic recording material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 159–160 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Colomb, T.

Criante, L.

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Curl, C. L.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D’Alessandro, A.

R. Asquini, A. D’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, “Optical characterization at wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 1549 nm of POLICRYPS switchable diffraction gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 398(1), 223–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Angelis, M.

M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. Ferraro, S. Pelli, G. Righini, and S. Sebastiani, “Digital-holography refractive-index-profile measurement of phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Nicola, S.

M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. Ferraro, S. Pelli, G. Righini, and S. Sebastiani, “Digital-holography refractive-index-profile measurement of phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

del, M.

C. Meneses-Fabian, G. Rodriguez-Zurita, M.-C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, N. I. Toto-Arellano, M. del, C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, and N. I. Toto-Arellano, “Phase-shifting interferometry with four interferograms using linear polarization modulation and a Ronchi grating displaced by only a small unknown amount,” Opt. Commun. 282(15), 3063–3068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delbridge, L. M. D.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

Dürr, F.

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, “Optical communication components,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(3), 575–593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Encarnacion-Gutierrez, C.

C. Meneses-Fabian, G. Rodriguez-Zurita, M.-C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, N. I. Toto-Arellano, M. del, C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, and N. I. Toto-Arellano, “Phase-shifting interferometry with four interferograms using linear polarization modulation and a Ronchi grating displaced by only a small unknown amount,” Opt. Commun. 282(15), 3063–3068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Encarnacion-Gutierrez, M.-C.

C. Meneses-Fabian, G. Rodriguez-Zurita, M.-C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, N. I. Toto-Arellano, M. del, C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, and N. I. Toto-Arellano, “Phase-shifting interferometry with four interferograms using linear polarization modulation and a Ronchi grating displaced by only a small unknown amount,” Opt. Commun. 282(15), 3063–3068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. Ferraro, S. Pelli, G. Righini, and S. Sebastiani, “Digital-holography refractive-index-profile measurement of phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. Ferraro, S. Pelli, G. Righini, and S. Sebastiani, “Digital-holography refractive-index-profile measurement of phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gizzi, C.

R. Asquini, A. D’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, “Optical characterization at wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 1549 nm of POLICRYPS switchable diffraction gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 398(1), 223–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harris, O. J.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, P. J.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, A. D.

D. H. Close, A. D. Jacobson, J. D. Margerum, R. G. Brault, and F. J. Mc Clung, “Hologram recorded on photopolymer holographic recording material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 159–160 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

Lucchetta, D. E.

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magistretti, P. J.

Maltese, P.

R. Asquini, A. D’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, “Optical characterization at wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 1549 nm of POLICRYPS switchable diffraction gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 398(1), 223–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Margerum, J. D.

D. H. Close, A. D. Jacobson, J. D. Margerum, R. G. Brault, and F. J. Mc Clung, “Hologram recorded on photopolymer holographic recording material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 159–160 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Marino, A.

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Computer-generated holographic gratings in soft matter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 465(1), 371–378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

Mc Clung, F. J.

D. H. Close, A. D. Jacobson, J. D. Margerum, R. G. Brault, and F. J. Mc Clung, “Hologram recorded on photopolymer holographic recording material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 159–160 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Meneses-Fabian, C.

C. Meneses-Fabian, G. Rodriguez-Zurita, M.-C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, N. I. Toto-Arellano, M. del, C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, and N. I. Toto-Arellano, “Phase-shifting interferometry with four interferograms using linear polarization modulation and a Ronchi grating displaced by only a small unknown amount,” Opt. Commun. 282(15), 3063–3068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5(10), 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nugebt, K.A.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. Ferraro, S. Pelli, G. Righini, and S. Sebastiani, “Digital-holography refractive-index-profile measurement of phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piccirillo, B.

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Computer-generated holographic gratings in soft matter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 465(1), 371–378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pierattini, G.

M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. Ferraro, S. Pelli, G. Righini, and S. Sebastiani, “Digital-holography refractive-index-profile measurement of phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rappaz, B.

Righini, G.

M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. Ferraro, S. Pelli, G. Righini, and S. Sebastiani, “Digital-holography refractive-index-profile measurement of phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Zurita, G.

C. Meneses-Fabian, G. Rodriguez-Zurita, M.-C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, N. I. Toto-Arellano, M. del, C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, and N. I. Toto-Arellano, “Phase-shifting interferometry with four interferograms using linear polarization modulation and a Ronchi grating displaced by only a small unknown amount,” Opt. Commun. 282(15), 3063–3068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R. P.

Santamato, E.

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Computer-generated holographic gratings in soft matter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 465(1), 371–378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sebastiani, S.

M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. Ferraro, S. Pelli, G. Righini, and S. Sebastiani, “Digital-holography refractive-index-profile measurement of phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, A. G.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, A.G.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

R. Asquini, A. D’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, “Optical characterization at wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 1549 nm of POLICRYPS switchable diffraction gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 398(1), 223–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5(10), 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Terui, Y.

M. Y. Yokota, Y. Terui, and I. Yamaguchi, “Polarization analysis with digital holography by use of polarization modulation for single reference beam,” Opt. Eng. 46(5), 055801–055807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tkachenko, V.

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Computer-generated holographic gratings in soft matter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 465(1), 371–378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5(10), 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Toto-Arellano, N. I.

C. Meneses-Fabian, G. Rodriguez-Zurita, M.-C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, N. I. Toto-Arellano, M. del, C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, and N. I. Toto-Arellano, “Phase-shifting interferometry with four interferograms using linear polarization modulation and a Ronchi grating displaced by only a small unknown amount,” Opt. Commun. 282(15), 3063–3068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Meneses-Fabian, G. Rodriguez-Zurita, M.-C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, N. I. Toto-Arellano, M. del, C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, and N. I. Toto-Arellano, “Phase-shifting interferometry with four interferograms using linear polarization modulation and a Ronchi grating displaced by only a small unknown amount,” Opt. Commun. 282(15), 3063–3068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

R. Asquini, A. D’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, “Optical characterization at wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 1549 nm of POLICRYPS switchable diffraction gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 398(1), 223–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veltri, A.

R. Asquini, A. D’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, “Optical characterization at wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 1549 nm of POLICRYPS switchable diffraction gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 398(1), 223–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vita, F.

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, I.

M. Y. Yokota, Y. Terui, and I. Yamaguchi, “Polarization analysis with digital holography by use of polarization modulation for single reference beam,” Opt. Eng. 46(5), 055801–055807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, M. Y.

M. Y. Yokota, Y. Terui, and I. Yamaguchi, “Polarization analysis with digital holography by use of polarization modulation for single reference beam,” Opt. Eng. 46(5), 055801–055807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zito, G.

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Computer-generated holographic gratings in soft matter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 465(1), 371–378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Close, A. D. Jacobson, J. D. Margerum, R. G. Brault, and F. J. Mc Clung, “Hologram recorded on photopolymer holographic recording material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 159–160 (1969).
[CrossRef]

M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. Ferraro, S. Pelli, G. Righini, and S. Sebastiani, “Digital-holography refractive-index-profile measurement of phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5(10), 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cytometry (1)

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, L. M. D. Delbridge, B.E. Allman, O. J. Harris, A.G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugebt, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (2)

R. Asquini, A. D’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, P. Maltese, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, “Optical characterization at wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 1549 nm of POLICRYPS switchable diffraction gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 398(1), 223–233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Computer-generated holographic gratings in soft matter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 465(1), 371–378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Meneses-Fabian, G. Rodriguez-Zurita, M.-C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, N. I. Toto-Arellano, M. del, C. Encarnacion-Gutierrez, and N. I. Toto-Arellano, “Phase-shifting interferometry with four interferograms using linear polarization modulation and a Ronchi grating displaced by only a small unknown amount,” Opt. Commun. 282(15), 3063–3068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Y. Yokota, Y. Terui, and I. Yamaguchi, “Polarization analysis with digital holography by use of polarization modulation for single reference beam,” Opt. Eng. 46(5), 055801–055807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Visible and near-infrared characterization and modeling of nanosized holographic-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 011702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. Eldada, “Optical communication components,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(3), 575–593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

T. K. Gaylord, and M. G. Moharam, “Analysis and application of optical diffraction by gratings,” in Proceedings of IEEE73, 894–937 (1985).

V. A. Soifer, ed., Methods for Computer Design of Diffractive Optical Elements (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2002).

F. Simoni, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals and Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1997).

P. Hariharan, Basics of Holography (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2002), Chap. 13.

J. W. Goodman, ed., Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of electro-optical characterization of the CGH diffraction gratings: (a) angular dependence of the first order diffraction efficiency DE1 for p- and s-polarization of the incident beam on a sample of thickness d=34.3μm for wavelength 633 nm; normalized first order (DE1) and zero order (DE0) diffraction efficiencies, for p-polarization (b) and s-polarization (c) vs applied electric field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the interferometric holography setup used to measure the 2D spatially resolved phase profile of CGH-gratings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detail of phase difference profiles(absolute values) for a CGH-grating measured for increasing values of the external applied voltage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Mean value of the refractive index difference Δn¯ as a function of the magnitude of the external electric field: agreement of experimental data measured on a CGH-grating for incident P-and S-polarization with quadratic and linear fitting lines, respectively. (b)-(c) Details of the spatially resolved refractive index profiles at the saturation voltage for (b) p-polarization and (c) s-polarization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Details of the spatially resolved refractive index profiles beam of a CGH-grating with grating pitch Λ=5μm measured at the saturation voltage for (a) p-polarization and (b) s-polarization of the incident.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

O(x,y)H(x',y')R(x',y')exp[iπλL(x'2+y'2)]exp[2iπλL(xx'+yy')]dx'dy',
{I(x,y;L)=|O(x,y)|2,Φ(x,y;L)=Arg{[O(x,y)][O(x,y)].}
ΔΦ(x,y;L)=Arg{cos[Φ0(x,y)]sin[Φi(x,y)]cos[Φi(x,y)]sin[Φ0(x,y)]cos[Φ0(x,y)]cos[Φi(x,y)]+sin[Φi(x,y)]sin[Φ0(x,y)]}.
|ΔΦ(x,y;V)|=|Φ(x,y;0)Φ(x,y;V)|=2πλd|non(x,y)n(x,y)V|,
|ΔΦ(x,y;V)|=2πλd(|n(x,y)VV|ΔV=0)ΔV.

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