Abstract

It is demonstrated that femtosecond laser-induced processes can be applied for controllable transfer of spherical gold nanodroplets from a thin gold film towards a glass substrate. The size of the transferred droplets depends on the volume of laser-molten gold and can be varied by changing the laser beam focus on the sample surface and the film thickness. Single- and multi-pulse fabrication of microstructures consisting of spherical gold nanodroplets is demonstrated. Mechanisms of these laser-induced backward transfer processes are discussed.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. I. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, S. Chen, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Microdeposition of metals by femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129(1-2), 601–605 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Microfabrication by UV femtosecond laser ablation of Pt, Cr and indium oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 151(3-4), 159–170 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. A. Willis and V. Grosu, “Microdroplet deposition by laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, J. D. Mills, R. W. Eason, and I. Zergioti, “Nanodroplets deposited in microarrays by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Yang, C.- Wang, X.- Ni, Z.- Wang, W. Jia, and L. Chai,, “Microdroplet deposition of copper film by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Narazaki, T. Sato, R. Kurosaki, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino, “Nano- and microdot array formation of FeSi2 by nanosecond excimer laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 057001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanostructuring of thin gold films by femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 221–230 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Korte, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Formation of microbumps and nanojets on gold targets by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4-6), 879–881 (2004).
  9. J. Koch, F. Korte, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanotexturing of gold films by femtosecond laser-induced melt dynamics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(2), 325–328 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. S. Ivanov, B. Rethfeld, G. M. O’Connor, T. J. Glynn, A. N. Volkov, and L. V. Zhigilei, “The mechanism of nanobump formation in femtosecond pulse laser nanostructuring of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 791–796 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Seifert and G. Betz, “Computer simulations of laser-induced ejection of droplets,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 133(3), 189–194 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanostructuring of thin gold films by femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 221–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Narazaki, T. Sato, R. Kurosaki, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino, “Nano- and microdot array formation of FeSi2 by nanosecond excimer laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 057001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ivanov, B. Rethfeld, G. M. O’Connor, T. J. Glynn, A. N. Volkov, and L. V. Zhigilei, “The mechanism of nanobump formation in femtosecond pulse laser nanostructuring of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 791–796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, J. D. Mills, R. W. Eason, and I. Zergioti, “Nanodroplets deposited in microarrays by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, C.- Wang, X.- Ni, Z.- Wang, W. Jia, and L. Chai,, “Microdroplet deposition of copper film by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. A. Willis and V. Grosu, “Microdroplet deposition by laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Koch, F. Korte, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanotexturing of gold films by femtosecond laser-induced melt dynamics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(2), 325–328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Korte, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Formation of microbumps and nanojets on gold targets by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4-6), 879–881 (2004).

1999

P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Microfabrication by UV femtosecond laser ablation of Pt, Cr and indium oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 151(3-4), 159–170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

I. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, S. Chen, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Microdeposition of metals by femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129(1-2), 601–605 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Seifert and G. Betz, “Computer simulations of laser-induced ejection of droplets,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 133(3), 189–194 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Banks, D. P.

D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, J. D. Mills, R. W. Eason, and I. Zergioti, “Nanodroplets deposited in microarrays by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, T.

J. Koch, F. Korte, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanotexturing of gold films by femtosecond laser-induced melt dynamics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(2), 325–328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Betz, G.

N. Seifert and G. Betz, “Computer simulations of laser-induced ejection of droplets,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 133(3), 189–194 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chai, L.

L. Yang, C.- Wang, X.- Ni, Z.- Wang, W. Jia, and L. Chai,, “Microdroplet deposition of copper film by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

I. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, S. Chen, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Microdeposition of metals by femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129(1-2), 601–605 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanostructuring of thin gold films by femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 221–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Koch, F. Korte, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanotexturing of gold films by femtosecond laser-induced melt dynamics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(2), 325–328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Korte, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Formation of microbumps and nanojets on gold targets by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4-6), 879–881 (2004).

Eason, R. W.

D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, J. D. Mills, R. W. Eason, and I. Zergioti, “Nanodroplets deposited in microarrays by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

J. Koch, F. Korte, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanotexturing of gold films by femtosecond laser-induced melt dynamics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(2), 325–328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fotakis, C.

P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Microfabrication by UV femtosecond laser ablation of Pt, Cr and indium oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 151(3-4), 159–170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, S. Chen, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Microdeposition of metals by femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129(1-2), 601–605 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glynn, T. J.

D. S. Ivanov, B. Rethfeld, G. M. O’Connor, T. J. Glynn, A. N. Volkov, and L. V. Zhigilei, “The mechanism of nanobump formation in femtosecond pulse laser nanostructuring of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 791–796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

I. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, S. Chen, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Microdeposition of metals by femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129(1-2), 601–605 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, C.

D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, J. D. Mills, R. W. Eason, and I. Zergioti, “Nanodroplets deposited in microarrays by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grosu, V.

D. A. Willis and V. Grosu, “Microdroplet deposition by laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, D. S.

D. S. Ivanov, B. Rethfeld, G. M. O’Connor, T. J. Glynn, A. N. Volkov, and L. V. Zhigilei, “The mechanism of nanobump formation in femtosecond pulse laser nanostructuring of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 791–796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jia, W.

L. Yang, C.- Wang, X.- Ni, Z.- Wang, W. Jia, and L. Chai,, “Microdroplet deposition of copper film by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

A. Narazaki, T. Sato, R. Kurosaki, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino, “Nano- and microdot array formation of FeSi2 by nanosecond excimer laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 057001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J.

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanostructuring of thin gold films by femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 221–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Koch, F. Korte, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanotexturing of gold films by femtosecond laser-induced melt dynamics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(2), 325–328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Korte, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Formation of microbumps and nanojets on gold targets by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4-6), 879–881 (2004).

Korte, F.

J. Koch, F. Korte, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanotexturing of gold films by femtosecond laser-induced melt dynamics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(2), 325–328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Korte, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Formation of microbumps and nanojets on gold targets by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4-6), 879–881 (2004).

Kurosaki, R.

A. Narazaki, T. Sato, R. Kurosaki, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino, “Nano- and microdot array formation of FeSi2 by nanosecond excimer laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 057001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, A. I.

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanostructuring of thin gold films by femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 221–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mailis, S.

I. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, S. Chen, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Microdeposition of metals by femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129(1-2), 601–605 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mills, J. D.

D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, J. D. Mills, R. W. Eason, and I. Zergioti, “Nanodroplets deposited in microarrays by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narazaki, A.

A. Narazaki, T. Sato, R. Kurosaki, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino, “Nano- and microdot array formation of FeSi2 by nanosecond excimer laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 057001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.-

L. Yang, C.- Wang, X.- Ni, Z.- Wang, W. Jia, and L. Chai,, “Microdroplet deposition of copper film by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niino, H.

A. Narazaki, T. Sato, R. Kurosaki, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino, “Nano- and microdot array formation of FeSi2 by nanosecond excimer laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 057001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, G. M.

D. S. Ivanov, B. Rethfeld, G. M. O’Connor, T. J. Glynn, A. N. Volkov, and L. V. Zhigilei, “The mechanism of nanobump formation in femtosecond pulse laser nanostructuring of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 791–796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ostendorf, A.

J. Koch, F. Korte, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanotexturing of gold films by femtosecond laser-induced melt dynamics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(2), 325–328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Papakonstantinou, P.

P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Microfabrication by UV femtosecond laser ablation of Pt, Cr and indium oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 151(3-4), 159–170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rethfeld, B.

D. S. Ivanov, B. Rethfeld, G. M. O’Connor, T. J. Glynn, A. N. Volkov, and L. V. Zhigilei, “The mechanism of nanobump formation in femtosecond pulse laser nanostructuring of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 791–796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

A. Narazaki, T. Sato, R. Kurosaki, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino, “Nano- and microdot array formation of FeSi2 by nanosecond excimer laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 057001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, N.

N. Seifert and G. Betz, “Computer simulations of laser-induced ejection of droplets,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 133(3), 189–194 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, N. A.

P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Microfabrication by UV femtosecond laser ablation of Pt, Cr and indium oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 151(3-4), 159–170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, S. Chen, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Microdeposition of metals by femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129(1-2), 601–605 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, A. N.

D. S. Ivanov, B. Rethfeld, G. M. O’Connor, T. J. Glynn, A. N. Volkov, and L. V. Zhigilei, “The mechanism of nanobump formation in femtosecond pulse laser nanostructuring of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 791–796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-

L. Yang, C.- Wang, X.- Ni, Z.- Wang, W. Jia, and L. Chai,, “Microdroplet deposition of copper film by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.-

L. Yang, C.- Wang, X.- Ni, Z.- Wang, W. Jia, and L. Chai,, “Microdroplet deposition of copper film by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willis, D. A.

D. A. Willis and V. Grosu, “Microdroplet deposition by laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

L. Yang, C.- Wang, X.- Ni, Z.- Wang, W. Jia, and L. Chai,, “Microdroplet deposition of copper film by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zergioti, I.

D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, J. D. Mills, R. W. Eason, and I. Zergioti, “Nanodroplets deposited in microarrays by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, S. Chen, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Microdeposition of metals by femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129(1-2), 601–605 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhigilei, L. V.

D. S. Ivanov, B. Rethfeld, G. M. O’Connor, T. J. Glynn, A. N. Volkov, and L. V. Zhigilei, “The mechanism of nanobump formation in femtosecond pulse laser nanostructuring of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 791–796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

A. Narazaki, T. Sato, R. Kurosaki, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino, “Nano- and microdot array formation of FeSi2 by nanosecond excimer laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 057001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. A. Willis and V. Grosu, “Microdroplet deposition by laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, J. D. Mills, R. W. Eason, and I. Zergioti, “Nanodroplets deposited in microarrays by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, C.- Wang, X.- Ni, Z.- Wang, W. Jia, and L. Chai,, “Microdroplet deposition of copper film by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

A. I. Kuznetsov, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanostructuring of thin gold films by femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 221–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Korte, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Formation of microbumps and nanojets on gold targets by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4-6), 879–881 (2004).

J. Koch, F. Korte, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanotexturing of gold films by femtosecond laser-induced melt dynamics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(2), 325–328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ivanov, B. Rethfeld, G. M. O’Connor, T. J. Glynn, A. N. Volkov, and L. V. Zhigilei, “The mechanism of nanobump formation in femtosecond pulse laser nanostructuring of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 791–796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

N. Seifert and G. Betz, “Computer simulations of laser-induced ejection of droplets,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 133(3), 189–194 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, S. Chen, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Microdeposition of metals by femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129(1-2), 601–605 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Microfabrication by UV femtosecond laser ablation of Pt, Cr and indium oxide thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 151(3-4), 159–170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structures fabricated on the surface of a 60 nm gold film by a single 30 fs laser pulse with the Gaussian intensity profile. Laser beam with a diameter of 8 mm was focused onto the sample surface by a 20 mm focus lens. Laser pulse energy Ep is 65 nJ (a), 70 nJ (b) and 75 nJ (c), respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental scheme.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Array of gold nanodroplets transferred onto a glass substrate by subsequent 30 fs laser pulses. Laser focusing conditions are the same as in Fig. 1, Ep = 75 nJ. (b) Magnified view of a droplet from Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Size dependence of the transferred droplets on the focusing conditions and gold film thickness. Diameter of the laser-melted region was defined as a diameter of a modified area on the donor substrate by SEM imaging. (b) A 220 nm gold droplet generated by LIBT using a 10 nm gold film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Arrays of gold nanodroplets transferred by single femtosecond laser pulses through the grid-like hole mask. These results are obtained by the image transfer of the grid-like hole masks with 100 μm holes (a), and 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 μm holes (b) using 50 × demagnification. Laser beam diameter before the mask is 8 mm, laser pulse energy is 70 μJ.

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