Abstract

We present a new, alternative approach to realize a wavelength swept light source with no fundamental limit to sweep speed. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light alternately passes a cascade of optical gain elements and tunable optical bandpass filters. We show that for high sweep speeds, the control signal for the different filters has to be applied with a defined, precise phase delay on the order of nanoseconds, to compensate for the light propagation time between the filters and ensure optimum operation. At a center wavelength of 1300 nm sweep rates of 10 kHz, 100 kHz and 340 kHz over a sweep range of 100 nm full width and an average power of 50 mW are demonstrated. For application in optical coherence tomography (OCT), an axial resolution of 12 µm (air), a sensitivity of 120 dB (50 mW) and a dynamic range of 50 dB are achieved and OCT imaging is demonstrated. Performance parameters like coherence properties and relative intensity noise (RIN) are quantified, discussed and compared to the performance of Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) lasers. Physical models for the observed difference in performance are provided.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  38. V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 361–363 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-4-361 .
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

Y. X. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. Sherif, and S. D. Chang, “High performance wavelength-swept laser with mode-locking technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 88–92 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2008.09.059 .
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on a Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p300147134334266/ .
[CrossRef]

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively Mode-Locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes Around 1.55 mu m With Large Operating Regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=5068462&arnumber=4982709&count=68&index=19 .
[CrossRef]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Recent developments in Fourier Domain Mode Locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Biophoton. 2(6-7), 357–363 (2009), http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122473349/abstract .
[CrossRef]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 725–727 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-6-725 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-9947 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (13)

M. Y. Jeon, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, and Z. Chen, “High-speed and wide bandwidth Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength swept laser with multiple SOAs,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2547–2554 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2547 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Walewski, J. A. Filipa, and S. T. Sanders, “Optical beating of polychromatic light and its impact on time-resolved spectroscopy. Part I: Theory,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62(2), 220–229 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/as/abstract.cfm?URI=as-62-2-220 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Filipa, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, “Optical beating of polychromatic light and its impact on time-resolved spectroscopy. Part II: Strategies for spectroscopic sensing in the presence of optical beating,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62(2), 230–237 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/as/abstract.cfm?URI=as-62-2-230 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Jeon, J. Zhang, and Z. P. Chen, “Characterization of Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength swept laser for optical coherence tomography imaging,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3727–3737 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-3727 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4163 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-7-4376 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8916–8937 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chen, C. Shu, and S. He, “Multiple fiber Bragg grating interrogation based on a spectrum-limited Fourier domain mode-locking fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1395–1397 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-13-1395 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Y. Liu, A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, X. J. Gu, and I. A. Vitkin, “High power wavelength linearly swept mode locked fiber laser for OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14095–14105 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-14095 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Jung, C. S. Kim, M. Y. Jeong, M. K. Kim, M. Y. Jeon, W. Jung, and Z. P. Chen, “Characterization of FBG sensor interrogation based on a FDML wavelength swept laser,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16552–16560 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16552 .
[PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-21-2556 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “Raman-pumped Fourier-domain mode-locked laser: analysis of operation and application for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2815–2817 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-23-2815 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008), http://www.nature.com/labinvest/journal/v88/n4/full/labinvest20084a.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v1/n12/abs/nphoton.2007.228.html .
[CrossRef]

V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 361–363 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-4-361 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 626–628 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-6-626 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Huang, A. D. Aguirre, R. A. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6210–6217 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6210 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, D. C. Adler, M. Gargesha, R. Huber, F. Rothenberg, J. Belding, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. M. Rollins, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography imaging and visualization of the embryonic avian heart using a buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6251–6267 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6251 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-14-2049 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, J. Stenger, I. Gorczynska, H. Lie, T. Hensick, R. Spronk, S. Wolohojian, N. Khandekar, J. Y. Jiang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15972–15986 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-15972 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

1998 (1)

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence Radar and Spectral Radar—New Tools for Dermatological Diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.429899 .
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “MEASUREMENT OF INTRAOCULAR DISTANCES BY BACKSCATTERING SPECTRAL INTERFEROMETRY,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-4018(95)00119-S .
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-7-4376 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-21-2556 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008), http://www.nature.com/labinvest/journal/v88/n4/full/labinvest20084a.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-14-2049 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 626–628 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-6-626 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v1/n12/abs/nphoton.2007.228.html .
[CrossRef]

D. C. Adler, J. Stenger, I. Gorczynska, H. Lie, T. Hensick, R. Spronk, S. Wolohojian, N. Khandekar, J. Y. Jiang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15972–15986 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-15972 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Huang, A. D. Aguirre, R. A. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6210–6217 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6210 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, D. C. Adler, M. Gargesha, R. Huber, F. Rothenberg, J. Belding, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. M. Rollins, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography imaging and visualization of the embryonic avian heart using a buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6251–6267 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6251 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-20-2975 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A. D.

Anantathanasarn, S.

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively Mode-Locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes Around 1.55 mu m With Large Operating Regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=5068462&arnumber=4982709&count=68&index=19 .
[CrossRef]

Andrews, P. M.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008), http://www.nature.com/labinvest/journal/v88/n4/full/labinvest20084a.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Barry, S.

Barry, S. E.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008), http://www.nature.com/labinvest/journal/v88/n4/full/labinvest20084a.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belding, J.

Bente, E.

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively Mode-Locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes Around 1.55 mu m With Large Operating Regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=5068462&arnumber=4982709&count=68&index=19 .
[CrossRef]

Biedermann, B. R.

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Recent developments in Fourier Domain Mode Locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Biophoton. 2(6-7), 357–363 (2009), http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122473349/abstract .
[CrossRef]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-9947 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 725–727 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-6-725 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “Raman-pumped Fourier-domain mode-locked laser: analysis of operation and application for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2815–2817 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-23-2815 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8916–8937 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-21-2556 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, S. D.

Y. X. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. Sherif, and S. D. Chang, “High performance wavelength-swept laser with mode-locking technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 88–92 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2008.09.059 .
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on a Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p300147134334266/ .
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, C. Shu, and S. He, “Multiple fiber Bragg grating interrogation based on a spectrum-limited Fourier domain mode-locking fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1395–1397 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-13-1395 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008), http://www.nature.com/labinvest/journal/v88/n4/full/labinvest20084a.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v1/n12/abs/nphoton.2007.228.html .
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. P.

Choma, M. A.

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v1/n12/abs/nphoton.2007.228.html .
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Recent developments in Fourier Domain Mode Locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Biophoton. 2(6-7), 357–363 (2009), http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122473349/abstract .
[CrossRef]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-9947 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 725–727 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-6-725 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “Raman-pumped Fourier-domain mode-locked laser: analysis of operation and application for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2815–2817 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-23-2815 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-21-2556 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8916–8937 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eikema, K. S. E.

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively Mode-Locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes Around 1.55 mu m With Large Operating Regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=5068462&arnumber=4982709&count=68&index=19 .
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “MEASUREMENT OF INTRAOCULAR DISTANCES BY BACKSCATTERING SPECTRAL INTERFEROMETRY,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-4018(95)00119-S .
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-8-889 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “MEASUREMENT OF INTRAOCULAR DISTANCES BY BACKSCATTERING SPECTRAL INTERFEROMETRY,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-4018(95)00119-S .
[CrossRef]

Filipa, J. A.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flueraru, C.

Y. X. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. Sherif, and S. D. Chang, “High performance wavelength-swept laser with mode-locking technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 88–92 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2008.09.059 .
[CrossRef]

Fu, J.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on a Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p300147134334266/ .
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008), http://www.nature.com/labinvest/journal/v88/n4/full/labinvest20084a.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-21-2556 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-7-4376 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Huang, A. D. Aguirre, R. A. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6210–6217 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6210 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, D. C. Adler, M. Gargesha, R. Huber, F. Rothenberg, J. Belding, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. M. Rollins, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography imaging and visualization of the embryonic avian heart using a buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6251–6267 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6251 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-14-2049 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 626–628 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-6-626 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 361–363 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-4-361 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v1/n12/abs/nphoton.2007.228.html .
[CrossRef]

D. C. Adler, J. Stenger, I. Gorczynska, H. Lie, T. Hensick, R. Spronk, S. Wolohojian, N. Khandekar, J. Y. Jiang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15972–15986 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-15972 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3225 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-20-2975 .
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R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-9-3513 .
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gargesha, M.

Gorczynska, I.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
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Gu, X. J.

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence Radar and Spectral Radar—New Tools for Dermatological Diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.429899 .
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He, S.

Heck, M. J. R.

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively Mode-Locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes Around 1.55 mu m With Large Operating Regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=5068462&arnumber=4982709&count=68&index=19 .
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hensick, T.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-8-889 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “MEASUREMENT OF INTRAOCULAR DISTANCES BY BACKSCATTERING SPECTRAL INTERFEROMETRY,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-4018(95)00119-S .
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. W.

Huber, R.

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Recent developments in Fourier Domain Mode Locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Biophoton. 2(6-7), 357–363 (2009), http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122473349/abstract .
[CrossRef]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-9947 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 725–727 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-6-725 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4163 .
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B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-21-2556 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8916–8937 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-7-4376 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “Raman-pumped Fourier-domain mode-locked laser: analysis of operation and application for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2815–2817 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-23-2815 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, D. C. Adler, M. Gargesha, R. Huber, F. Rothenberg, J. Belding, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. M. Rollins, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography imaging and visualization of the embryonic avian heart using a buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6251–6267 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6251 .
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D. C. Adler, J. Stenger, I. Gorczynska, H. Lie, T. Hensick, R. Spronk, S. Wolohojian, N. Khandekar, J. Y. Jiang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15972–15986 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-15972 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v1/n12/abs/nphoton.2007.228.html .
[CrossRef]

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 626–628 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-6-626 .
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V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 361–363 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-4-361 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-14-2049 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3225 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-20-2975 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-9-3513 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R. A.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008), http://www.nature.com/labinvest/journal/v88/n4/full/labinvest20084a.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Huang, A. D. Aguirre, R. A. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6210–6217 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6210 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Izatt, J. A.

Jenkins, M. W.

Jeon, M. Y.

Jeong, M. Y.

Jiang, J.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008), http://www.nature.com/labinvest/journal/v88/n4/full/labinvest20084a.html .
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Jiang, J. Y.

Jung, E. J.

Jung, W.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “MEASUREMENT OF INTRAOCULAR DISTANCES BY BACKSCATTERING SPECTRAL INTERFEROMETRY,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-4018(95)00119-S .
[CrossRef]

Khandekar, N.

Kim, C. S.

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, M. K.

Klein, T.

Kowalczyk, A.

Leitgeb, R.

Lie, H.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence Radar and Spectral Radar—New Tools for Dermatological Diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.429899 .
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. Y.

Liu, W.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on a Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p300147134334266/ .
[CrossRef]

Mao, Y. X.

Y. X. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. Sherif, and S. D. Chang, “High performance wavelength-swept laser with mode-locking technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 88–92 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2008.09.059 .
[CrossRef]

Mariampillai, A.

Moon, S.

Munce, N. R.

Notzel, R.

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively Mode-Locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes Around 1.55 mu m With Large Operating Regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=5068462&arnumber=4982709&count=68&index=19 .
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively Mode-Locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes Around 1.55 mu m With Large Operating Regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=5068462&arnumber=4982709&count=68&index=19 .
[CrossRef]

Oh, W. Y.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103902 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/88/103902/1 .
[CrossRef]

Onozato, M. L.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008), http://www.nature.com/labinvest/journal/v88/n4/full/labinvest20084a.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palte, G.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reisen, P.

Renault, A.

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively Mode-Locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes Around 1.55 mu m With Large Operating Regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=5068462&arnumber=4982709&count=68&index=19 .
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

Rothenberg, F.

Sanders, S. T.

Sarunic, M. V.

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v1/n12/abs/nphoton.2007.228.html .
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherif, S.

Y. X. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. Sherif, and S. D. Chang, “High performance wavelength-swept laser with mode-locking technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 88–92 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2008.09.059 .
[CrossRef]

Shu, C.

Smit, M. K.

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively Mode-Locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes Around 1.55 mu m With Large Operating Regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=5068462&arnumber=4982709&count=68&index=19 .
[CrossRef]

Spronk, R.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Standish, B. A.

Stenger, J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Taira, K.

Tearney, G. J.

Ubachs, W.

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively Mode-Locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes Around 1.55 mu m With Large Operating Regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=5068462&arnumber=4982709&count=68&index=19 .
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103902 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/88/103902/1 .
[CrossRef]

Vitkin, I. A.

Walewski, J. W.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on a Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p300147134334266/ .
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Wieser, W.

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Recent developments in Fourier Domain Mode Locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Biophoton. 2(6-7), 357–363 (2009), http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122473349/abstract .
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C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 725–727 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-6-725 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-9947 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-21-2556 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “Raman-pumped Fourier-domain mode-locked laser: analysis of operation and application for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2815–2817 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-23-2815 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. L.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolohojian, S.

Yang, C. H.

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103902 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/88/103902/1 .
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively Mode-Locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes Around 1.55 mu m With Large Operating Regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=5068462&arnumber=4982709&count=68&index=19 .
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence Radar and Spectral Radar—New Tools for Dermatological Diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.429899 .
[CrossRef]

J. Biophoton. (1)

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Recent developments in Fourier Domain Mode Locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Biophoton. 2(6-7), 357–363 (2009), http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122473349/abstract .
[CrossRef]

Lab. Invest. (1)

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney,” Lab. Invest. 88(4), 441–449 (2008), http://www.nature.com/labinvest/journal/v88/n4/full/labinvest20084a.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. (1)

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on a Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p300147134334266/ .
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v1/n12/abs/nphoton.2007.228.html .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Y. X. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. Sherif, and S. D. Chang, “High performance wavelength-swept laser with mode-locking technique for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Commun. 282(1), 88–92 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2008.09.059 .
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “MEASUREMENT OF INTRAOCULAR DISTANCES BY BACKSCATTERING SPECTRAL INTERFEROMETRY,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-4018(95)00119-S .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (18)

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-8-889 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography with a stretched pulse supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11575–11584 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11575 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2953–2963 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-22-2953 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-13-2977 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-9-3513 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3225 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-9947 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Y. Liu, A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, X. J. Gu, and I. A. Vitkin, “High power wavelength linearly swept mode locked fiber laser for OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14095–14105 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-14095 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Jung, C. S. Kim, M. Y. Jeong, M. K. Kim, M. Y. Jeon, W. Jung, and Z. P. Chen, “Characterization of FBG sensor interrogation based on a FDML wavelength swept laser,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16552–16560 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16552 .
[PubMed]

M. Y. Jeon, J. Zhang, and Z. P. Chen, “Characterization of Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength swept laser for optical coherence tomography imaging,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3727–3737 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-3727 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4163 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-7-4376 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8916–8937 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Huang, A. D. Aguirre, R. A. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6210–6217 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6210 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, D. C. Adler, M. Gargesha, R. Huber, F. Rothenberg, J. Belding, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. M. Rollins, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography imaging and visualization of the embryonic avian heart using a buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6251–6267 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6251 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, J. Stenger, I. Gorczynska, H. Lie, T. Hensick, R. Spronk, S. Wolohojian, N. Khandekar, J. Y. Jiang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15972–15986 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-15972 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Jeon, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, and Z. Chen, “High-speed and wide bandwidth Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength swept laser with multiple SOAs,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2547–2554 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2547 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (9)

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-14-2049 .
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D. Chen, C. Shu, and S. He, “Multiple fiber Bragg grating interrogation based on a spectrum-limited Fourier domain mode-locking fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1395–1397 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-13-1395 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-21-2556 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “Raman-pumped Fourier-domain mode-locked laser: analysis of operation and application for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2815–2817 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-23-2815 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 725–727 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-6-725 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-20-2975 .
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V. J. Srinivasan, R. Huber, I. Gorczynska, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, P. Reisen, and A. E. Cable, “High-speed, high-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging with a frequency-swept laser at 850 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 361–363 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-4-361 .
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D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 626–628 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-6-626 .
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J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-21-2067 .
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Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;254/5035/1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. J. Eom, V. A. Tougbaev, B. A. Yu, W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, and D. K. Ko, “Narrowband wavelength selective detector applicable SD-OCT based on Fabry-Perot tunable filter and balanced photoreceiver,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine XII, (SPIE, 2008), 68470R–68471. http://spie.org/x648.html?product_id=766436

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Setup of the wavelength swept ASE source. The arrows indicate the propagation direction of the light. (b) Interference signal acquired with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (~0.5 mm delay) for 5 kHz, 50 kHz and 170 kHz filter drive frequency (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 340 kHz effective sweep rate) over a sweep range of 100 nm full width each.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Output spectrum of the wavelength swept ASE source measured with an OSA at 50 kHz filter drive frequency (100 nm full sweep width) at an output power of ~50 mW. (b) Measured relative average power after FFP-TF 2 over the applied filter phase delay at a filter drive frequency of 50 kHz (red dots). The black line represents the relative power drop expected from theory. Additionally, the corresponding wavelength shift (100 nm full sweep range, assuming linear drive) is displayed as second x-axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative optical power for forward and backward sweep measured at 100 nm full sweep width and ~40 mW output power. The filter drive frequency is 50 kHz (a), 5 kHz (b and c) and 1 kHz (d); the average input power to SOA 1 is ~8 µW (a, b and d) and ~4 µW (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Logarithmic plot of the measured PSFs (lines) of the wavelength swept ASE source at 50 kHz (100 nm full sweep width), representing the measured sensitivity against different OCT ranging depths. The red circles indicate the drop of fringe contrast. (b) Logarithmic plot of the maxima of the measured PSFs over OCT ranging depth after the second pass through SOA 1 (blue circles, sensitivity left) and at the output of the wavelength swept ASE source after SOA 2 (black squares, sensitivity right). The blue, dashed line and the black, solid line indicate the corresponding drop of sensitivity, expected from theory.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

RIN value versus wavelength at a filter drive frequency of 54.6 kHz and a full sweep range of 100 nm at an analog bandwidth of 100 MHz. The black line represents the RIN of the wavelength swept ASE source, the red line represents the RIN of the FDML laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OCT images acquired with the wavelength swept ASE source at 50 kHz A-line rate and 100 nm full sweep range. (a) human finger (nail fold); (b) human finger; (c) 2D OCT image of a cucumber (10x averaged); (d) Rendered 3D representation of a human finger.

Equations (3)

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m2m1=d0,2+α0,2U0,2d0,1+α0,1U0,1,
m2m1=αω,2A2αω,1A1,
Δϕ=ϕ1ϕ2=ωτtrans+ΔϕR.

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