Abstract

We demonstrate an optical modulator based on a single quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal cavity. A vertical p-i-n junction is used to tune the quantum dot and thereby modulate the cavity transmission, with a measured instrument-limited response time of 13 ns. A modulator based on a single quantum dot promises operation at high bandwidth and low power.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (5)

Y. Chang and L. A. Coldren, "Efficient, High-Data-Rate, Tapered Oxide-Aperture Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1-12 (2009).

D. A. B. Miller, "Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 - 1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, B. Ellis, E. Edwards, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J. Vuckovic, "Electrically controlled modulation in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 17(18), 15,409-15,419 (2009).
[PubMed]

X. Chen, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Zhao, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, "Capacitor-embedded 0.54 pJ/bit silicon-slot photonic crystal waveguide modulator," Opt. Lett. 34(5), 602-604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, and J. Vuckovic, "High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity," Opt. Express 17(17), 14618-14626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Silicon microring resonators with 1.5μm radius," Opt. Express 16(6), 4309-4315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Chen, Y. hao Kuo, and J. E. Bowers, "High speed hybrid silicon evanescent Mach-Zehnder modulator and switch," Opt. Express 16(25), 20571-20576 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, "Dipole induced transparency inwaveguide coupled photonic crystalcavities," Opt. Express 16(16), 12,154-12,162 (2008).

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, "Cband side-entry ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOIi operating at 1 V swing," Electron Lett. 44(1), 49-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photonics 2, 242 - 246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-1880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J . Vuckovic, "Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot," Nature 450(6), 857-61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, "Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdiskquantum dot system," Nature 450, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vuckovic, "Low-Threshold Surface-Passivated Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071,124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Auffeves-Garnier, C. Simon, J. Gerard, and J.-P. Poizat, "Giant optical nonlinearity induced by a single twolevel system interacting with a cavity in the Purcell regime," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053,823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

E. Waks and J. Vuckovi´, "Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96-153601, (2006).

A. I. Bachir, N. Durisic, B. Hebert, P. Grutter, and P. W. Wiseman, "Characterization of blinking dynamics in quantum dot ensembles using image correlation spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 064503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, X. Zhao, and C. Chang-Hasnain, "Microwave performance of optically injection-locked VCSELs," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54(2), 788-796 (Feb. 2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshimatsu, S. Kodama, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, "100-gb/s error-free wavelength conversion with a monolithic optical gate integrating a photodiode and electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2367-2369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013,904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on Silicon-challenges and opportunities," J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222-4238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. Park, S. Kim, S. Kwon, Y. Ju, J. Yang, J. Baek, S. Kim, and Y. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, p.1444-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Yairi, H. V. Demir, P. B. Atanackovic, and D. A. B. Miller, "Large-Signal Response of p-i-n Photodetectors using Short Pulses with Small Spot Sizes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 143-151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Meindl, "Interconnect opportunities for gigascale integration," Micro. IEEE 23(3), 28-35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-1880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vuckovic, "Low-Threshold Surface-Passivated Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071,124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013,904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atanackovic, P. B.

M. B. Yairi, H. V. Demir, P. B. Atanackovic, and D. A. B. Miller, "Large-Signal Response of p-i-n Photodetectors using Short Pulses with Small Spot Sizes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 143-151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Auffeves-Garnier, A.

A. Auffeves-Garnier, C. Simon, J. Gerard, and J.-P. Poizat, "Giant optical nonlinearity induced by a single twolevel system interacting with a cavity in the Purcell regime," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053,823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bachir, A. I.

A. I. Bachir, N. Durisic, B. Hebert, P. Grutter, and P. W. Wiseman, "Characterization of blinking dynamics in quantum dot ensembles using image correlation spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 064503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.

H. Park, S. Kim, S. Kwon, Y. Ju, J. Yang, J. Baek, S. Kim, and Y. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, p.1444-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Chang, Y.

Y. Chang and L. A. Coldren, "Efficient, High-Data-Rate, Tapered Oxide-Aperture Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1-12 (2009).

Chang-Hasnain, C.

L. Chrostowski, X. Zhao, and C. Chang-Hasnain, "Microwave performance of optically injection-locked VCSELs," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54(2), 788-796 (Feb. 2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, R. T.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.-S.

Chrostowski, L.

L. Chrostowski, X. Zhao, and C. Chang-Hasnain, "Microwave performance of optically injection-locked VCSELs," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54(2), 788-796 (Feb. 2006).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

Y. Chang and L. A. Coldren, "Efficient, High-Data-Rate, Tapered Oxide-Aperture Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1-12 (2009).

Demir, H. V.

M. B. Yairi, H. V. Demir, P. B. Atanackovic, and D. A. B. Miller, "Large-Signal Response of p-i-n Photodetectors using Short Pulses with Small Spot Sizes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 143-151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durisic, N.

A. I. Bachir, N. Durisic, B. Hebert, P. Grutter, and P. W. Wiseman, "Characterization of blinking dynamics in quantum dot ensembles using image correlation spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 064503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, E.

D. Englund, B. Ellis, E. Edwards, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J. Vuckovic, "Electrically controlled modulation in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 17(18), 15,409-15,419 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, "Cband side-entry ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOIi operating at 1 V swing," Electron Lett. 44(1), 49-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, B.

D. Englund, B. Ellis, E. Edwards, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J. Vuckovic, "Electrically controlled modulation in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 17(18), 15,409-15,419 (2009).
[PubMed]

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-1880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Englund, D.

D. Englund, B. Ellis, E. Edwards, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J. Vuckovic, "Electrically controlled modulation in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 17(18), 15,409-15,419 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, and J. Vuckovic, "High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity," Opt. Express 17(17), 14618-14626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-1880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, "Dipole induced transparency inwaveguide coupled photonic crystalcavities," Opt. Express 16(16), 12,154-12,162 (2008).

D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J . Vuckovic, "Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot," Nature 450(6), 857-61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vuckovic, "Low-Threshold Surface-Passivated Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071,124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013,904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faraon, A.

M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, and J. Vuckovic, "High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity," Opt. Express 17(17), 14618-14626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, "Dipole induced transparency inwaveguide coupled photonic crystalcavities," Opt. Express 16(16), 12,154-12,162 (2008).

D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J . Vuckovic, "Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot," Nature 450(6), 857-61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Silicon microring resonators with 1.5μm radius," Opt. Express 16(6), 4309-4315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013,904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fidaner, O.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, "Cband side-entry ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOIi operating at 1 V swing," Electron Lett. 44(1), 49-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fushman, I.

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, "Dipole induced transparency inwaveguide coupled photonic crystalcavities," Opt. Express 16(16), 12,154-12,162 (2008).

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J . Vuckovic, "Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot," Nature 450(6), 857-61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerard, J.

A. Auffeves-Garnier, C. Simon, J. Gerard, and J.-P. Poizat, "Giant optical nonlinearity induced by a single twolevel system interacting with a cavity in the Purcell regime," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053,823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photonics 2, 242 - 246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grutter, P.

A. I. Bachir, N. Durisic, B. Hebert, P. Grutter, and P. W. Wiseman, "Characterization of blinking dynamics in quantum dot ensembles using image correlation spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 064503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, "Cband side-entry ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOIi operating at 1 V swing," Electron Lett. 44(1), 49-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

D. Englund, B. Ellis, E. Edwards, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J. Vuckovic, "Electrically controlled modulation in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 17(18), 15,409-15,419 (2009).
[PubMed]

Hebert, B.

A. I. Bachir, N. Durisic, B. Hebert, P. Grutter, and P. W. Wiseman, "Characterization of blinking dynamics in quantum dot ensembles using image correlation spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 064503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herman, N.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, "Cband side-entry ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOIi operating at 1 V swing," Electron Lett. 44(1), 49-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

T. Yoshimatsu, S. Kodama, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, "100-gb/s error-free wavelength conversion with a monolithic optical gate integrating a photodiode and electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2367-2369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, W.

Ju, Y.

H. Park, S. Kim, S. Kwon, Y. Ju, J. Yang, J. Baek, S. Kim, and Y. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, p.1444-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, "Cband side-entry ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOIi operating at 1 V swing," Electron Lett. 44(1), 49-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

H. Park, S. Kim, S. Kwon, Y. Ju, J. Yang, J. Baek, S. Kim, and Y. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, p.1444-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, S. Kim, S. Kwon, Y. Ju, J. Yang, J. Baek, S. Kim, and Y. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, p.1444-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, S.

T. Yoshimatsu, S. Kodama, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, "100-gb/s error-free wavelength conversion with a monolithic optical gate integrating a photodiode and electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2367-2369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, Y.-H.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, "Cband side-entry ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOIi operating at 1 V swing," Electron Lett. 44(1), 49-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.

H. Park, S. Kim, S. Kwon, Y. Ju, J. Yang, J. Baek, S. Kim, and Y. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, p.1444-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

H. Park, S. Kim, S. Kwon, Y. Ju, J. Yang, J. Baek, S. Kim, and Y. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, p.1444-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on Silicon-challenges and opportunities," J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222-4238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meindl, J.

J. Meindl, "Interconnect opportunities for gigascale integration," Micro. IEEE 23(3), 28-35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, "Cband side-entry ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOIi operating at 1 V swing," Electron Lett. 44(1), 49-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, "Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 - 1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, B. Ellis, E. Edwards, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J. Vuckovic, "Electrically controlled modulation in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 17(18), 15,409-15,419 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. B. Yairi, H. V. Demir, P. B. Atanackovic, and D. A. B. Miller, "Large-Signal Response of p-i-n Photodetectors using Short Pulses with Small Spot Sizes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 143-151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakaoka, T.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013,904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, "Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdiskquantum dot system," Nature 450, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

H. Park, S. Kim, S. Kwon, Y. Ju, J. Yang, J. Baek, S. Kim, and Y. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, p.1444-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P.

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, "Dipole induced transparency inwaveguide coupled photonic crystalcavities," Opt. Express 16(16), 12,154-12,162 (2008).

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J . Vuckovic, "Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot," Nature 450(6), 857-61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poizat, J.-P.

A. Auffeves-Garnier, C. Simon, J. Gerard, and J.-P. Poizat, "Giant optical nonlinearity induced by a single twolevel system interacting with a cavity in the Purcell regime," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053,823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, "Cband side-entry ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOIi operating at 1 V swing," Electron Lett. 44(1), 49-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sarmiento, T.

D. Englund, B. Ellis, E. Edwards, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J. Vuckovic, "Electrically controlled modulation in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 17(18), 15,409-15,419 (2009).
[PubMed]

Schaevitz, R.

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, "Cband side-entry ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOIi operating at 1 V swing," Electron Lett. 44(1), 49-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simon, C.

A. Auffeves-Garnier, C. Simon, J. Gerard, and J.-P. Poizat, "Giant optical nonlinearity induced by a single twolevel system interacting with a cavity in the Purcell regime," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053,823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, G.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013,904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, B.-S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, "Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdiskquantum dot system," Nature 450, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoltz, N.

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, "Dipole induced transparency inwaveguide coupled photonic crystalcavities," Opt. Express 16(16), 12,154-12,162 (2008).

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J . Vuckovic, "Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot," Nature 450(6), 857-61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toishi, M.

Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photonics 2, 242 - 246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovi´, J.

E. Waks and J. Vuckovi´, "Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96-153601, (2006).

Vuckovic, J

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J . Vuckovic, "Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot," Nature 450(6), 857-61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

D. Englund, B. Ellis, E. Edwards, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J. Vuckovic, "Electrically controlled modulation in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 17(18), 15,409-15,419 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, and J. Vuckovic, "High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity," Opt. Express 17(17), 14618-14626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, "Dipole induced transparency inwaveguide coupled photonic crystalcavities," Opt. Express 16(16), 12,154-12,162 (2008).

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-1880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vuckovic, "Low-Threshold Surface-Passivated Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071,124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013,904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waks, E.

E. Waks and J. Vuckovi´, "Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96-153601, (2006).

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013,904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiseman, P. W.

A. I. Bachir, N. Durisic, B. Hebert, P. Grutter, and P. W. Wiseman, "Characterization of blinking dynamics in quantum dot ensembles using image correlation spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 064503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photonics 2, 242 - 246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Silicon microring resonators with 1.5μm radius," Opt. Express 16(6), 4309-4315 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yairi, M. B.

M. B. Yairi, H. V. Demir, P. B. Atanackovic, and D. A. B. Miller, "Large-Signal Response of p-i-n Photodetectors using Short Pulses with Small Spot Sizes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 143-151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013,904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

H. Park, S. Kim, S. Kwon, Y. Ju, J. Yang, J. Baek, S. Kim, and Y. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, p.1444-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimatsu, T.

T. Yoshimatsu, S. Kodama, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, "100-gb/s error-free wavelength conversion with a monolithic optical gate integrating a photodiode and electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2367-2369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

T. Yoshimatsu, S. Kodama, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, "100-gb/s error-free wavelength conversion with a monolithic optical gate integrating a photodiode and electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2367-2369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013,904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

L. Chrostowski, X. Zhao, and C. Chang-Hasnain, "Microwave performance of optically injection-locked VCSELs," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54(2), 788-796 (Feb. 2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vuckovic, "Low-Threshold Surface-Passivated Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071,124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron Lett. (1)

J. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. Edwards, R. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. Herman, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, "Cband side-entry ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOIi operating at 1 V swing," Electron Lett. 44(1), 49-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Chang and L. A. Coldren, "Efficient, High-Data-Rate, Tapered Oxide-Aperture Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1-12 (2009).

M. B. Yairi, H. V. Demir, P. B. Atanackovic, and D. A. B. Miller, "Large-Signal Response of p-i-n Photodetectors using Short Pulses with Small Spot Sizes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(2), 143-151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Yoshimatsu, S. Kodama, K. Yoshino, and H. Ito, "100-gb/s error-free wavelength conversion with a monolithic optical gate integrating a photodiode and electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2367-2369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

L. Chrostowski, X. Zhao, and C. Chang-Hasnain, "Microwave performance of optically injection-locked VCSELs," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54(2), 788-796 (Feb. 2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. I. Bachir, N. Durisic, B. Hebert, P. Grutter, and P. W. Wiseman, "Characterization of blinking dynamics in quantum dot ensembles using image correlation spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 064503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-1880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Micro. IEEE (1)

J. Meindl, "Interconnect opportunities for gigascale integration," Micro. IEEE 23(3), 28-35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photonics 2, 242 - 246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J . Vuckovic, "Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot," Nature 450(6), 857-61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, "Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdiskquantum dot system," Nature 450, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Auffeves-Garnier, C. Simon, J. Gerard, and J.-P. Poizat, "Giant optical nonlinearity induced by a single twolevel system interacting with a cavity in the Purcell regime," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053,823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Waks and J. Vuckovi´, "Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96-153601, (2006).

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013,904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, "Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 - 1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. Park, S. Kim, S. Kwon, Y. Ju, J. Yang, J. Baek, S. Kim, and Y. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, p.1444-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

A. Laucht, F. Hofbauer, N. Hauke, J. Angele, S. Stobbe, M. Kaniber, G. Bohm, P. Lodahl, M.-C. Amann, and J. J. Finley, "Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot," New J. Phys. 11(2), 023,034 (11pp) (2009).

A. Faraon, A. Majumdar, H. Kim, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, "Fast Electrical Control of a Quantum Dot Strongly Coupled to a Nano-resonator," arXiv:0906.0751v1 [quant-ph] (2009).

A. Agarwal and J. H. Lang, Foundations of Analog and Digital Electronic Circuits (Morgan Kaufmann, 2005).
[PubMed]

M. Bass, ed., Fiber Optics Handbook (Mc Graw - Hill, 2002).

R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. H¨ubner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. D¨ohler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (pages 3) (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of the photonic crystal. (b) In the experiment, a signal laser (at λs ~920.5nm) and a tuning laser (λt ~780nm) are incident on the cavity at a vertical polarization (|V〉). The cavity is linearly polarized at 45° (|V+H〉/√2) and is backed by a distributed Bragg reflector, effectively creating a single-sided cavity. The modulated signal beam is measured in the horizontally polarized output port after a 900 nm long pass filter. (c) Illustration of the p-i-n junction integrated in the GaAs PC membrane. (d) Anticrossing observed in the PL as the QD single exciton (X) is temperature-tuned through the cavity. The QD is pumped through higher-order excited states by optical excitation at a wavelength of λe =873 nm. (e) The QD blue-shifts as the power Pt of the tuning laser at 780 nm is increased while the pump laser power Pp is fixed. If the pump is turned off, the PL is dramatically reduced.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation of electric field dependence on the photogenerated carriers. (a) Electric field dependence across the p-i-n junction. The QDs are located near the field maximum. The tuning laser with power Pt and wavelength λt =780nm creates carriers in the GaAs membrane. The pump laser (power Pp ) is tuned to 860nm to create carriers only in the QDs and the QD-wetting layer. (b) Simulated electric field dependence at the center of the membrane as a function of the absorbed power Pt of the tuning laser. The QD wavelength shift is calculated from the the experimentally measured vertical Stark shift[20] and is indicated by the scale on right hand side.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The broad-band transmission shows the QD tuning through the cavity resonance as the tuning laser power Pt is increased. (b) Detail of broad-band reflectivity. (c) QD wavelength obtained from the local minimum corresponding to the QD position in (a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Modulating the cavity transmission by DC Stark shift of the QD. (a) The cavity transmission is probed by a narrow laser on resonance with the cavity as the dot is tuned across the cavity resonance. Pump laser power is 4µW; Pt is varied between 0 and 2µW; the probe laser power is ~2 nW. (b) Transmission corresponding to (a) as the QD is tuned through the cavity. (c) Detector count rate I from the cavity transmission at a modulation frequency of νm =1 MHz. A double-exponential fit gives the response times τL ≈13 ns and τ0 ≈140 ns. (d) Visibility (VIS) of the transmission as the modulation frequency νm is increased.

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