Abstract

A lead bis(ethynyl)porphyrin polymer possesses strong nonlinear absorption with unprecedented spectral/temporal coverage as a result of broad, overlapping two-photon and excited-state absorption bands with favorable excited-state dynamics. Consequently, this material exhibits effective optical limiting over a range of about 500 nm in the near infrared (ca. 1050–1600 nm) and for laser pulsewidths spanning from 75 fs to 40 ns. Introduction of the material in a waveguide device geometry results in a strong optical limiting response.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, "2 photon-absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors," Opt. Eng. 24, 613-623 (1985).
  2. L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, "optical limiting performance of C-60 and C-70 solutions," Nature 356, 225-226 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, J. D. Bhawalkar, and P. N. Prasad, "Optical limiting, pulse reshaping, and stabilization with a nonlinear absorptive fiber system," Appl. Opt. 36, 3387-3392 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. R. E. Lamont, M. Rochette, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Two-photon absorption effects on self-phase-modulation-based 2R optical regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1185-1187 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, and A. J. Campillo, "Broad-band thermal optical limiter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1483-1485 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Vanstryland, "Nonlinear optical-properties of carbon-black suspensions (ink)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9, 1100-1109 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, "Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632-3634 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, "Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions," Adv. Mater. 21, 2430-2435 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. L. Anderson, S. J. Martin, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Synthesis and 3rd-order nonlinear-optical properties of a conjugated porphyrin polymer," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. Engl. 33, 655-657 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. J. R. G. Thorne, S. M. Kuebler, R. G. Denning, I. M. Blake, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, "Degenerate four-wave mixing studies of butadiyne-linked conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Chem. Phys. 248, 181-193 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. O. Senge, M. Fazekas, E. G. A. Notaras, W. J. Blau, M. Zawadzka, O. B. Locos, and E. M. N. Mhuircheartaigh, "Nonlinear optical properties of porphyrins," Adv. Mater. 19, 2737-2774 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Pawlicki, H. A. Collins, R. G. Denning, and H. L. Anderson, "Two-Photon Absorption and the Design of Two-Photon Dyes," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 48, 3244-3266 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, A. Rebane, C. J. Wilson, T. E. O. Screen, and H. L. Anderson, "Strong cooperative enhancement of two-photon absorption in double-strand conjugated porphyrin ladder arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12432-12433 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. V. Duncan, K. Susumu, L. E. Sinks, and M. J. Therien, "Exceptional near-infrared fluorescence quantum yields and excited-state absorptivity of highly conjugated porphyrin arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 9000-9001 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. E. O. Screen, J. R. G. Thorne, R. G. Denning, D. G. Bucknall, and H. L. Anderson, "Two methods for amplifying the optical nonlinearity of a conjugated porphyrin polymer: transmetallation and self-assembly," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2796-2808 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, and I. Choong, "Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," Opt. Lett. 19, 625-627 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. J. Thorley, J. M. Hales, H. L. Anderson, and J. W. Perry, "Porphyrin dimer carbocations with strong near infrared absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 47, 7095-7098 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. V. Duncan, T. Ishizuka, and M. J. Therien, "Molecular engineering of intensely near-infrared absorbing excited states in highly conjugated oligo(porphinato)zinc-(polypyridyl)metal(II) supermolecules," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9691-9703 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. Bonneau, I. Carmichael, and G. L. Hug, "Molar Absorption-Coefficients of Transient Species in Solution," Pure Appl. Chem. 63, 290-299 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Karotki, M. Drobizhev, M. Kruk, C. Spangler, E. Nickel, N. Mamardashvili, and A. Rebane, "Enhancement of two-photon absorption in tetrapyrrolic compounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 20, 321-332 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Lee, and B. D. Guenther, "Nonlinear liquid-crystal fiber structures for passive optical limiting of short laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 1625-1627 (1996).
  28. J. J. Butler, S. R. Flom, J. S. Shirk, T. E. Taunay, B. M. Wright, and M. J. Wiggins, "Optical limiting properties of nonlinear multimode waveguide arrays," Opt. Express 17, 804-809 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. J. Butler, J. J. Wathen, S. R. Flom, R. G. S. Pong, and J. S. Shirk, "Optical limiting properties of nonlinear multimode waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 1689-1691 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, "Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. 7, 760-768 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. E. OKeefe, J. J. M. Halls, C. A. Walsh, G. J. Denton, R. H. Friend, and H. L. Anderson, "Ultrafast field-induced dissociation of excitons in a conjugated porphyrin polymer," Chem. Phys. Lett. 276, 78-83 (1997).

2009

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, "Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions," Adv. Mater. 21, 2430-2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Pawlicki, H. A. Collins, R. G. Denning, and H. L. Anderson, "Two-Photon Absorption and the Design of Two-Photon Dyes," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 48, 3244-3266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, S. R. Flom, J. S. Shirk, T. E. Taunay, B. M. Wright, and M. J. Wiggins, "Optical limiting properties of nonlinear multimode waveguide arrays," Opt. Express 17, 804-809 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

K. J. Thorley, J. M. Hales, H. L. Anderson, and J. W. Perry, "Porphyrin dimer carbocations with strong near infrared absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 47, 7095-7098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lim, A. Osuka, and D. Kim, "Various strategies for highly-efficient two-photon absorption in porphyrin arrays," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C-Photochem.Rev. 9, 13-28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. O. Senge, M. Fazekas, E. G. A. Notaras, W. J. Blau, M. Zawadzka, O. B. Locos, and E. M. N. Mhuircheartaigh, "Nonlinear optical properties of porphyrins," Adv. Mater. 19, 2737-2774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, T. Ishizuka, and M. J. Therien, "Molecular engineering of intensely near-infrared absorbing excited states in highly conjugated oligo(porphinato)zinc-(polypyridyl)metal(II) supermolecules," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9691-9703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. R. E. Lamont, M. Rochette, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Two-photon absorption effects on self-phase-modulation-based 2R optical regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1185-1187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, A. Rebane, C. J. Wilson, T. E. O. Screen, and H. L. Anderson, "Strong cooperative enhancement of two-photon absorption in double-strand conjugated porphyrin ladder arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12432-12433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, K. Susumu, L. E. Sinks, and M. J. Therien, "Exceptional near-infrared fluorescence quantum yields and excited-state absorptivity of highly conjugated porphyrin arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 9000-9001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. E. O. Screen, J. R. G. Thorne, R. G. Denning, D. G. Bucknall, and H. L. Anderson, "Two methods for amplifying the optical nonlinearity of a conjugated porphyrin polymer: transmetallation and self-assembly," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2796-2808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Karotki, M. Drobizhev, M. Kruk, C. Spangler, E. Nickel, N. Mamardashvili, and A. Rebane, "Enhancement of two-photon absorption in tetrapyrrolic compounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 20, 321-332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, J. J. Wathen, S. R. Flom, R. G. S. Pong, and J. S. Shirk, "Optical limiting properties of nonlinear multimode waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 1689-1691 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, "Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. 7, 760-768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. R. G. Thorne, S. M. Kuebler, R. G. Denning, I. M. Blake, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, "Degenerate four-wave mixing studies of butadiyne-linked conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Chem. Phys. 248, 181-193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, "Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632-3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, J. D. Bhawalkar, and P. N. Prasad, "Optical limiting, pulse reshaping, and stabilization with a nonlinear absorptive fiber system," Appl. Opt. 36, 3387-3392 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. OKeefe, J. J. M. Halls, C. A. Walsh, G. J. Denton, R. H. Friend, and H. L. Anderson, "Ultrafast field-induced dissociation of excitons in a conjugated porphyrin polymer," Chem. Phys. Lett. 276, 78-83 (1997).

1996

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Lee, and B. D. Guenther, "Nonlinear liquid-crystal fiber structures for passive optical limiting of short laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 1625-1627 (1996).

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

H. L. Anderson, S. J. Martin, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Synthesis and 3rd-order nonlinear-optical properties of a conjugated porphyrin polymer," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. Engl. 33, 655-657 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, and I. Choong, "Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," Opt. Lett. 19, 625-627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, and A. J. Campillo, "Broad-band thermal optical limiter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1483-1485 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Vanstryland, "Nonlinear optical-properties of carbon-black suspensions (ink)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9, 1100-1109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, "optical limiting performance of C-60 and C-70 solutions," Nature 356, 225-226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. Bonneau, I. Carmichael, and G. L. Hug, "Molar Absorption-Coefficients of Transient Species in Solution," Pure Appl. Chem. 63, 290-299 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, "2 photon-absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors," Opt. Eng. 24, 613-623 (1985).

Albinsson, B.

M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarez, D.

Anderson, H. L.

M. Pawlicki, H. A. Collins, R. G. Denning, and H. L. Anderson, "Two-Photon Absorption and the Design of Two-Photon Dyes," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 48, 3244-3266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Thorley, J. M. Hales, H. L. Anderson, and J. W. Perry, "Porphyrin dimer carbocations with strong near infrared absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 47, 7095-7098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, A. Rebane, C. J. Wilson, T. E. O. Screen, and H. L. Anderson, "Strong cooperative enhancement of two-photon absorption in double-strand conjugated porphyrin ladder arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12432-12433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. O. Screen, J. R. G. Thorne, R. G. Denning, D. G. Bucknall, and H. L. Anderson, "Two methods for amplifying the optical nonlinearity of a conjugated porphyrin polymer: transmetallation and self-assembly," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2796-2808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. G. Thorne, S. M. Kuebler, R. G. Denning, I. M. Blake, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, "Degenerate four-wave mixing studies of butadiyne-linked conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Chem. Phys. 248, 181-193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Anderson, S. J. Martin, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Synthesis and 3rd-order nonlinear-optical properties of a conjugated porphyrin polymer," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. Engl. 33, 655-657 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andraud, C.

P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balaz, M.

M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedworth, P. V.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berginc, G.

P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bhawalkar, J. D.

Blake, I. M.

J. R. G. Thorne, S. M. Kuebler, R. G. Denning, I. M. Blake, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, "Degenerate four-wave mixing studies of butadiyne-linked conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Chem. Phys. 248, 181-193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, "Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions," Adv. Mater. 21, 2430-2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Senge, M. Fazekas, E. G. A. Notaras, W. J. Blau, M. Zawadzka, O. B. Locos, and E. M. N. Mhuircheartaigh, "Nonlinear optical properties of porphyrins," Adv. Mater. 19, 2737-2774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, "2 photon-absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors," Opt. Eng. 24, 613-623 (1985).

Bonneau, R.

R. Bonneau, I. Carmichael, and G. L. Hug, "Molar Absorption-Coefficients of Transient Species in Solution," Pure Appl. Chem. 63, 290-299 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bouit, P. A.

P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

H. L. Anderson, S. J. Martin, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Synthesis and 3rd-order nonlinear-optical properties of a conjugated porphyrin polymer," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. Engl. 33, 655-657 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brant, M. C.

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bretonniere, Y.

P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bucknall, D. G.

T. E. O. Screen, J. R. G. Thorne, R. G. Denning, D. G. Bucknall, and H. L. Anderson, "Two methods for amplifying the optical nonlinearity of a conjugated porphyrin polymer: transmetallation and self-assembly," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2796-2808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. J.

Campillo, A. J.

B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, and A. J. Campillo, "Broad-band thermal optical limiter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1483-1485 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carmichael, I.

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J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
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I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, "Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. 7, 760-768 (2001).
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M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
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J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, "Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions," Adv. Mater. 21, 2430-2435 (2009).
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M. Pawlicki, H. A. Collins, R. G. Denning, and H. L. Anderson, "Two-Photon Absorption and the Design of Two-Photon Dyes," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 48, 3244-3266 (2009).
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M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
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M. Pawlicki, H. A. Collins, R. G. Denning, and H. L. Anderson, "Two-Photon Absorption and the Design of Two-Photon Dyes," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 48, 3244-3266 (2009).
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I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, "Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. 7, 760-768 (2001).
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M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, A. Rebane, C. J. Wilson, T. E. O. Screen, and H. L. Anderson, "Strong cooperative enhancement of two-photon absorption in double-strand conjugated porphyrin ladder arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12432-12433 (2006).
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A. Karotki, M. Drobizhev, M. Kruk, C. Spangler, E. Nickel, N. Mamardashvili, and A. Rebane, "Enhancement of two-photon absorption in tetrapyrrolic compounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 20, 321-332 (2003).
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M. R. E. Lamont, M. Rochette, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Two-photon absorption effects on self-phase-modulation-based 2R optical regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1185-1187 (2006).
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M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
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M. O. Senge, M. Fazekas, E. G. A. Notaras, W. J. Blau, M. Zawadzka, O. B. Locos, and E. M. N. Mhuircheartaigh, "Nonlinear optical properties of porphyrins," Adv. Mater. 19, 2737-2774 (2007).
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P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
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R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
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K. J. Thorley, J. M. Hales, H. L. Anderson, and J. W. Perry, "Porphyrin dimer carbocations with strong near infrared absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 47, 7095-7098 (2008).
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Heinrichs, J.

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
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J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, "Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions," Adv. Mater. 21, 2430-2435 (2009).
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M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
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T. V. Duncan, T. Ishizuka, and M. J. Therien, "Molecular engineering of intensely near-infrared absorbing excited states in highly conjugated oligo(porphinato)zinc-(polypyridyl)metal(II) supermolecules," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9691-9703 (2007).
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X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, "Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632-3634 (1998).
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P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
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A. Karotki, M. Drobizhev, M. Kruk, C. Spangler, E. Nickel, N. Mamardashvili, and A. Rebane, "Enhancement of two-photon absorption in tetrapyrrolic compounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 20, 321-332 (2003).
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Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, "Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. 7, 760-768 (2001).
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K. S. Kim, J. M. Lim, A. Osuka, and D. Kim, "Various strategies for highly-efficient two-photon absorption in porphyrin arrays," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C-Photochem.Rev. 9, 13-28 (2008).
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Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lim, A. Osuka, and D. Kim, "Various strategies for highly-efficient two-photon absorption in porphyrin arrays," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C-Photochem.Rev. 9, 13-28 (2008).
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A. Karotki, M. Drobizhev, M. Kruk, C. Spangler, E. Nickel, N. Mamardashvili, and A. Rebane, "Enhancement of two-photon absorption in tetrapyrrolic compounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 20, 321-332 (2003).
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J. R. G. Thorne, S. M. Kuebler, R. G. Denning, I. M. Blake, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, "Degenerate four-wave mixing studies of butadiyne-linked conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Chem. Phys. 248, 181-193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuimova, M. K.

M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
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M. R. E. Lamont, M. Rochette, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Two-photon absorption effects on self-phase-modulation-based 2R optical regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1185-1187 (2006).
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Lee, I. Y. S.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
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Lee, M.

Lim, J. M.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lim, A. Osuka, and D. Kim, "Various strategies for highly-efficient two-photon absorption in porphyrin arrays," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C-Photochem.Rev. 9, 13-28 (2008).
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M. O. Senge, M. Fazekas, E. G. A. Notaras, W. J. Blau, M. Zawadzka, O. B. Locos, and E. M. N. Mhuircheartaigh, "Nonlinear optical properties of porphyrins," Adv. Mater. 19, 2737-2774 (2007).
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P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
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Lotya, M.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, "Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions," Adv. Mater. 21, 2430-2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mamardashvili, N.

A. Karotki, M. Drobizhev, M. Kruk, C. Spangler, E. Nickel, N. Mamardashvili, and A. Rebane, "Enhancement of two-photon absorption in tetrapyrrolic compounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 20, 321-332 (2003).
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Mansour, K.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
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J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, and I. Choong, "Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," Opt. Lett. 19, 625-627 (1994).
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J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, and I. Choong, "Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," Opt. Lett. 19, 625-627 (1994).
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H. L. Anderson, S. J. Martin, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Synthesis and 3rd-order nonlinear-optical properties of a conjugated porphyrin polymer," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. Engl. 33, 655-657 (1994).
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P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McLean, D. G.

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mhuircheartaigh, E. M. N.

M. O. Senge, M. Fazekas, E. G. A. Notaras, W. J. Blau, M. Zawadzka, O. B. Locos, and E. M. N. Mhuircheartaigh, "Nonlinear optical properties of porphyrins," Adv. Mater. 19, 2737-2774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miles, P.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

M. R. E. Lamont, M. Rochette, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Two-photon absorption effects on self-phase-modulation-based 2R optical regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1185-1187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, D.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nickel, E.

A. Karotki, M. Drobizhev, M. Kruk, C. Spangler, E. Nickel, N. Mamardashvili, and A. Rebane, "Enhancement of two-photon absorption in tetrapyrrolic compounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 20, 321-332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Notaras, E. G. A.

M. O. Senge, M. Fazekas, E. G. A. Notaras, W. J. Blau, M. Zawadzka, O. B. Locos, and E. M. N. Mhuircheartaigh, "Nonlinear optical properties of porphyrins," Adv. Mater. 19, 2737-2774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osuka, A.

K. S. Kim, J. M. Lim, A. Osuka, and D. Kim, "Various strategies for highly-efficient two-photon absorption in porphyrin arrays," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C-Photochem.Rev. 9, 13-28 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parker, A. W.

M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pawlicki, M.

M. Pawlicki, H. A. Collins, R. G. Denning, and H. L. Anderson, "Two-Photon Absorption and the Design of Two-Photon Dyes," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 48, 3244-3266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

K. J. Thorley, J. M. Hales, H. L. Anderson, and J. W. Perry, "Porphyrin dimer carbocations with strong near infrared absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 47, 7095-7098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, and I. Choong, "Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," Opt. Lett. 19, 625-627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, K. J.

Phillips, D.

M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pong, R. G. S.

Prasad, P. N.

Rebane, A.

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, A. Rebane, C. J. Wilson, T. E. O. Screen, and H. L. Anderson, "Strong cooperative enhancement of two-photon absorption in double-strand conjugated porphyrin ladder arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12432-12433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Karotki, M. Drobizhev, M. Kruk, C. Spangler, E. Nickel, N. Mamardashvili, and A. Rebane, "Enhancement of two-photon absorption in tetrapyrrolic compounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 20, 321-332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rochette, M.

M. R. E. Lamont, M. Rochette, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Two-photon absorption effects on self-phase-modulation-based 2R optical regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1185-1187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. E.

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sasabe, H.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Screen, T. E. O.

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, A. Rebane, C. J. Wilson, T. E. O. Screen, and H. L. Anderson, "Strong cooperative enhancement of two-photon absorption in double-strand conjugated porphyrin ladder arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12432-12433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. O. Screen, J. R. G. Thorne, R. G. Denning, D. G. Bucknall, and H. L. Anderson, "Two methods for amplifying the optical nonlinearity of a conjugated porphyrin polymer: transmetallation and self-assembly," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2796-2808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Senge, M. O.

M. O. Senge, M. Fazekas, E. G. A. Notaras, W. J. Blau, M. Zawadzka, O. B. Locos, and E. M. N. Mhuircheartaigh, "Nonlinear optical properties of porphyrins," Adv. Mater. 19, 2737-2774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, J. S.

Sinks, L. E.

T. V. Duncan, K. Susumu, L. E. Sinks, and M. J. Therien, "Exceptional near-infrared fluorescence quantum yields and excited-state absorptivity of highly conjugated porphyrin arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 9000-9001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slagle, J. E.

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smirl, A. L.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, "2 photon-absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors," Opt. Eng. 24, 613-623 (1985).

Soileau, M. J.

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Vanstryland, "Nonlinear optical-properties of carbon-black suspensions (ink)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9, 1100-1109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, "2 photon-absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors," Opt. Eng. 24, 613-623 (1985).

Spangler, C.

A. Karotki, M. Drobizhev, M. Kruk, C. Spangler, E. Nickel, N. Mamardashvili, and A. Rebane, "Enhancement of two-photon absorption in tetrapyrrolic compounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 20, 321-332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stepanenko, Y.

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, A. Rebane, C. J. Wilson, T. E. O. Screen, and H. L. Anderson, "Strong cooperative enhancement of two-photon absorption in double-strand conjugated porphyrin ladder arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12432-12433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, "Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632-3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Susumu, K.

T. V. Duncan, K. Susumu, L. E. Sinks, and M. J. Therien, "Exceptional near-infrared fluorescence quantum yields and excited-state absorptivity of highly conjugated porphyrin arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 9000-9001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taunay, T. E.

Tavender, S. M.

M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, P. N.

J. R. G. Thorne, S. M. Kuebler, R. G. Denning, I. M. Blake, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, "Degenerate four-wave mixing studies of butadiyne-linked conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Chem. Phys. 248, 181-193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Therien, M. J.

T. V. Duncan, T. Ishizuka, and M. J. Therien, "Molecular engineering of intensely near-infrared absorbing excited states in highly conjugated oligo(porphinato)zinc-(polypyridyl)metal(II) supermolecules," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9691-9703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, K. Susumu, L. E. Sinks, and M. J. Therien, "Exceptional near-infrared fluorescence quantum yields and excited-state absorptivity of highly conjugated porphyrin arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 9000-9001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorley, K. J.

K. J. Thorley, J. M. Hales, H. L. Anderson, and J. W. Perry, "Porphyrin dimer carbocations with strong near infrared absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 47, 7095-7098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thorne, J. R. G.

T. E. O. Screen, J. R. G. Thorne, R. G. Denning, D. G. Bucknall, and H. L. Anderson, "Two methods for amplifying the optical nonlinearity of a conjugated porphyrin polymer: transmetallation and self-assembly," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2796-2808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. G. Thorne, S. M. Kuebler, R. G. Denning, I. M. Blake, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, "Degenerate four-wave mixing studies of butadiyne-linked conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Chem. Phys. 248, 181-193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tian, M.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toupet, L.

P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, "optical limiting performance of C-60 and C-70 solutions," Nature 356, 225-226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, "2 photon-absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors," Opt. Eng. 24, 613-623 (1985).

Vanherzeele, H.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, "2 photon-absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors," Opt. Eng. 24, 613-623 (1985).

Vanstryland, E. W.

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Vanstryland, "Nonlinear optical-properties of carbon-black suspensions (ink)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9, 1100-1109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wada, T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, "Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions," Adv. Mater. 21, 2430-2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wathen, J. J.

Wetzel, G.

P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiggins, M. J.

Wilson, C. J.

M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, A. Rebane, C. J. Wilson, T. E. O. Screen, and H. L. Anderson, "Strong cooperative enhancement of two-photon absorption in double-strand conjugated porphyrin ladder arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12432-12433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winters, M. U.

M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, M. V.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, "Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. 7, 760-768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Lee, and B. D. Guenther, "Nonlinear liquid-crystal fiber structures for passive optical limiting of short laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 1625-1627 (1996).

Woodall, M. A.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, "2 photon-absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors," Opt. Eng. 24, 613-623 (1985).

Wright, B. M.

Wu, X. L.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. Q.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, "Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632-3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, R. Q.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, "Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632-3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L. X.

Zawadzka, M.

M. O. Senge, M. Fazekas, E. G. A. Notaras, W. J. Blau, M. Zawadzka, O. B. Locos, and E. M. N. Mhuircheartaigh, "Nonlinear optical properties of porphyrins," Adv. Mater. 19, 2737-2774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, "Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions," Adv. Mater. 21, 2430-2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Senge, M. Fazekas, E. G. A. Notaras, W. J. Blau, M. Zawadzka, O. B. Locos, and E. M. N. Mhuircheartaigh, "Nonlinear optical properties of porphyrins," Adv. Mater. 19, 2737-2774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed.

M. Pawlicki, H. A. Collins, R. G. Denning, and H. L. Anderson, "Two-Photon Absorption and the Design of Two-Photon Dyes," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 48, 3244-3266 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Thorley, J. M. Hales, H. L. Anderson, and J. W. Perry, "Porphyrin dimer carbocations with strong near infrared absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 47, 7095-7098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. Engl.

H. L. Anderson, S. J. Martin, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Synthesis and 3rd-order nonlinear-optical properties of a conjugated porphyrin polymer," Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. Engl. 33, 655-657 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, and A. J. Campillo, "Broad-band thermal optical limiter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1483-1485 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, "Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632-3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

P. A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonniere, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, "Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths," Chem. Mater. 19, 5325-5335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

J. R. G. Thorne, S. M. Kuebler, R. G. Denning, I. M. Blake, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, "Degenerate four-wave mixing studies of butadiyne-linked conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Chem. Phys. 248, 181-193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

G. E. OKeefe, J. J. M. Halls, C. A. Walsh, G. J. Denton, R. H. Friend, and H. L. Anderson, "Ultrafast field-induced dissociation of excitons in a conjugated porphyrin polymer," Chem. Phys. Lett. 276, 78-83 (1997).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, "Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. 7, 760-768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. R. E. Lamont, M. Rochette, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Two-photon absorption effects on self-phase-modulation-based 2R optical regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1185-1187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, A. Rebane, C. J. Wilson, T. E. O. Screen, and H. L. Anderson, "Strong cooperative enhancement of two-photon absorption in double-strand conjugated porphyrin ladder arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12432-12433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, K. Susumu, L. E. Sinks, and M. J. Therien, "Exceptional near-infrared fluorescence quantum yields and excited-state absorptivity of highly conjugated porphyrin arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 9000-9001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, T. Ishizuka, and M. J. Therien, "Molecular engineering of intensely near-infrared absorbing excited states in highly conjugated oligo(porphinato)zinc-(polypyridyl)metal(II) supermolecules," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9691-9703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem.

T. E. O. Screen, J. R. G. Thorne, R. G. Denning, D. G. Bucknall, and H. L. Anderson, "Two methods for amplifying the optical nonlinearity of a conjugated porphyrin polymer: transmetallation and self-assembly," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2796-2808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys.

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Karotki, M. Drobizhev, M. Kruk, C. Spangler, E. Nickel, N. Mamardashvili, and A. Rebane, "Enhancement of two-photon absorption in tetrapyrrolic compounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 20, 321-332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Vanstryland, "Nonlinear optical-properties of carbon-black suspensions (ink)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9, 1100-1109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, "optical limiting performance of C-60 and C-70 solutions," Nature 356, 225-226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, "2 photon-absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors," Opt. Eng. 24, 613-623 (1985).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.

M. K. Kuimova, M. Hoffmann, M. U. Winters, M. Eng, M. Balaz, I. P. Clark, H. A. Collins, S. M. Tavender, C. J. Wilson, B. Albinsson, H. L. Anderson, A. W. Parker, and D. Phillips, "Determination of the triplet state energies of a series of conjugated porphyrin oligomers," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 675-682 (2007).
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R. Bonneau, I. Carmichael, and G. L. Hug, "Molar Absorption-Coefficients of Transient Species in Solution," Pure Appl. Chem. 63, 290-299 (1991).
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K. S. Kim, J. M. Lim, A. Osuka, and D. Kim, "Various strategies for highly-efficient two-photon absorption in porphyrin arrays," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C-Photochem.Rev. 9, 13-28 (2008).
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Science

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, "Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response," Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. C. Grozema, C. Houarner-Rassin, P. Prins, L. D. A. Siebbeles, and H. L. Anderson, "Supramolecular control of charge transport in molecular wires," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 13370- (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Femtosecond transient absorption (TA) kinetics/spectra and state-level diagram for the porphyrin polymer. a, Time-wavelength representation of fs-TA following 2PA (λexc=1300 nm) into S2 and b, representative transient spectra at various probe delays. Residual scattered light from the excitation beam is evident and early time spectra have been reduced in amplitude for ease of viewing. c, energy level diagram and decay lifetimes determined from TA data. Upper-state lifetime decays were assumed to be fast (τ<0.1 ps). Inset (above) shows the chemical structure of the lead-based bis(ethynyl)porphyrin polymer with R=CON(CH2CHEtBu)2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Broadband optical limiting of the porphyrin polymer solutions. a, fs-pulsed (75 fs, HW1/e) optical limiting and b, ns-pulsed (4 ns, HW1/e) optical limiting on solutions of porphyrin polymer in 1 mm cuvettes at various wavelengths in NIR spectral region. Experimental parameters are given in the Experimental methods section. Insets show output energy versus input energy illustrating a clamping effect at higher energies. Optical damage of the cuvette is evident for ns-pulsed optical limiting data (1550 nm) around an input energy of ~140 µJ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical limiting simulations of the porphyrin polymer solutions. Numerical simulations based on nonlinear beam propagation through solutions of the porphyrin polymer in 1 mm cuvettes. Optical limiting at various wavelengths for different pulsewidths (HW1/e): a, 75 fs; b, 4 ns; c, 10 ps. d, optical limiting at 1300 nm for various excitation pulsewidths (HW1/e). Additionally, experimental data for fs-OL and ns-OL at 1550 nm from Figs. 2a and 2b are overlaid in Figs. 3a and 3b, respectively, for comparison. Photophysical and nonlinear optical parameters for the optical limiting simulations are taken from Figure 1c and Table 1, respectively. Experimental parameters are taken from Figure 2 for simulations in Figs. 3a and 3b, and were assumed to be ~F/5 with a 20 um (HW1/e2) beam size for Figs. 3c and 3d. For Figure 3d, the onset of nonlinear attenuation moves to higher energies for longer pulsewidths, consistent with the irradiance-dependence of the excitation process, 2PA. However, this is mitigated to a certain extent for longer pulses by the small amount of resonant excitation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical limiting in microcapillary waveguides for porphyrin polymer solutions. ns-pulsed (4 ns, HW1/e) optical limiting of porphyrin polymer solutions in 1.8 cm microcapillaries of 20–30 µm in diameter. Experimental parameters are given in the Experimental methods section and insets show output energy versus input energy. Generation of a bubble in the MC resulted in strong scattering around 70 µJ for the 1064 nm data.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. ESA and 2PA cross-sections in near infrared for the lead bis(ethynyl)porphyrin polymer. [a]

Metrics