Abstract

Broadband horn antennae are presented that efficiently couple terahertz radiation between sub-wavelength metal-metal waveguides and free space. Sub-picosecond terahertz pulses were coupled into and out from sub-wavelength parallel-plate waveguides by using the horn antennae in a terahertz time-domain spectrometer. Monolithic antennae were fabricated at the facets of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers, and laser action was observed for devices emitting at 1.4 THz, 2.3 THz and 3.2 THz. A good far-field laser radiation pattern (FWHM less than 11 °) is obtained as a result of the significant expansion of the optical mode by the antenna.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053,106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, "Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 43, 573-574 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A.W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Low divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Nature Photonics; advance online publication (DOI 10.1038/NPHOTON.2009.168) (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, "Smalldivergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759-1779 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, "Undistorted guided-wave propagation of subpicosecond terahertz pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 846-848 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 17, 851-863 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," To appear in New. J. Phys. (2009).
  15. C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131,122 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, "Smalldivergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

A.W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, "Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 43, 573-574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131,122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053,106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759-1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 17, 851-863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akalin, T.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, "Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 43, 573-574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Low divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Nature Photonics; advance online publication (DOI 10.1038/NPHOTON.2009.168) (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," To appear in New. J. Phys. (2009).

Andronico, A.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Low divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Nature Photonics; advance online publication (DOI 10.1038/NPHOTON.2009.168) (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," To appear in New. J. Phys. (2009).

Beere, H.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, "Smalldivergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chassagneux, Y.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diehl, L.

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, "Smalldivergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Edamura, T.

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, "Smalldivergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, "Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 43, 573-574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131,122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," To appear in New. J. Phys. (2009).

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Low divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Nature Photonics; advance online publication (DOI 10.1038/NPHOTON.2009.168) (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, J.

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, "Smalldivergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Filloux, P.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, "Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 43, 573-574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131,122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Low divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Nature Photonics; advance online publication (DOI 10.1038/NPHOTON.2009.168) (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," To appear in New. J. Phys. (2009).

Gallot, G.

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 17, 851-863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gellie, P.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, "Undistorted guided-wave propagation of subpicosecond terahertz pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 846-848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 17, 851-863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. N.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoyler, N.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131,122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

A.W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053,106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, S. P.

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 17, 851-863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, "Smalldivergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasalynas, I.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. P.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klaassen, T. O.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kohen, S.

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053,106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

A.W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lampin, J. F.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A.W. M.

Leo, G.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maineult, W.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 17, 851-863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mendis, R.

Orlova, E. E.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peytavit, E.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pflugl, C.

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, "Smalldivergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Q.

Reno, J. L.

A.W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, "Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 43, 573-574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131,122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," To appear in New. J. Phys. (2009).

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Low divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Nature Photonics; advance online publication (DOI 10.1038/NPHOTON.2009.168) (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759-1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Terazzi, R.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131,122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," To appear in New. J. Phys. (2009).

Walther, C.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, "Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 43, 573-574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131,122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. J.

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, "Smalldivergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

A.W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053,106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamanishi, M.

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, "Smalldivergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N. F.

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, "Smalldivergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151,105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverseelectromagnetic- horn antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183,508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131,122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759-1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, "Horn antennas for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 43, 573-574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053,106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, "Smalldivergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. (1)

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 17, 851-863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. Rosencher and B. Vinter, Optoelectronics, 1st ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2002).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," To appear in New. J. Phys. (2009).

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Low divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Nature Photonics; advance online publication (DOI 10.1038/NPHOTON.2009.168) (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic cross-section and (b) electron micrograph of a semi-insulating GaAs horn antenna integrated into a metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser. The vertical axis in (a) is the growth direction and the horizontal is the light propagation direction. The layers in (a) are, from bottom to top at the right hand side: n+ substrate, gold, n+ GaAs contact, active region, n+ GaAs contact, semi-insulating GaAs horn, gold. (c) Measured profile of horn. (d) Calculated intensities of low-loss eigenmodes at 3.0 THz at the cross-sections shown in (a). For cross-section 1, through the active region, the waveguide is 300µm wide and 12µm high, and the mode intensity is shown in (i). For cross-section 2, in the flared part of the horn (where the undoped GaAs is 100µm high), eigenmodes are bound to the top (ii) or bottom (iii) metal. The actual mode will be a combination of the two.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) In the transmission measurements terahertz pulses propagated in the x-direction, and were linearly polarized in the y-direction. The layers are (from bottom to top) copper, n+ GaAs substrate, gold, semi-insulating GaAs, gold, copper. (b) Measured electric field Ey transmitted through the reference waveguide (divided by 10) and through the horn antenna sample (top two lines). Below are FDTD simulations of Ey . (c) Electric field amplitude spectra of the pulses through the reference and horn antenna. (d) Finite-difference time-domain simulations of Ey at times of 7.0 ps and 21.0 ps after the injection of a single-cycle pulse into the waveguide at the left facet (regions with positive Ey are red, and negative are blue). Point S is the source of a secondary wavefront.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Light-current-voltage characteristics at 10K for a 3.2 THz QCL with an integrated horn antenna on one facet (solid lines) or both facets (dashed lines). (b) Spectra for the double-sided horn device are shown on a logarithmic scale at laser threshold (solid line) and at the maximum current (dashed line). (c) and (d) are similar graphs for a 1.4 THz QCL with a horn antenna on one facet. (e) The spectra at threshold of a 2.3 THz QCL in a metal-metal waveguide (solid line) and with a single integrated horn (dashed line).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Far-field emission pattern of a 3.2 THz laser with an integrated horn antenna. The θ -axis is parallel to the growth direction (y-axis), and the ψ-axis is perpendicular to it, as indicated in the cartoon in the top left corner, which looks at the horn antenna edge-on. The cross-sections of the far field emission pattern (top and left sub-plots) show the measured power (blue lines) and a Gaussian fit (red lines).

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