Abstract

Optical devices based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been realized with several fabrication methods in different structures, such as free-space, fiber-end, waveguide, and fiber structures. Most of waveguide- and fiber-type devices utilize evanescent coupling between the guided light and CNT layers, and offer very high optical damage threshold and high third-order nonlinearity. However, the conventional fabrication methods require complicated processes and waste much of CNTs. In this work, we propose and demonstrate CNT deposition around microfibers induced by injecting light through the fibers. This method can area-selectively deposit desired number of CNTs around microfibers, and can be realized by a simple process and setup. We also demonstrate a passively mode-locked fiber laser using a CNT-deposited microfiber as a passive mode-locker.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser Mode Locking Using a Saturable Absorber Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 51–56 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotube-poly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 4A), 1621–1625 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081125 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y.-W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composite,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2242–2244 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “A passively mode-locked femtosecond soliton fiber laser at 1.5 microm with a CNT-doped polycarbonate saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21191–21198 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Novel Cost Effective Carbon Nanotubes Deposition Technique Using Optical Tweezer Effect,” in Proceedings of the SPIE Vol. 6478; Photonics Packaging, Integration and Interconnects VII, A. M. Earman and R. T. Chen, eds., pp. 6478–15 (SPIE, 2007).
  13. K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Optically manipulated deposition of carbon nanotubes onto optical fiber end,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L988–L990 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. Digiovanni, “Optically driven deposition of single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorbers on optical fiber end-faces,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9176–9183 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “In-situ monitoring of optical deposition of carbon nanotubes onto fiber end,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5711–5715 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “In-situ monitoring of optical deposition of carbon nanotubes onto fiber end,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5711–5715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (5)

2006 (1)

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotube-poly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 4A), 1621–1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotube-poly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 4A), 1621–1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ajayan, P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Digiovanni, D. J.

Goh, C. S.

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Itoga, E.

Jablonski, M.

Kaino, T.

Kashiwagi, K.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “In-situ monitoring of optical deposition of carbon nanotubes onto fiber end,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5711–5715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Optically manipulated deposition of carbon nanotubes onto optical fiber end,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L988–L990 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kataura, H.

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotube-poly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 4A), 1621–1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazaoui, S.

Kieu, K.

Komatsu, K.

Kurashima, Y.

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Maruyama, S.

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minami, N.

Minoshima, K.

Miyamoto, I.

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, K.

Morimune, K.

Y.-W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

Nasu, Y.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Raravikar, N.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A. G.

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotube-poly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 4A), 1621–1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotube-poly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 4A), 1621–1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadler, L.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

Set, S. Y.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “In-situ monitoring of optical deposition of carbon nanotubes onto fiber end,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5711–5715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Optically manipulated deposition of carbon nanotubes onto optical fiber end,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L988–L990 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser Mode Locking Using a Saturable Absorber Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 51–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shirato, T.

Shohda, F.

Song, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Tokumoto, M.

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotube-poly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 4A), 1621–1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Yaguchi, H.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser Mode Locking Using a Saturable Absorber Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 51–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “In-situ monitoring of optical deposition of carbon nanotubes onto fiber end,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5711–5715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Optically manipulated deposition of carbon nanotubes onto optical fiber end,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L988–L990 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, Y.

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kurashima, Y. Yokota, I. Miyamoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mode-locking nanoporous alumina membrane embedded with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotube-poly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 4A), 1621–1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Optically manipulated deposition of carbon nanotubes onto optical fiber end,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L988–L990 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Novel Cost Effective Carbon Nanotubes Deposition Technique Using Optical Tweezer Effect,” in Proceedings of the SPIE Vol. 6478; Photonics Packaging, Integration and Interconnects VII, A. M. Earman and R. T. Chen, eds., pp. 6478–15 (SPIE, 2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for fabricating microfibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for CNT deposition around microfibers by light injection through the microfibers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectrum of the CNTs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Microscope image of CNT-deposited microfiber (waist ~6 μm), dotted circle indicates area where microscopic Raman spectrum was measured, (b) Microscopic Raman spectrum of CNT-deposited microfiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Saturable absorption characteristics of the CNT-deposited microfiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of optical deposition of CNTs (a) onto fiber end (b) around microfiber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of a passively mode-locked fiber laser using a CNT-deposited microfiber

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Passively mode-locked fiber laser output (a) Optical spectrum of the fiber laser (resolution: 0.1 nm) (b) Autocorrelation trace of laser output (resolution: 50 fs,) corresponding pulse width: 1.14 ps (assuming Gaussian pulse) (c) Output pulse train of the fiber laser (repetition rate: 1.54 MHz)

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