Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) monitoring technique that is insensitive to chromatic dispersion (CD) utilizing a polarizer and a low-speed detector for an 80-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed return-to-zero differential phase-shift-keying (pol-muxed RZ-DPSK) data channel. Measured RF power increment of 16.2 dB, which is insensitive to 0~100 ps/nm CD, is measured in the presence of the increasing differential group delay (DGD) from 0 to 12 ps. High-speed components are not required for monitoring the PMD on the pol-muxed data channel, which means that the proposed technique is potentially applicable to the higher speed pol-muxed data channels.

© 2009 OSA

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References

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  1. A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and C. Yu, “Optical performance monitoring,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB, Chapter 7, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner eds., (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2008).
  2. D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40 x 85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 222–232 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, “Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 738–740 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, and H. de Waardt, “PMD-induced transmission penalties in polarization-multiplexed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4004–4015 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L.-S. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2177–2179 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. M. R. M. Nezam, J. E. McGeehan, and A. E. Willner, “Theroretical and experimental analysis of the dependence of a signal’s degree of polarization on the optical data spectrum,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(3), 763–772 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, M. Bakaul, and A. Kowalczyk, “Asynchronous sampling for optical performance monitoring,” in Tech. Dig. OFC 2007, Paper OMM5 (2007).
  8. W. Chen, F. Buchali, X. Yi, W. Shieh, J. S. Evans, and R. S. Tucker, “Chromatic dispersion and PMD mitigation at 10 Gb/s using Viterbi equalization for DPSK and DQPSK modulation formats,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5271–5276 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using delay-tap sampling method,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3566–3576 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. A. Jargon, X. Wu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring using artificial neural networks trained with eye-diagram parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 54–56 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Geyer, C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, C. Schulien, and B. Schmauss, “Performance monitoring using coherent receivers,” in Tech. Dig. OFC 2009, Paper OThH5 (2009).
  12. J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, L. C. Christen, B. Zhang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, L.-S. Yan, S. Yao, and A. E. Willner, “Polarization-mode-dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals using DGD-generated interferometric filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 150–152 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Dorrer and X. Liu, “Noise monitoring of optical signals using RF spectrum analysis and its application to phase-shift-keyed signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1781–1783 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Wernz, S. Bayer, B. E. Olsson, M. Camera, H. Griesser, C. Furst, B. Koch, V. Mirvoda, A. Hidayat, and R. Noe, “112GB/s PolMux RZ-DQPSK with polarization tracking based on interference control,” in Tech. Dig. OFC 2009, Paper OTuN4 (2009).
  15. L. E. Nelson and H. Kogelnik, “Coherent crosstalk impairments in polarization multiplexed transmission due to polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Express 7(10), 350–361 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Experimental investigation of system impairments in polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK,” in Tech. Dig. OFC 2008, Paper OThU7 (2008).

2009

J. A. Jargon, X. Wu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring using artificial neural networks trained with eye-diagram parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 54–56 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, L. C. Christen, B. Zhang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, L.-S. Yan, S. Yao, and A. E. Willner, “Polarization-mode-dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals using DGD-generated interferometric filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 150–152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using delay-tap sampling method,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3566–3576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2005

2004

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L.-S. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2177–2179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. R. M. Nezam, J. E. McGeehan, and A. E. Willner, “Theroretical and experimental analysis of the dependence of a signal’s degree of polarization on the optical data spectrum,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(3), 763–772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer and X. Liu, “Noise monitoring of optical signals using RF spectrum analysis and its application to phase-shift-keyed signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1781–1783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, “Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 738–740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Buchali, F.

Chen, W.

Christen, L. C.

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, L. C. Christen, B. Zhang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, L.-S. Yan, S. Yao, and A. E. Willner, “Polarization-mode-dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals using DGD-generated interferometric filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 150–152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H

de Waardt, H.

Dorrer, C.

C. Dorrer and X. Liu, “Noise monitoring of optical signals using RF spectrum analysis and its application to phase-shift-keyed signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1781–1783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. S.

Gottwald, E.

Hecker-Denschlag, N. E.

Jansen, S. L.

Jargon, J. A.

J. A. Jargon, X. Wu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring using artificial neural networks trained with eye-diagram parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 54–56 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

Kitayama, K.

Kogelnik, H.

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, “Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 738–740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson and H. Kogelnik, “Coherent crosstalk impairments in polarization multiplexed transmission due to polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Express 7(10), 350–361 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozicki, B.

Krummrich, P. M.

Liu, X.

C. Dorrer and X. Liu, “Noise monitoring of optical signals using RF spectrum analysis and its application to phase-shift-keyed signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1781–1783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L.-S. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2177–2179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maruta, A.

McGeehan, J. E.

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, “Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 738–740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson and H. Kogelnik, “Coherent crosstalk impairments in polarization multiplexed transmission due to polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Express 7(10), 350–361 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nezam, S. M. R. M.

S. M. R. M. Nezam, J. E. McGeehan, and A. E. Willner, “Theroretical and experimental analysis of the dependence of a signal’s degree of polarization on the optical data spectrum,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(3), 763–772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L.-S. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2177–2179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, T. N.

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, “Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 738–740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nuccio, S.

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, L. C. Christen, B. Zhang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, L.-S. Yan, S. Yao, and A. E. Willner, “Polarization-mode-dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals using DGD-generated interferometric filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 150–152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L.-S. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2177–2179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sahin, A. B.

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L.-S. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2177–2179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

Tucker, R. S.

van den Borne, D.

Willner, A. E.

J. A. Jargon, X. Wu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring using artificial neural networks trained with eye-diagram parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 54–56 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, L. C. Christen, B. Zhang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, L.-S. Yan, S. Yao, and A. E. Willner, “Polarization-mode-dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals using DGD-generated interferometric filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 150–152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. R. M. Nezam, J. E. McGeehan, and A. E. Willner, “Theroretical and experimental analysis of the dependence of a signal’s degree of polarization on the optical data spectrum,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(3), 763–772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L.-S. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2177–2179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

J. A. Jargon, X. Wu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring using artificial neural networks trained with eye-diagram parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 54–56 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, L. C. Christen, B. Zhang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, L.-S. Yan, S. Yao, and A. E. Willner, “Polarization-mode-dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals using DGD-generated interferometric filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 150–152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.-S.

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, L. C. Christen, B. Zhang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, L.-S. Yan, S. Yao, and A. E. Willner, “Polarization-mode-dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals using DGD-generated interferometric filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 150–152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L.-S. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2177–2179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, L. C. Christen, B. Zhang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, L.-S. Yan, S. Yao, and A. E. Willner, “Polarization-mode-dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals using DGD-generated interferometric filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 150–152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S.

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, L. C. Christen, B. Zhang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, L.-S. Yan, S. Yao, and A. E. Willner, “Polarization-mode-dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals using DGD-generated interferometric filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 150–152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

Zhang, B.

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, L. C. Christen, B. Zhang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, L.-S. Yan, S. Yao, and A. E. Willner, “Polarization-mode-dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals using DGD-generated interferometric filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 150–152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, L. C. Christen, B. Zhang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, L.-S. Yan, S. Yao, and A. E. Willner, “Polarization-mode-dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals using DGD-generated interferometric filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 150–152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, “Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 738–740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L.-S. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2177–2179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Jargon, X. Wu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring using artificial neural networks trained with eye-diagram parameters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 54–56 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, L. C. Christen, B. Zhang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, L.-S. Yan, S. Yao, and A. E. Willner, “Polarization-mode-dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals using DGD-generated interferometric filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 150–152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer and X. Liu, “Noise monitoring of optical signals using RF spectrum analysis and its application to phase-shift-keyed signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1781–1783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and C. Yu, “Optical performance monitoring,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB, Chapter 7, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner eds., (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2008).

H. Wernz, S. Bayer, B. E. Olsson, M. Camera, H. Griesser, C. Furst, B. Koch, V. Mirvoda, A. Hidayat, and R. Noe, “112GB/s PolMux RZ-DQPSK with polarization tracking based on interference control,” in Tech. Dig. OFC 2009, Paper OTuN4 (2009).

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Experimental investigation of system impairments in polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK,” in Tech. Dig. OFC 2008, Paper OThU7 (2008).

J. C. Geyer, C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, C. Schulien, and B. Schmauss, “Performance monitoring using coherent receivers,” in Tech. Dig. OFC 2009, Paper OThH5 (2009).

S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, M. Bakaul, and A. Kowalczyk, “Asynchronous sampling for optical performance monitoring,” in Tech. Dig. OFC 2007, Paper OMM5 (2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Conceptual diagram of the proposed PMD monitoring technique. (b) The polarizer is aligned along one RZ-DPSK data stream, and the extracted Data 1 is sent to the low-speed detector for measurements. A CD-insensitive RF power increment at low frequency component is used for monitoring the PMD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the proposed PMD monitoring technique for an 80-Gb/s pol-muxed RZ-DPSK.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured RF power increases when the polarizer is misaligned to the pol-muxed channel (without DGD/CD). (b) Optical waveforms of the pol-muxed and de-pol-muxed data with DGD. (c) RF power (at 250 MHz) increases with the increasing DGD. The insets show the optical waveforms of the pol-muxed data. (d) RF power under 0~100-ps/nm CD for three different DGD values.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated results of RF power change with the alignments for pol-muxed RZ-D(Q)PSK channels.

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