Abstract

Here we propose a new optical method, to our knowledge, to measure the pressure in liquids or gases by means of a flexible lens. Images of an object given by the dynamical lens are analyzed, and through the visibility of those images pressure is inferred.

© 2009 OSA

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  21. http://www.dowcorning.com/content/rubber/silicone-rubber.aspx
  22. Federal Products Corporation, 1144 Eddy street, Providence Rhode Island 02940–9400 U.S.A.
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2009

E. Borra, P. Hickson, and J. Surdej, “The International Liquid Mirror Telescope,” Optics and Photonics News 20(4), 28–33 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Calixto, M. E. Sánchez-Morales, F. J. Sánchez-Marin, M. Rosete-Aguilar, A. M. Richa, and K. A. Barrera-Rivera, “Optofluidic variable focus lenses,” Appl. Opt. 48(12), 2308–2314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cibula, S. Pevec, B. Lenardic, E. Pinet, and D. Donlagic, “Miniature all-glass robust pressure sensor,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5098–5106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Song, J. Zou, S. X. Wei, S. Yang, and H.-L. Cui, “ “High-Sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensor using metal bellows,” Opt. Eng. 48(3), 034403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Maeda, “A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(301), 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995

1953

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229–236 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, H. W.

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229–236 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Barrera-Rivera, K. A.

Borra, E.

E. Borra, P. Hickson, and J. Surdej, “The International Liquid Mirror Telescope,” Optics and Photonics News 20(4), 28–33 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Calixto, S.

Cho, S. H.

Cibula, E.

Coburn, D.

Cooper, K. L.

Cui, H.-L.

D. Song, J. Zou, S. X. Wei, S. Yang, and H.-L. Cui, “ “High-Sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensor using metal bellows,” Opt. Eng. 48(3), 034403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Dalimier, E.

Daly, E.

Devaney, N.

Donlagic, D.

Erickson, D.

D. Erickson, C. Yang, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidics emerges from the laboratory,” Photonics Spectra 42, 74–79 (2008).

Farrell, T.

Feiwen, L.

Guangya, Z.

Hanada, K.

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Maeda, “A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(301), 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hickson, P.

E. Borra, P. Hickson, and J. Surdej, “The International Liquid Mirror Telescope,” Optics and Photonics News 20(4), 28–33 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hongbin, Y.

Hosokawa, K.

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Maeda, “A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(301), 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, F.

Lenardic, B.

Li, H.

Li, M.

Lo, Y. H.

Mackey, D.

Mackey, R.

Maeda, R.

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Maeda, “A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(301), 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Minkovich, V. P.

Monzon-Hernandez, D.

Pevec, S.

Pinet, E.

Psaltis, D.

D. Erickson, C. Yang, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidics emerges from the laboratory,” Photonics Spectra 42, 74–79 (2008).

Ren, H.

Richa, A. M.

Rosete-Aguilar, M.

Samuel, I. D. W.

Sanchez-Marin, F. J.

Sánchez-Marin, F. J.

Sánchez-Morales, M. E.

Sarro, P. M.

Siong, C. F.

Song, D.

D. Song, J. Zou, S. X. Wei, S. Yang, and H.-L. Cui, “ “High-Sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensor using metal bellows,” Opt. Eng. 48(3), 034403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Surdej, J.

E. Borra, P. Hickson, and J. Surdej, “The International Liquid Mirror Telescope,” Optics and Photonics News 20(4), 28–33 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Town, G. E.

Tsai, F. S.

Turnbull, G. A.

Vasdekis, A. E.

Vasko, B.

Vasko, J.

Vdovin, G.

Wang, A.

Wang, M.

Wang, X.

Wei, S. X.

D. Song, J. Zou, S. X. Wei, S. Yang, and H.-L. Cui, “ “High-Sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensor using metal bellows,” Opt. Eng. 48(3), 034403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Xu, J.

Yang, C.

D. Erickson, C. Yang, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidics emerges from the laboratory,” Photonics Spectra 42, 74–79 (2008).

Yang, S.

D. Song, J. Zou, S. X. Wei, S. Yang, and H.-L. Cui, “ “High-Sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensor using metal bellows,” Opt. Eng. 48(3), 034403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Zou, J.

D. Song, J. Zou, S. X. Wei, S. Yang, and H.-L. Cui, “ “High-Sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensor using metal bellows,” Opt. Eng. 48(3), 034403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Maeda, “A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(301), 1–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

D. Song, J. Zou, S. X. Wei, S. Yang, and H.-L. Cui, “ “High-Sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensor using metal bellows,” Opt. Eng. 48(3), 034403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Optics and Photonics News

E. Borra, P. Hickson, and J. Surdej, “The International Liquid Mirror Telescope,” Optics and Photonics News 20(4), 28–33 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Photonics Spectra

D. Erickson, C. Yang, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidics emerges from the laboratory,” Photonics Spectra 42, 74–79 (2008).

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229–236 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, 1998)

http://www.dowcorning.com/content/rubber/silicone-rubber.aspx

Federal Products Corporation, 1144 Eddy street, Providence Rhode Island 02940–9400 U.S.A.

A. A. Michelson, Studies in Optics (The University of Chicago Press, 1968).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A fabricated flexible lens

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Diagram of the cell used to change the pressure which in turn changed the curvature of the surfaces of the flexible lens. b) One of the fabricated cells. Notice the flexible lens. The screw has a hole in the center. Through it air was let to pass.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Curves given by a surface analyzer of the surfaces of a flexible lens. Upper curves (continuous line) belong to the outer surface. Lower curves (dashed) belong to the inner surface. Parameter was the pressure in the cell. 1 psi = 6.89 KPa.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Focal length as a function of the pressure in the cell.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photographs of the images given by the flexible lens when different pressures were applied. a) 0 psi, b) 0.31 psi, c) 0.56 psi, d) 0.75 psi.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Photograph of one image given by the flexible lens. A line with a width of 5 pixels has been drawn. b) Gray level vs. pixel number of the photograph in a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Gray level as a function of pixel number

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Behavior of Visibility as a function of Pressure in the cell. Dots are experimental points. Continuous curve is an interpolated polynomial.

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