Abstract

A long-period grating (LPG) based compact optical fiber sensor working in reflection mode is demonstrated. A technique to make a mirror on the cladding region of a fiber end-face to reflect only the cladding modes was realized by growing a polymeric microtip on the core region of the fiber end-face, by photopolymerization, followed by coating the fiber end-face with an aluminum film. Using the cladding-mode-selective fiber end-face mirror, the transmission spectrum of the LPG was “inverted” and reflected. Preliminary results of using the sensor to measure the refractive index of glycerol/water solutions were successfully demonstrated.

© 2009 OSA

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Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi,Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion,“Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long-period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Jiang, Z. G. Guan, and S. He, “Multiplexing scheme for self-interfering long-period fiber gratings using a low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(12), 1663–1667 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, ““Temperature-insensitive chemical sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(2), 754–757 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Q. Xu, and Y. Li, “Label-free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1691–1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, H. Y. Tam, J. Ju, and J. M. Yu, “Photopolymer microtips for efficient light coupling between single-mode fibers and photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1791–1793 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, ““Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Dagenais, A. N. Chrysis, H. Yi, S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and W. E. Bentley, “Optical bio-sensors based on etched fiber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5729, 214–224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, X. W. Chen, J. H. Yan, Z. G. Guan, S. He, and H. Y. Tam, “Optimization and fabrication of stitched long-period gratings for gain-flattening of ultrawide-band EDFAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2559–2561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index by use of a hybrid grating in D fiber with enhanced sensitivity by HF etching,” Appl. Opt. 44(2), 178–182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(8), 1576–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Bachelot, C. Ecoffet, D. Deloeil, P. Royer, and D.-J. Lougnot, “Integration of micrometer-sized polymer elements at the end of optical fibers by free-radical photopolymerization,” Appl. Opt. 40(32), 5860–5871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1997

T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(8), 1760–1773 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele,“Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Areva, S.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion,“Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long-period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele,“Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

Bennion, I.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion,“Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long-period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index by use of a hybrid grating in D fiber with enhanced sensitivity by HF etching,” Appl. Opt. 44(2), 178–182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bentley, W. E.

M. Dagenais, A. N. Chrysis, H. Yi, S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and W. E. Bentley, “Optical bio-sensors based on etched fiber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5729, 214–224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, V.

Bucholtz, F.

Chau, L. K.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, ““Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

Chen, X. W.

A. P. Zhang, X. W. Chen, J. H. Yan, Z. G. Guan, S. He, and H. Y. Tam, “Optimization and fabrication of stitched long-period gratings for gain-flattening of ultrawide-band EDFAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2559–2561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S. F.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, ““Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, T. Y.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, ““Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chrysis, A. N.

M. Dagenais, A. N. Chrysis, H. Yi, S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and W. E. Bentley, “Optical bio-sensors based on etched fiber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5729, 214–224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, ““Temperature-insensitive chemical sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(2), 754–757 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K. L.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

M. Dagenais, A. N. Chrysis, H. Yi, S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and W. E. Bentley, “Optical bio-sensors based on etched fiber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5729, 214–224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davies, E.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion,“Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long-period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele,“Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DeLisa, M. P.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deloeil, D.

Demokan, M. S.

Ding, J. F.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ecoffet, C.

Erdogan, T.

Ferdinand, P.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele,“Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H. Y.

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi,Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guan, Z. G.

M. Jiang, Z. G. Guan, and S. He, “Multiplexing scheme for self-interfering long-period fiber gratings using a low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(12), 1663–1667 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, X. W. Chen, J. H. Yan, Z. G. Guan, S. He, and H. Y. Tam, “Optimization and fabrication of stitched long-period gratings for gain-flattening of ultrawide-band EDFAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2559–2561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

M. Jiang, Z. G. Guan, and S. He, “Multiplexing scheme for self-interfering long-period fiber gratings using a low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(12), 1663–1667 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, X. W. Chen, J. H. Yan, Z. G. Guan, S. He, and H. Y. Tam, “Optimization and fabrication of stitched long-period gratings for gain-flattening of ultrawide-band EDFAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2559–2561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heflin, J. R.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi,Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. L.

Hsu, W. T.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, ““Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

M. Jiang, Z. G. Guan, and S. He, “Multiplexing scheme for self-interfering long-period fiber gratings using a low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(12), 1663–1667 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Ju, J.

Kersey, A. D.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele,“Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele,“Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laffont, G.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele,“Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

M. Dagenais, A. N. Chrysis, H. Yi, S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and W. E. Bentley, “Optical bio-sensors based on etched fiber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5729, 214–224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Q. Xu, and Y. Li, “Label-free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1691–1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Q. Xu, and Y. Li, “Label-free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1691–1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. S.

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lougnot, D.-J.

Mayteevarunyoo, T.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, ““Temperature-insensitive chemical sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(2), 754–757 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele,“Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pilevar, S.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele,“Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi,Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

Saini, S. S.

M. Dagenais, A. N. Chrysis, H. Yi, S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and W. E. Bentley, “Optical bio-sensors based on etched fiber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5729, 214–224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salomäki, M.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion,“Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long-period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, P.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Q. Xu, and Y. Li, “Label-free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1691–1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sang, X.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, ““Temperature-insensitive chemical sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(2), 754–757 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shiloach, M.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shu, X. W.

Sirkis, J. S.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolen, R. H.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi,Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(8), 1576–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, H. Y. Tam, J. Ju, and J. M. Yu, “Photopolymer microtips for efficient light coupling between single-mode fibers and photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1791–1793 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Zhang, X. W. Chen, J. H. Yan, Z. G. Guan, S. He, and H. Y. Tam, “Optimization and fabrication of stitched long-period gratings for gain-flattening of ultrawide-band EDFAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2559–2561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J. L.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, ““Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Cott, K.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi,Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Viitala, R.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion,“Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long-period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, ““Temperature-insensitive chemical sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(2), 754–757 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi,Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, L. M.

Xu, C. Q.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Q. Xu, and Y. Li, “Label-free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1691–1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J. H.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, X. W. Chen, J. H. Yan, Z. G. Guan, S. He, and H. Y. Tam, “Optimization and fabrication of stitched long-period gratings for gain-flattening of ultrawide-band EDFAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2559–2561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Q. Xu, and Y. Li, “Label-free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1691–1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yi, H.

M. Dagenais, A. N. Chrysis, H. Yi, S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and W. E. Bentley, “Optical bio-sensors based on etched fiber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5729, 214–224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, ““Temperature-insensitive chemical sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(2), 754–757 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. M.

Zhang, A. P.

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, X. W. Chen, J. H. Yan, Z. G. Guan, S. He, and H. Y. Tam, “Optimization and fabrication of stitched long-period gratings for gain-flattening of ultrawide-band EDFAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2559–2561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Q.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, ““Temperature-insensitive chemical sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(2), 754–757 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, K. M.

Anal. Chem.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Q. Xu, and Y. Li, “Label-free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1691–1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Shao, A. P. Zhang, W. S. Liu, H. Y. Fu, and S. He, “Optical refractive-index sensor based on dual fiber-Bragg gratings interposed with a multimode-fiber taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 30–32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, and S. He, “Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2397–2399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zhang, X. W. Chen, J. H. Yan, Z. G. Guan, S. He, and H. Y. Tam, “Optimization and fabrication of stitched long-period gratings for gain-flattening of ultrawide-band EDFAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2559–2561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

M. Jiang, Z. G. Guan, and S. He, “Multiplexing scheme for self-interfering long-period fiber gratings using a low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(12), 1663–1667 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

E. Davies, R. Viitala, M. Salomäki, S. Areva, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion,“Sol-Gel derived coating applied to long-period gratings for enhanced refractive index sensing properties,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 015501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(8), 1576–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol.

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

M. Dagenais, A. N. Chrysis, H. Yi, S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and W. E. Bentley, “Optical bio-sensors based on etched fiber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5729, 214–224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, ““Temperature-insensitive chemical sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(2), 754–757 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, ““Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi,Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, “Fiber Bragg grating technologies and applications in sensors,” 2006 OSA/OFC, 2415–2417 (2006).

J. Dakin and B. Culshaw, Optical fiber sensors (Artech House, Boston, 1988).

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, “Novel temperature-insensitivity long-period fiber grating using a boron-codoped-germanosilicate-core fiber,” OFC’97,” OSA Technical Digest Series 6, 347–348 (1997).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the proposed reflective long-period grating sensor with a cladding-mode-selective fiber end-face mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication procedure for the reflective long-period grating sensor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscope photos of the fabricated microtips on the fiber end. 1) when the LED power is 20 μW; 2) when the LED power is 24 μW; 3) when the LED power is 30 μW;

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microscope photos of the fabricated microtips on the fiber end. 1) without LPG in the fiber; 2) with an LPG in the fiber (without index matching gel); 3) with an LPG immersed in the index matching gel;

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The reflection spectrum of the fabricated RLPG sensor (black curve) and the transmission spectrum of the LPG used in the sensor fabrication (gray curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The measured reflection spectra of the RLPG (left diagram) and peak wavelengths (blue triangles in the right diagram) of the RLPG sensor against external RIs. The calculated dip wavelengths (gray circles) of the LPG are given for comparison.

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