Abstract

Supercontinuum generation in a multi-fiber ultra-long Raman fiber laser cavity is experimentally investigated for the first time. We demonstrate significantly enhanced spectral flatness and supercontinuum generation efficiency using only conventional single mode silica fiber. With a pump power of only 1.63W a ~15dB bandwidth >260 nm wide (from 1440 to >1700nm) supercontinuum source is reported with a flatness of <1dB over 180nm using an optimised hybrid TW/HNLF cavity. We address the dependence of the supercontinuum spectrum on the input pump power and ultra-long Raman cavity.

© 2009 OSA

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References

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  1. G. Genty, S. Coen, and J. M. Dudley, “Fiber Supercontinuum Sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1771–1785 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and C. G. Jørgensen, “High-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers by use of a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2163–2165 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Abrardi, S. Martin-Lopez, A. Carrasco-Sanz, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Optimized All-Fiber Supercontinuum Source at 1.3 μm Generated in a Stepwise Dispersion-Decreasing-Fiber Arrangement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2098–2102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “29 W High power CW supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5954–5962 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5954 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and Continuous-wave Supercontinuum Generation in Highly Nonlinear, Dispersion-shifted Fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 211–218 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Gonzalez-Herraez, S. Martın-Lopez, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum Generation using a Continuous-wave Raman Fiber Laser,” Opt. Commun. 226(1-6), 323–328 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1353–1355 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4372–4377 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-19-4372 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023902 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear Fiber Optics”, 4th edn. (Academic Press,San Diego, 2006).
  11. P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort Pulse Propagation, Pulse-break up and Fundamental Soliton Formation in a Single-mode Optical Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(11), 1938–1946 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Broeng, and M. Kaivola, “Spectral broadening of femtosecond pulses into continuum radiation in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 10(20), 1083–1098 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  13. A. E. El-taher, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “High Efficiency Supercontinuum Generation using Ultra-long Raman Fibre Cavities,” 34th ECOC Proceedings, v.1, p.11–12, (2008).

2008

2007

2006

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1353–1355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and Continuous-wave Supercontinuum Generation in Highly Nonlinear, Dispersion-shifted Fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Gonzalez-Herraez, S. Martın-Lopez, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum Generation using a Continuous-wave Raman Fiber Laser,” Opt. Commun. 226(1-6), 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1987

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort Pulse Propagation, Pulse-break up and Fundamental Soliton Formation in a Single-mode Optical Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(11), 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abeeluck, A. K.

A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and C. G. Jørgensen, “High-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers by use of a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2163–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and Continuous-wave Supercontinuum Generation in Highly Nonlinear, Dispersion-shifted Fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Abrardi, L.

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4372–4377 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-19-4372 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avdokhin, A. V.

Beaud, P.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort Pulse Propagation, Pulse-break up and Fundamental Soliton Formation in a Single-mode Optical Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(11), 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Carrasco-Sanz, A.

Chen, X.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coen, S.

Corredera, P.

L. Abrardi, S. Martin-Lopez, A. Carrasco-Sanz, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Optimized All-Fiber Supercontinuum Source at 1.3 μm Generated in a Stepwise Dispersion-Decreasing-Fiber Arrangement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2098–2102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Gonzalez-Herraez, S. Martın-Lopez, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum Generation using a Continuous-wave Raman Fiber Laser,” Opt. Commun. 226(1-6), 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cumberland, B. A.

Dudley, J. M.

Ellingham, T. J.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, G.

Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

L. Abrardi, S. Martin-Lopez, A. Carrasco-Sanz, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Optimized All-Fiber Supercontinuum Source at 1.3 μm Generated in a Stepwise Dispersion-Decreasing-Fiber Arrangement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2098–2102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Gonzalez-Herraez, S. Martın-Lopez, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum Generation using a Continuous-wave Raman Fiber Laser,” Opt. Commun. 226(1-6), 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Headley, C.

A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and C. G. Jørgensen, “High-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers by use of a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2163–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and Continuous-wave Supercontinuum Generation in Highly Nonlinear, Dispersion-shifted Fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hernanz, M. L.

L. Abrardi, S. Martin-Lopez, A. Carrasco-Sanz, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Optimized All-Fiber Supercontinuum Source at 1.3 μm Generated in a Stepwise Dispersion-Decreasing-Fiber Arrangement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2098–2102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Gonzalez-Herraez, S. Martın-Lopez, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum Generation using a Continuous-wave Raman Fiber Laser,” Opt. Commun. 226(1-6), 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hodel, W.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort Pulse Propagation, Pulse-break up and Fundamental Soliton Formation in a Single-mode Optical Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(11), 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Horche, P. R.

M. Gonzalez-Herraez, S. Martın-Lopez, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum Generation using a Continuous-wave Raman Fiber Laser,” Opt. Commun. 226(1-6), 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ibbotson, R.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jørgensen, C. G.

A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and C. G. Jørgensen, “High-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers by use of a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2163–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and Continuous-wave Supercontinuum Generation in Highly Nonlinear, Dispersion-shifted Fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaivola, M.

Lehtonen, M.

Ludvigsen, H.

Martin-Lopez, S.

L. Abrardi, S. Martin-Lopez, A. Carrasco-Sanz, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Optimized All-Fiber Supercontinuum Source at 1.3 μm Generated in a Stepwise Dispersion-Decreasing-Fiber Arrangement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2098–2102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Gonzalez-Herraez, S. Martın-Lopez, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum Generation using a Continuous-wave Raman Fiber Laser,” Opt. Commun. 226(1-6), 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and Continuous-wave Supercontinuum Generation in Highly Nonlinear, Dispersion-shifted Fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S. V.

Taylor, J. R.

Travers, J. C.

Turitsyn, S. K.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H. P.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort Pulse Propagation, Pulse-break up and Fundamental Soliton Formation in a Single-mode Optical Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(11), 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and Continuous-wave Supercontinuum Generation in Highly Nonlinear, Dispersion-shifted Fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysset, B.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort Pulse Propagation, Pulse-break up and Fundamental Soliton Formation in a Single-mode Optical Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(11), 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and Continuous-wave Supercontinuum Generation in Highly Nonlinear, Dispersion-shifted Fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort Pulse Propagation, Pulse-break up and Fundamental Soliton Formation in a Single-mode Optical Fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(11), 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

M. Gonzalez-Herraez, S. Martın-Lopez, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum Generation using a Continuous-wave Raman Fiber Laser,” Opt. Commun. 226(1-6), 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear Fiber Optics”, 4th edn. (Academic Press,San Diego, 2006).

A. E. El-taher, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “High Efficiency Supercontinuum Generation using Ultra-long Raman Fibre Cavities,” 34th ECOC Proceedings, v.1, p.11–12, (2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the supercontinuum Ultra-long Raman fiber cavities under study: a) with TrueWave (TW) fiber only; b) TrueWave (TW) fiber combined with high nonlinear fiber (HNLF); c) TrueWave (TW) fiber combined with single mode fiber (SMF). RFL: Raman fiber laser, FBG: fiber Bragg grating, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer, and PM: power meter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Supercontinuum spectra for Ultra-long Raman fiber cavity with TW fiber only (Fig. 1a) as a function of pump power a) up to power 2.05W b) from 2.27 to 3.5W

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical power spectra of the generated supercontinuum with and without the highly reflecting fiber Bragg gratings at the same pump power, 1.5W.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Supercontinuum spectra for an ultra-long Raman fiber cavity combining TW fiber with HNLF (Fig. 1b) as a function of pump power a) up to power 1.63W b) from 1.83 to 2.82W

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Supercontinuum spectra for an ultra-long Raman fiber cavity combining TW fiber with SMF (Fig. 1c) for two different pump powers a) 1.4W b) 1.75W and c) a comparison between the SC generated with TW only at 1.75W pump power with SC generated when TW combined with SMF at 1.4W pump power.

Equations (2)

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Ωs= (2γ Pfsexp(αL)/|β2|)1/2
TMI= 2π (|β2|/2γPfs)1/2

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