Abstract

We propose a new mode adapter which allows more efficient launching of the optical power selectively in the fundamental mode of a multimode waveguide. Theoretical and experimental results confirm that such a mode adapter increases the performances in terms of coupling efficiency, coupling tolerances and transmitted power with respect to previously proposed solutions. Proof of principle of device operation is obtained with a simple Coupled Mode Theory model. Experimental results are obtained at a wavelength of 840 nm in Lithium Niobate Soft Proton Exchanged waveguides and agree very well with theoretical predictions.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. K. Das, "Modal noise due to short-wavelength (780-900-nm) transmission in single-mode fibers optimized for 1300 nm," Appl. Opt. 27, 552-556 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Z. Haas and M. A. Santoro, "A mode-filtering scheme for improvement of the bandwidth-distance product in multimode fiber systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1125-1131 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Kumar, S. Ghadirli, and K. Thyagarajan, "Performance of a dual-mode-single-mode waveguide coupler as a modal filter," Appl. Opt. 31, 5092-5095 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, and K. Egashira, "Optical-mode filters using coupling between two nonidentical waveguides (ET)," Appl. Opt. 17, 486-490 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Kumar, U. K. Das, R. K. Varshney, and I. C. Goyal, "Design of a mode filter consisting of two dual-mode highly elliptical-core fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 34-38 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Han and J. J. Coleman, "Lateral-mode discrimination in ridge waveguides by misaligned total internal reflection mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 715-717 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Yajima, "Dielectric bypass waveguide mode order converter," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 482-487 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, "An analytic solution for mode coupling in optical waveguide branches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 16, 446-454 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. W. Lee and M. K. Chin, "Design of lateral-modes filter based on high-index contrast waveguide," Opt. Comm. 253, 87-94 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, "Modes of periodically segmented waveguides," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831-1838 (1993)
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. H. Chou, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, "Adiabatically tapered periodic segmentation of channel waveguides for mode-size transformation and fundamental mode excitation," Opt. Lett. 21, 794-796 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Ortega, R. M. De La Rue, and J. S. Aitchison, "Cutoff wavelength of periodically segmented waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol 16, 284-291 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. D. Stancil, "Kronig-Penney model for periodically segmented waveguides," Appl. Opt. 35, 4767-4771 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, "Soft-Proton-Exchange Tapers for Low Insertion-Loss LiNbO3 Devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588-1593 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Adiabatic theorem and continuous coupled-mode theory for efficient taper transitions in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66, 066608 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics, 2nd Ed., (Van Nostrand, 1982).

2007

D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, "Soft-Proton-Exchange Tapers for Low Insertion-Loss LiNbO3 Devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588-1593 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. W. Lee and M. K. Chin, "Design of lateral-modes filter based on high-index contrast waveguide," Opt. Comm. 253, 87-94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Adiabatic theorem and continuous coupled-mode theory for efficient taper transitions in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66, 066608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Ortega, R. M. De La Rue, and J. S. Aitchison, "Cutoff wavelength of periodically segmented waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol 16, 284-291 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Han and J. J. Coleman, "Lateral-mode discrimination in ridge waveguides by misaligned total internal reflection mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 715-717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, "Modes of periodically segmented waveguides," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831-1838 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Z. Haas and M. A. Santoro, "A mode-filtering scheme for improvement of the bandwidth-distance product in multimode fiber systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1125-1131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1990

A. Kumar, U. K. Das, R. K. Varshney, and I. C. Goyal, "Design of a mode filter consisting of two dual-mode highly elliptical-core fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 34-38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

1980

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, "An analytic solution for mode coupling in optical waveguide branches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 16, 446-454 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

H. Yajima, "Dielectric bypass waveguide mode order converter," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 482-487 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

1973

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

D. Ortega, R. M. De La Rue, and J. S. Aitchison, "Cutoff wavelength of periodically segmented waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol 16, 284-291 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M. A.

Aschieri, P.

D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, "Soft-Proton-Exchange Tapers for Low Insertion-Loss LiNbO3 Devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588-1593 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, "Soft-Proton-Exchange Tapers for Low Insertion-Loss LiNbO3 Devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588-1593 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bassi, P.

D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, "Soft-Proton-Exchange Tapers for Low Insertion-Loss LiNbO3 Devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588-1593 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Adiabatic theorem and continuous coupled-mode theory for efficient taper transitions in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66, 066608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, "An analytic solution for mode coupling in optical waveguide branches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 16, 446-454 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Castaldini, D.

D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, "Soft-Proton-Exchange Tapers for Low Insertion-Loss LiNbO3 Devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588-1593 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M. K.

C. W. Lee and M. K. Chin, "Design of lateral-modes filter based on high-index contrast waveguide," Opt. Comm. 253, 87-94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. H.

Coleman, J. J.

H. Han and J. J. Coleman, "Lateral-mode discrimination in ridge waveguides by misaligned total internal reflection mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 715-717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Das, S. K.

Das, U. K.

A. Kumar, U. K. Das, R. K. Varshney, and I. C. Goyal, "Design of a mode filter consisting of two dual-mode highly elliptical-core fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 34-38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

D. Ortega, R. M. De La Rue, and J. S. Aitchison, "Cutoff wavelength of periodically segmented waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol 16, 284-291 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M. P.

D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, "Soft-Proton-Exchange Tapers for Low Insertion-Loss LiNbO3 Devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588-1593 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Egashira, K.

Fejer, M. M.

Ghadirli, S.

Goyal, I. C.

A. Kumar, U. K. Das, R. K. Varshney, and I. C. Goyal, "Design of a mode filter consisting of two dual-mode highly elliptical-core fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 34-38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haas, Z.

Z. Haas and M. A. Santoro, "A mode-filtering scheme for improvement of the bandwidth-distance product in multimode fiber systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1125-1131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.

H. Han and J. J. Coleman, "Lateral-mode discrimination in ridge waveguides by misaligned total internal reflection mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 715-717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, A.

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, "Modes of periodically segmented waveguides," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831-1838 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Adiabatic theorem and continuous coupled-mode theory for efficient taper transitions in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66, 066608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Adiabatic theorem and continuous coupled-mode theory for efficient taper transitions in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66, 066608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Adiabatic theorem and continuous coupled-mode theory for efficient taper transitions in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66, 066608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, S. Ghadirli, and K. Thyagarajan, "Performance of a dual-mode-single-mode waveguide coupler as a modal filter," Appl. Opt. 31, 5092-5095 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, U. K. Das, R. K. Varshney, and I. C. Goyal, "Design of a mode filter consisting of two dual-mode highly elliptical-core fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 34-38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

C. W. Lee and M. K. Chin, "Design of lateral-modes filter based on high-index contrast waveguide," Opt. Comm. 253, 87-94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lidorikis, E.

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Adiabatic theorem and continuous coupled-mode theory for efficient taper transitions in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66, 066608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Milton, A. F.

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, "An analytic solution for mode coupling in optical waveguide branches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 16, 446-454 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, D.

D. Ortega, R. M. De La Rue, and J. S. Aitchison, "Cutoff wavelength of periodically segmented waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol 16, 284-291 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, M. A.

Z. Haas and M. A. Santoro, "A mode-filtering scheme for improvement of the bandwidth-distance product in multimode fiber systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1125-1131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M. A.

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Adiabatic theorem and continuous coupled-mode theory for efficient taper transitions in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66, 066608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stancil, D. D.

Tascu, S.

D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, "Soft-Proton-Exchange Tapers for Low Insertion-Loss LiNbO3 Devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588-1593 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Terui, H.

Thyagarajan, K.

Varshney, R. K.

A. Kumar, U. K. Das, R. K. Varshney, and I. C. Goyal, "Design of a mode filter consisting of two dual-mode highly elliptical-core fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 34-38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, Z.

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, "Modes of periodically segmented waveguides," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831-1838 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Yajima, H.

H. Yajima, "Dielectric bypass waveguide mode order converter," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 482-487 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol

D. Ortega, R. M. De La Rue, and J. S. Aitchison, "Cutoff wavelength of periodically segmented waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol 16, 284-291 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

Z. Haas and M. A. Santoro, "A mode-filtering scheme for improvement of the bandwidth-distance product in multimode fiber systems," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1125-1131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, U. K. Das, R. K. Varshney, and I. C. Goyal, "Design of a mode filter consisting of two dual-mode highly elliptical-core fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 34-38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, "Modes of periodically segmented waveguides," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831-1838 (1993)
[CrossRef]

D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, "Soft-Proton-Exchange Tapers for Low Insertion-Loss LiNbO3 Devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588-1593 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. Yajima, "Dielectric bypass waveguide mode order converter," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 482-487 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, "An analytic solution for mode coupling in optical waveguide branches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 16, 446-454 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Han and J. J. Coleman, "Lateral-mode discrimination in ridge waveguides by misaligned total internal reflection mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 715-717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm.

C. W. Lee and M. K. Chin, "Design of lateral-modes filter based on high-index contrast waveguide," Opt. Comm. 253, 87-94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Adiabatic theorem and continuous coupled-mode theory for efficient taper transitions in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66, 066608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics, 2nd Ed., (Van Nostrand, 1982).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the fabricated mode filter. Dashed regions: higher refractive index regions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effective index of the fundamental (solid line) and higher order (dashed line) modes in propagation through a cubic taper. The mode transformation is obtained with DC varying from 0.3 to 1 and L=0.2 mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Power evolution of the fundamental (P1, solid line) and higher order (P2, dashed lines) in the input and output tapers with L=0.9 mm (left) and 1.8 mm (right) when only the higher order mode is initially present.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated normalized fundamental (solid line) and higher order (dashed line) mode intensities at the output of the mode filter as a function of the taper lengths L for κ=4000 m-1 and for different ratios in the input power distribution. In the left part of the figure: black, red, blue, green curves refer respectively to 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of the total input power launched in the fundamental mode. In the right part, the colors refer to 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of the total input power launched in the fundamental mode.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmitted power measured as a function of the lateral displacement of the input objective for a continuous and two filtered WGs with taper length LA=0.6 mm (dashed line) and LB=1.6 mm (dotted line). Camera images confirm the single-mode behavior of the filtered waveguides. Symbols represent measured values; lines are for visual aid only.

Equations (2)

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dA0(z)dz=jA1(z)κ(z)exp(jΔβ(z)z)
dA1(z)dz=jA0(z)κ*(z)exp(jΔβ(z)z)

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