Abstract

We demonstrate that the transmission properties of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) across a rectangular groove in a metallic film can be described by an analytical model that treats the groove as a side-coupled cavity to propagating SPPs on the metal surface. The coupling efficiency to the groove is quantified by treating it as a truncated metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide. Finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) simulations and mode orthogonality relations are employed to derive the basic scattering coefficients that describe the interaction between the relevant modes in the system. The modeled SPP transmission and reflection intensities show excellent agreement with full-field simulations over a wide range of groove dimensions, validating this intuitive model. The model predicts the sharp transmission minima that occur whenever an incident SPP resonantly couples to the groove. We also for the first time show the importance of evanescent, reactive MDM SPP modes to the transmission behavior. SPPs that couple to this mode are resonantly enhanced upon reflection from the bottom of the groove, leading to high field intensities and sharp transmission minima across the groove. The resonant behavior exhibited by the grooves has a number of important device applications, including SPP mirrors, filters, and modulators.

© 2009 OSA

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2009

M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “How grooves reflect and confine surfaceplasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10385–10392 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Kocabaş, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Modal analysis and coupling in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and M. Gorkunov, “Theory of extraordinary light transmission through arrays of subwavelength slits,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 075106–075112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Control of surface plasmon generation efficiency by slit-width tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi,“Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–63 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Nikitin, F. Lopez-Tejeira, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional inhomogeneities,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and M. Gorkunov, “Eigenmodes for metal-dielectric light-transmitting nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125104–125111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: Propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(7), 1608–1615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, J. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407–035409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

F. López-Tejeira, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Scattering of surface plasmons by one-dimensional periodic nanoindented surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface-plasmon polariton scattering from a finite array of nanogrooves/ridges: Efficient mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(21), 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Fan, “Sharp asymmetric line shapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 908–910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Determination of guided and leaky modes in lossless and lossyplanar multilayer optical waveguides: reflection pole method andwavevector density method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 929–941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60(11), 8359–8367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1983

A. A. Maradudin, R. F. Wallis, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface polariton reflection and transmission at a barrier,” Solid State Commun. 46(6), 481–485 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. N. Economou, “Surface Plasmons in Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Anemogiannis, E.

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–63 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407–035409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi,“Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M.

R. Zia, J. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chandran, A.

R. Zia, J. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407–035409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Djurisic, A. B.

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi,“Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(21), 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

E. N. Economou, “Surface Plasmons in Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Elazar, J. M.

Eng, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. E. Kocabaş, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Modal analysis and coupling in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, “Sharp asymmetric line shapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 908–910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

García-Vidal, F. J.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Scattering of surface plasmons by one-dimensional periodic nanoindented surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(21), 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaylord, T. K.

Genet, C.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi,“Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

González, M. U.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: Propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gorkunov, M.

B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and M. Gorkunov, “Theory of extraordinary light transmission through arrays of subwavelength slits,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 075106–075112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and M. Gorkunov, “Eigenmodes for metal-dielectric light-transmitting nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125104–125111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grafström, S.

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(7), 1608–1615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Control of surface plasmon generation efficiency by slit-width tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, H. W.

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Control of surface plasmon generation efficiency by slit-width tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Control of surface plasmon generation efficiency by slit-width tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kocabas, S. E.

S. E. Kocabaş, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Modal analysis and coupling in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuttge, M.

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(7), 1608–1615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. G.

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Control of surface plasmon generation efficiency by slit-width tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(21), 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Tejeira, F.

A. Y. Nikitin, F. Lopez-Tejeira, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional inhomogeneities,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

López-Tejeira, F.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Scattering of surface plasmons by one-dimensional periodic nanoindented surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Majewski, M. L.

Maradudin, A. A.

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface-plasmon polariton scattering from a finite array of nanogrooves/ridges: Efficient mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60(11), 8359–8367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Maradudin, R. F. Wallis, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface polariton reflection and transmission at a barrier,” Solid State Commun. 46(6), 481–485 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

A. Y. Nikitin, F. Lopez-Tejeira, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional inhomogeneities,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Scattering of surface plasmons by one-dimensional periodic nanoindented surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(21), 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. A. B.

S. E. Kocabaş, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Modal analysis and coupling in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. Y.

A. Y. Nikitin, F. Lopez-Tejeira, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional inhomogeneities,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q.-H.

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Control of surface plasmon generation efficiency by slit-width tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podivilov, E.

B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and M. Gorkunov, “Theory of extraordinary light transmission through arrays of subwavelength slits,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 075106–075112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and M. Gorkunov, “Eigenmodes for metal-dielectric light-transmitting nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125104–125111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

Radko, I. P.

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F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
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J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

A. A. Maradudin, R. F. Wallis, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface polariton reflection and transmission at a barrier,” Solid State Commun. 46(6), 481–485 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and M. Gorkunov, “Theory of extraordinary light transmission through arrays of subwavelength slits,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 075106–075112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and M. Gorkunov, “Eigenmodes for metal-dielectric light-transmitting nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125104–125111 (2007).
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Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407–035409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

S. E. Kocabaş, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Modal analysis and coupling in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wallis, R. F.

A. A. Maradudin, R. F. Wallis, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface polariton reflection and transmission at a barrier,” Solid State Commun. 46(6), 481–485 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Fan, “Sharp asymmetric line shapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 908–910 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface-plasmon polariton scattering from a finite array of nanogrooves/ridges: Efficient mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Control of surface plasmon generation efficiency by slit-width tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, “Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1368–1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Mater. Today

R. Zia, J. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007).
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Phys. Rev. B

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407–035409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and M. Gorkunov, “Eigenmodes for metal-dielectric light-transmitting nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125104–125111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Kocabaş, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Modal analysis and coupling in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and M. Gorkunov, “Theory of extraordinary light transmission through arrays of subwavelength slits,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 075106–075112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: Propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60(11), 8359–8367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Nikitin, F. Lopez-Tejeira, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional inhomogeneities,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Scattering of surface plasmons by one-dimensional periodic nanoindented surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161405 (2005).
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F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(21), 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics. 1999: Wiley.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Full-field electromagnetic simulation of SPPs on metallic grooves and slits. The real value of the magnetic field, Hz , is plotted. εmetal = −10 and εd = 1. The groove and slits are all 0.16λ wide, where λ is the free space wavelength. The metal-dielectric interface is demarcated by the black dashed lines. (a) shows a SPP incident on a groove from the left. The depth is 0.48λ. (b) and (c) show a single interface SPP and a MDM SPP, respectively, incident on the mouth of a slit and are used to calculate scattering coefficients at the mouth of the groove. (d) shows a MDM SPP reflecting from the bottom of a groove, which is used to calculate a reflection coefficient. The incident SPPs have a Hz amplitude of unity along the metal-dielectric interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SPP power transmitted across and reflected from single grooves of different depth and width. (a) and (c) The transmission and reflection, respectively, are calculated from full field 2D FDFD simulations using Eq. (1). (b) and (d) Transmission and reflection, respectively, are calculated from the side-coupled MDM SPP cavity model. The black lines indicate the location of predicted MDM SPP resonances within the groove. Strong transmission minima are observed to be caused by MDM SPP resonances within the groove.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission amplitude (a) and phase (b) for square grooves (depth equal to width) of varying dimension. Transmission calculations from the FDFD simulation ( + green) show excellent agreement with the side-coupled MDM cavity model predictions (- blue).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plots of the real (a) and imaginary (b) parts of the propagation constant for symmetric (blue) and anti-symmetric (green) MDM SPP modes. εm = −10 and εd = 1. βmdm is normalized to the magnitude of the vacuum wavevector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scattering and reflection coefficients. (a) and (b) show the amplitude and phase of the scattering coefficients calculated at the mouth of a slit. The first number in the subscript refers to the mode that is scattered from and the second to the mode that is scattered into. 1 and 3 refer to the single interface SPPs on the left and right side respectively. 2+ and 2- refer to the field symmetric and field anti-symmetric MDM surface plasmons respectively. (c) and (d) show the reflection coefficient amplitude and phase as calculated from the bottom of an infinitely deep groove.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FDFD simulation of a SPP incident on a groove in a metallic film. The SPP is incident from the left and the absolute value of the magnetic field, abs(Hz ), is plotted for the case that εmetal = −10, and εi = 1. The metal-dielectric interface is demarcated by the white dashed lines, and the incident SPP has a field of unity there. The groove is 0.374λ wide and 0.62λ deep. A resonance is observed within the groove arising from the H-field anti-symmetric, reactive MDM mode and causes destructive interference with minimum transmission.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmitted and reflected SPP power across single grooves of varying dimension for Ag at λ = 875nm. εAg = 30.240 + 2.217i. (a) and (c) are full field simulations. (b) and (d) are calculations from the side-coupled MDM SPP cavity model. The black lines represent model calculated MDM SPP resonances. These resonances are dampened by loss, but the same general features and trends are still observable.

Equations (5)

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cmode=12S(Etotal×Hmode+Emode×Htotal)dASEmode×HmodedA,Etotal=modescmodeEmode
t=s13+js1(2j)s(2j)3rmdm,jeiβmdm,j2d1rmdm,js(2j)(2j)eiβmdm,j2d,r=s11+js1(2j)s(2j)1rmdm,jeiβmdm,j2d1rmdm,js(2j)(2j)eiβmdm,j2d
tan(kdw)+2i(kdkmεdεm)/(kd2εd2+km2εm2)=0,k=εβmdm2
Hz=(eikxreikx)eiky;Ey=kε(eikx+reikx)eiky;r=r'+ir'';r',r''Sx=12EyHz*=ike2kyε[i2e2k''xi2|r|2e2k''xr''cos(2k'x)+r'sin(2k'x)]
r=ZmZdZm+Zd,Zm=kmεm,Zd=kdεd,kd=εdk2

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