Abstract

In this paper, the timing jitter induced by the fiber dispersion in photonic A/D converters using time-wavelength interweaved sampling clocks generated by optical time-division-multiplexing (OTDM) with fiber delay lines is analyzed and effective bit loss is calculated. A compensation method is proposed to decrease the dispersion-induced jitter. Simulations are performed and the results show the validity of the proposed compensation method. An experimental demonstration is carried out to verify the theoretical expression derived.

© 2009 OSA

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References

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  1. J. U. Kang and R. D. Esman, “Demonstration of time interweaved photonic four-channel WDM sampler for hybrid analogue-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 35(1), 60–61 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Wu, M. Li, and B. Wang, at al., “An Approach to Generate Multi-wavelength Sampling Clock for Photonic A/D Converters,” The 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2009), Hong Kong, July 13–17, 2009.
  3. T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a Time- and Wavelength-Interleaved Photonic Sampler for Analog–Digital Conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. C. Valley, J. P. Hurrell, and G. A. Sefler, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters: fundamental and practical limits,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 96–106 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. F. Taylor, “An optical analog-to-digital converter—design and analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 210–216 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Gerd Kerser, Optical Fiber Communications, (Third Edition). (MCGraw-Hill Companies, New York, 2000).
  7. R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 17(4), 539–550 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. G Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Third Edition). (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).
  9. www.generalphotonics.com , Fiber Stretcher-FST-001-B, General Photonics Corp.
  10. www.optiphase.com , PZ1-Low-profile Fiber Stretcher, Optiphase, Inc.
  11. X. Li, L. Peng, S. Wang, Y.-C. Kim, and J. Chen, “A novel kind of programmable 3(n) feed-forward optical fiber true delay line based on SOA,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16760–16766 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2004

G. C. Valley, J. P. Hurrell, and G. A. Sefler, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters: fundamental and practical limits,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 96–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. U. Kang and R. D. Esman, “Demonstration of time interweaved photonic four-channel WDM sampler for hybrid analogue-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 35(1), 60–61 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a Time- and Wavelength-Interleaved Photonic Sampler for Analog–Digital Conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 17(4), 539–550 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1979

H. F. Taylor, “An optical analog-to-digital converter—design and analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 210–216 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Clark, T. R.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a Time- and Wavelength-Interleaved Photonic Sampler for Analog–Digital Conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a Time- and Wavelength-Interleaved Photonic Sampler for Analog–Digital Conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang and R. D. Esman, “Demonstration of time interweaved photonic four-channel WDM sampler for hybrid analogue-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 35(1), 60–61 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hurrell, J. P.

G. C. Valley, J. P. Hurrell, and G. A. Sefler, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters: fundamental and practical limits,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 96–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

J. U. Kang and R. D. Esman, “Demonstration of time interweaved photonic four-channel WDM sampler for hybrid analogue-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 35(1), 60–61 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a Time- and Wavelength-Interleaved Photonic Sampler for Analog–Digital Conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-C.

Li, X.

Peng, L.

Sefler, G. A.

G. C. Valley, J. P. Hurrell, and G. A. Sefler, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters: fundamental and practical limits,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 96–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

H. F. Taylor, “An optical analog-to-digital converter—design and analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 210–216 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, J. P. Hurrell, and G. A. Sefler, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters: fundamental and practical limits,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 96–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walden, R. H.

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 17(4), 539–550 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Electron. Lett.

J. U. Kang and R. D. Esman, “Demonstration of time interweaved photonic four-channel WDM sampler for hybrid analogue-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 35(1), 60–61 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. F. Taylor, “An optical analog-to-digital converter—design and analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 210–216 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 17(4), 539–550 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a Time- and Wavelength-Interleaved Photonic Sampler for Analog–Digital Conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

G. C. Valley, J. P. Hurrell, and G. A. Sefler, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters: fundamental and practical limits,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 96–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Wu, M. Li, and B. Wang, at al., “An Approach to Generate Multi-wavelength Sampling Clock for Photonic A/D Converters,” The 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2009), Hong Kong, July 13–17, 2009.

P. G Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Third Edition). (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).

www.generalphotonics.com , Fiber Stretcher-FST-001-B, General Photonics Corp.

www.optiphase.com , PZ1-Low-profile Fiber Stretcher, Optiphase, Inc.

Gerd Kerser, Optical Fiber Communications, (Third Edition). (MCGraw-Hill Companies, New York, 2000).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The principle diagram generating time-wavelength interweaved sampling clock (FRM: Faraday Rotator Mirror)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion-induced timing jitter

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between the effective bits and k

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between effective bits and number of channels

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between effective bits and number of channels for DSF-based OTDM

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurement of pulse intervals to determine Cj . (a) Output from the N/2th path of the OTDM before compensation. (b) Output from the N/2th path of the OTDM after compensation

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The measured stability of the designed mechanical fiber stretcher

Equations (15)

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λj=λ1+(j1)Δλ,1jM
δj=δ1+(j1)MNRs,1jM
Li=L1+(i1)ΔL,1iN
t¯ij=iNRs+δj,1iN,1jM
tij=Liv(λj)+δj',1iN,1jM
λj=λs+(js)Δλ,1jM,1sM
Δτ=ΔLv(λj)ΔLv(λs)ΔLD(λ(j+s)/2)Δλ(js)
τij=tijtij¯LiD(λ(j+s)/2)Δλ(js)+(δj'δj)=[L1+(i1)ΔL]D(λ(j+s)/2)Δλ(js)+(δj'δj),1iN,1jM
Neff=log2(1/3πfσj)
σjd=i=1Nj=1M|τij|2MN
σj=(σjd)2+(σjs)2
D(λ)=2πcλ2β2
Cjt=CCj
τij'=LiD(λj/2+M/4)Δλ(jM2)Cj
Cj=LkD(λj/2+M/4)Δλ(jM2),1kN

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