Abstract

It is shown theoretically and experimentally that for the specific case of an equidistant frequency spacing of semiconductor laser modes, signals similar to terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy (TDS) can be detected in a standard photomixer setup. This quasi TDS system approach enables for both, time and frequency domain data processing. Measurements with a THz system which is based on a low cost multimode laser diode are presented. The system exhibits a bandwidth of 600 GHz and can be applied to the classical THz TDS application scenarios.

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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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  36. C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  38. M. Reid and R. Fedosejevs, “Terahertz birefringence and attenuation properties of wood and paper,” Appl. Opt. 45(12), 2766–2772 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  39. F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221911 (2006).
  40. C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2037–2044 (2009).
    [PubMed]

2009 (6)

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “A hybrid time-domain model for pulsed terahertz dipole antennas,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 09001, 4 (2009).

M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Fast and accurate thickness determination of unknown materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” J. of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 30(7), 762–769 (2009).

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing Sub-100µm Samples with Transmission Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, S. Meloni, and J. Dik, “TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3407–3416 (2009).
[PubMed]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2037–2044 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (7)

R. Wilk, F. Breitfeld, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Continuous wave terahertz spectrometer as a noncontact thickness measuring device,” Appl. Opt. 47(16), 3023–3026 (2008).
[PubMed]

C. D. Stoik, M. J. Bohn, and J. L. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using transmissive terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17039–17051 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. A. Seo, A. J. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, K. J. Ahn, Q. H. Park, P. C. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Near field imaging of terahertz focusing onto rectangular apertures,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20484–20489 (2008).
[PubMed]

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (4)

J. Mangeney, A. Merigault, N. Zerounian, P. Crozat, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Continuous wave terahertz generation up to 2 THz by photomixing on ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As at 1.55 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241102 (2007).

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electronics Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).

2006 (3)

2005 (4)

N. C. van der Valk, W. A. M. van der Marel, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2802–2804 (2005).
[PubMed]

T. Yasui, T. Yasuda, K. Sawanaka, and T. Araki, “Terahertz paintmeter for noncontact monitoring of thickness and drying progress in paint film,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6849–6856 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–280 (2005).

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 034106 (2005).

2004 (3)

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Tunable CW-THz system with a log-periodic photoconductive emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 48(10-11), 2041–2045 (2004).

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 725–729 (2004).

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).

2003 (1)

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).

2002 (1)

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J. L. Coutaz, “Highly precise determination of optical constants and sample thickness in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38(2), 409–415 (1999).

O. Morikawa, M. Tonouchi, and M. Hangyo, “Sub-THz spectroscopic system using a multimode laser diode and photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3772–3774 (1999).

1998 (2)

S. Hunsche, D. M. Mittelman, M. Koch, and M. C. Nuss, “New Dimensions in T-Ray Imaging,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 81-C(2), 269–276 (1998).

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).

1997 (1)

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 559 (1997).

1996 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss,“T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).

1995 (1)

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 (1995).

1993 (1)

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, and K. A. McIntosh, “Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1480–1484 (1993).

1990 (1)

Adam, A. J.

Adam, A. J. L.

Ahn, K. J.

Aizpurua, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[PubMed]

Araki, T.

Baraniuk, R. G.

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–280 (2005).

Bastiaans, G. J.

Bauer, T.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).

Blackshire, J. L.

Blary, K.

J. Mangeney, A. Merigault, N. Zerounian, P. Crozat, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Continuous wave terahertz generation up to 2 THz by photomixing on ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As at 1.55 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241102 (2007).

Bocquet, R.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 725–729 (2004).

Bohn, M. J.

Breitenstein, B.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[PubMed]

Breitfeld, F.

Brown, E. R.

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 (1995).

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, and K. A. McIntosh, “Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1480–1484 (1993).

Calawa, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).

Chen, Y.

Cho, G. C.

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).

Coutaz, J. L.

Crozat, P.

J. Mangeney, A. Merigault, N. Zerounian, P. Crozat, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Continuous wave terahertz generation up to 2 THz by photomixing on ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As at 1.55 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241102 (2007).

Cumming, D. R. S.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 034106 (2005).

Czasch, S.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).

Deibel, J.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).

Deninger, A. J.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[PubMed]

Dennis, C. L.

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 (1995).

Dik, J.

Dinatale, W. F.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).

Dorney, T. D.

Drysdale, T. D.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 034106 (2005).

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).

Duling, I. N.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).

Duvillaret, L.

Evans, M. J.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 034106 (2005).

Ewert, U.

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221911 (2006).

Exter, M.

Ezdi, K.

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “A hybrid time-domain model for pulsed terahertz dipole antennas,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 09001, 4 (2009).

Fattinger, C.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–280 (2005).

Fedosejevs, R.

Feiginov, M.

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Tunable CW-THz system with a log-periodic photoconductive emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 48(10-11), 2041–2045 (2004).

Fukunaga, K.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electronics Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).

Garet, F.

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–280 (2005).

Göbel, T.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[PubMed]

Gregory, I. S.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 034106 (2005).

Grischkowsky, D.

Hangyo, M.

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).

O. Morikawa, M. Tonouchi, and M. Hangyo, “Sub-THz spectroscopic system using a multimode laser diode and photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3772–3774 (1999).

Hartnagel, H. L.

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Tunable CW-THz system with a log-periodic photoconductive emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 48(10-11), 2041–2045 (2004).

Hasek, T.

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221911 (2006).

Hayashi, S.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electronics Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).

Heinen, B.

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “A hybrid time-domain model for pulsed terahertz dipole antennas,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 09001, 4 (2009).

Hillenbrand, R.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[PubMed]

Hindle, F.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 725–729 (2004).

Hosako, I.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electronics Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–280 (2005).

Huber, A. J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[PubMed]

Hunsche, S.

S. Hunsche, D. M. Mittelman, M. Koch, and M. C. Nuss, “New Dimensions in T-Ray Imaging,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 81-C(2), 269–276 (1998).

Isu, T.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).

Jackson, J. B.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss,“T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).

Jansen, C.

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing Sub-100µm Samples with Transmission Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).

Jördens, C.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[PubMed]

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “A hybrid time-domain model for pulsed terahertz dipole antennas,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 09001, 4 (2009).

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2037–2044 (2009).
[PubMed]

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).

Kan, H.

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).

Kang, J. H.

Keiding, S.

Keilmann, F.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kersting, R.

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).

Kim, D. S.

Kinder, T.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[PubMed]

Köberle, M.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[PubMed]

Koch, M.

M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Fast and accurate thickness determination of unknown materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” J. of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 30(7), 762–769 (2009).

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing Sub-100µm Samples with Transmission Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[PubMed]

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “A hybrid time-domain model for pulsed terahertz dipole antennas,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 09001, 4 (2009).

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2037–2044 (2009).
[PubMed]

R. Wilk, F. Breitfeld, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Continuous wave terahertz spectrometer as a noncontact thickness measuring device,” Appl. Opt. 47(16), 3023–3026 (2008).
[PubMed]

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 47(3), 037003 (2008).

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221911 (2006).

S. Hunsche, D. M. Mittelman, M. Koch, and M. C. Nuss, “New Dimensions in T-Ray Imaging,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 81-C(2), 269–276 (1998).

Krumbholz, N.

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “A hybrid time-domain model for pulsed terahertz dipole antennas,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 09001, 4 (2009).

Lampin, J. F.

J. Mangeney, A. Merigault, N. Zerounian, P. Crozat, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Continuous wave terahertz generation up to 2 THz by photomixing on ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As at 1.55 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241102 (2007).

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 725–729 (2004).

Lee, J. W.

Leonhardt, R.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).

Lippens, D.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 725–729 (2004).

Lison, F.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[PubMed]

Liu, H. B.

Löffler, T.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).

Mangeney, J.

J. Mangeney, A. Merigault, N. Zerounian, P. Crozat, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Continuous wave terahertz generation up to 2 THz by photomixing on ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As at 1.55 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241102 (2007).

Matsuura, S.

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 559 (1997).

Matton, S.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 725–729 (2004).

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 (1995).

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, and K. A. McIntosh, “Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1480–1484 (1993).

Meissner, P.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Tunable CW-THz system with a log-periodic photoconductive emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 48(10-11), 2041–2045 (2004).

Meloni, S.

Mendis, R.

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Tunable CW-THz system with a log-periodic photoconductive emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 48(10-11), 2041–2045 (2004).

Menu, M.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).

Merigault, A.

J. Mangeney, A. Merigault, N. Zerounian, P. Crozat, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Continuous wave terahertz generation up to 2 THz by photomixing on ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As at 1.55 μm wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241102 (2007).

Mikulics, M.

Missous, M.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 034106 (2005).

Mittelman, D. M.

S. Hunsche, D. M. Mittelman, M. Koch, and M. C. Nuss, “New Dimensions in T-Ray Imaging,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 81-C(2), 269–276 (1998).

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).

T. D. Dorney, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Material parameter estimation with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(7), 1562–1571 (2001).

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss,“T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).

Molvar, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).

Morikawa, O.

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).

O. Morikawa, M. Tonouchi, and M. Hangyo, “Sub-THz spectroscopic system using a multimode laser diode and photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3772–3774 (1999).

Mouret, G.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 725–729 (2004).

Mourou, G. A.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).

Mourou, M.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).

Müller-Wirts, T.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[PubMed]

Nichols, K. B.

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 (1995).

Nuss, M. C.

S. Hunsche, D. M. Mittelman, M. Koch, and M. C. Nuss, “New Dimensions in T-Ray Imaging,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 81-C(2), 269–276 (1998).

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss,“T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).

Ogawa, Y.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electronics Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–280 (2005).

Park, Q. H.

Peytavit, E.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, E. Peytavit, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, “Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 725–729 (2004).

Planken, P. C.

Planken, P. C. M.

Quast, H.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).

Reid, M.

Richter, H.

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221911 (2006).

Roggenbuck, A.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[PubMed]

Roskos, H. G.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).

Rutz, F.

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221911 (2006).

Sakai, K.

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 559 (1997).

Sawanaka, K.

Scheller, M.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2037–2044 (2009).
[PubMed]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. Scheller, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Analyzing Sub-100µm Samples with Transmission Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1304–1306 (2009).

M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Fast and accurate thickness determination of unknown materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” J. of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 30(7), 762–769 (2009).

Schönherr, D.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[PubMed]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–280 (2005).

Selmar, D.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[PubMed]

Seo, M. A.

Shibuya, K.

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).

Siebert, K. J.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).

Sigmund, J.

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Tunable CW-THz system with a log-periodic photoconductive emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 48(10-11), 2041–2045 (2004).

Smith, F. W.

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, and K. A. McIntosh, “Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1480–1484 (1993).

Stoik, C. D.

Sydlo, C.

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Tunable CW-THz system with a log-periodic photoconductive emitter,” Solid-State Electron. 48(10-11), 2041–2045 (2004).

Tani, M.

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 559 (1997).

Teramura, S.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).

Thomson, M.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).

Tomita, N.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194–5196 (2004).

Tonouchi, M.

O. Morikawa, M. Tonouchi, and M. Hangyo, “Sub-THz spectroscopic system using a multimode laser diode and photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3772–3774 (1999).

Tribe, W. R.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 034106 (2005).

van der Marel, W. A. M.

van der Valk, N. C.

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).

Vieweg, N.

K. Ezdi, B. Heinen, C. Jördens, N. Vieweg, N. Krumbholz, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “A hybrid time-domain model for pulsed terahertz dipole antennas,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 09001, 4 (2009).

Whitaker, J. F.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).

Wichmann, M.

Wiesauer, K.

Wilk, R.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The theoretical waveforms for the case of three THz frequencies (50, 350 and 450GHz) (left) and multiple frequencies (25 to 375GHz in 25GHz steps) (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The generated difference frequencies Δf interfere constructively in the case of equidistant mode spacing of the laser modes. For this example, the frequency component at 100GHz exhibits an amplification of three and the one at 200 GHz is two times amplified.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated waveforms for a different number of modes M. The equidistant frequency spacing is 25GHz and the free carrier lifetime 250fs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The spectrum of the multi mode cw laser diode utilized to gate the antennas. The frequency difference between the modes of 1THz is visualized.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the quasi time domain spectrometer: The laser beam is guided over the Mirrors M1 to M3 and focused onto the emitter and detector antenna. The THz wave are collimated and focused by four off axis parabolic mirrors P1 to P4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The time domain waveform obtained from the system. The signals period TR is 41ps. The dashed lines indicate the time window exploited to determine the spectrum in Fig. 7 (right).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The THz spectrum of the system for a time window of 82ps (left) and 41ps (right).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The waveform from the measurement on a HR Si wafer. The pulse is delayed and its amplitudes is reduced compared to the reference signal. In addition, FP echo pulses occur.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Left: Experimental THz signal for the HR SI measurement together with the simulation based on a time domain algorithm to determine the thickness and the refractive index simultaneously. Right: The refractive index of HR Si extracted with a frequency domain algorithm from the measured data.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measurements results of the detached leafs monitoring: The water loss of the leaf induces an increase of the pulses amplitude (left) and a reduced delay of the pulses maxima (right).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Left: The measured refractive index of the LCP sample for the fast and the slow axis. Right: The waveform of the LCP measurements parallel and perpendicular to the slow axis.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The measured and simulated waveform for an orientation of 38° (left) and 62° (right).

Equations (13)

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ETHz(t)δδtIE(t)δδtGE(t)δδtnE(t,POpt,E(t)).
nE(t)dt=ΩEPOpt,E(t)nE(t)τ,
nE(t)=ΩEτPOpt,E(t)¯(1+sin(ωt)1+ω2τ2).
POpt,E(t)[m=1M(Em(t))]2,
POpt,E(t)[E1sin(ω1t+ϕ1)+E2sin(ω2t+ϕ2)+E3sin(ω3t+ϕ3)]2.
ETHz(t)Δω12AE(Δω12)E1E2cos(Δω12t+ϕ1ϕ2)+Δω13AE(Δω13)E1E3cos(Δω23t+ϕ1ϕ3)+Δω23AE(Δω23)E2E3cos(Δω23t+ϕ2ϕ3),
Δωij:=ωiωj.
ID(ΔX)ETHZ(tΔXc0)GD(t)dt,
ID(ΔX)=Δω12A(Δω12)P1P2cos(ΔXc0Δω12)+Δω13A(Δω13)P1P3cos(ΔXc0Δω13)+Δω23A(Δω23)P2P3cos(ΔXc0Δω23),
ID(ΔX)=Δω12A(Δω12)P1P2cos(ΔXc0Δω12+ϕ12)+Δω13A(Δω13)P1P3cos(ΔXc0Δω13+ϕ13)+Δω23A(Δω23)P2P3cos(ΔXc0Δω23+ϕ23).
ID(ΔX)=m=1M1n=m+1MΔωmnA(Δωmn)PmPncos(ΔXc0Δωmn+ϕmn).
ID(Δω)P2M2,
ID(ΔX)=m=1M1(Mm)M2(2πmΔf)A(2πmΔf)P2cos(ΔXc02πmΔf+ϕm).

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