Abstract

We analyze the macroscopic effects which are responsible for producing clean isolated pulses lasting few hundreds of attoseconds when starting from multi-cycle fundamental pulses. In particular, we consider a polarization gating scheme and show that, at high fundamental peak intensities, in the range 0.7-1 PWcm−2, it usually produces three-four main attosecond pulses of radiation at single dipole level, just located in the leading edge of the laser pulse. We describe the physical mechanisms contributing to the formation of a single attosecond pulse by using a three dimensional non-adiabatic model and a quantum trajectory phase calculation. An analysis of the scheme optimization and stability against various parameters is performed in view of an experimental scheme implementation.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. H. Bucksbaum, “The future of attosecond spectroscopy,” Science 317(5839), 766–769 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Baum and A. H. Zewail, “Attosecond electron pulses for 4D diffraction and microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(47), 18409–18414 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust cerrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time-gated high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043804 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Q. Li, E. Moon, and Z. H. Chang, “Effects of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet spectra from double optical gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Altucci, R. Esposito, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Single isolated attosecond pulse from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2943–2945 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  21. C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).
  22. V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043828 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Sansone, “Quantum path analysis of isolated attosecond pulse generation by polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053410 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. Tosa, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “High-order harmonic generation by chirped and self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 063807 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).
  27. D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, “Ionization by few-cycle pulses: Tracing the electron orbits,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061404 (2005) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3188–3190 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), R30–R33 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, “Quantum path analysis of isolated attosecond pulse generation by polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Q. Li, E. Moon, and Z. H. Chang, “Effects of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet spectra from double optical gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, R. Esposito, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Single isolated attosecond pulse from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2943–2945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Bucksbaum, “The future of attosecond spectroscopy,” Science 317(5839), 766–769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum and A. H. Zewail, “Attosecond electron pulses for 4D diffraction and microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(47), 18409–18414 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust cerrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3188–3190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, “Ionization by few-cycle pulses: Tracing the electron orbits,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061404 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

V. Tosa, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “High-order harmonic generation by chirped and self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 063807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time-gated high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), R30–R33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

C. Altucci, R. Esposito, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Single isolated attosecond pulse from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2943–2945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Auge, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baum, P.

P. Baum and A. H. Zewail, “Attosecond electron pulses for 4D diffraction and microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(47), 18409–18414 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, “Ionization by few-cycle pulses: Tracing the electron orbits,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061404 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benis, E. P.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

P. H. Bucksbaum, “The future of attosecond spectroscopy,” Science 317(5839), 766–769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caumes, J. P.

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, A. L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cha, Y. H.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), R30–R33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z. H.

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Q. Li, E. Moon, and Z. H. Chang, “Effects of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet spectra from double optical gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charalambidis, D.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chipperfield, L. E.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust cerrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), R30–R33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Constant, E.

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time-gated high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delfin, C.

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Descamps, D.

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time-gated high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Echenique, P. M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elouga, L.

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, R.

Ferencz, K.

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3188–3190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gilbertson, S.

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Q. Li, E. Moon, and Z. H. Chang, “Effects of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet spectra from double optical gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haworth, C. A.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust cerrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendel, S.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, K. H.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalpouzos, C.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), R30–R33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. T.

V. Tosa, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “High-order harmonic generation by chirped and self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 063807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I. J.

V. Tosa, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “High-order harmonic generation by chirped and self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 063807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. T.

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, P. L.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust cerrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Krausz, F.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D. G.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C. Q.

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Q. Li, E. Moon, and Z. H. Chang, “Effects of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet spectra from double optical gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust cerrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mashiko, H.

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Q. Li, E. Moon, and Z. H. Chang, “Effects of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet spectra from double optical gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mercer, I.

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mével, E.

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time-gated high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, D. B.

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, “Ionization by few-cycle pulses: Tracing the electron orbits,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061404 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, E.

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Q. Li, E. Moon, and Z. H. Chang, “Effects of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet spectra from double optical gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, N.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), R30–R33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Tosa, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “High-order harmonic generation by chirped and self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 063807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, “Ionization by few-cycle pulses: Tracing the electron orbits,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061404 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Plumridge, J.

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time-gated high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. S.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust cerrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roos, L.

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), R30–R33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, “Quantum path analysis of isolated attosecond pulse generation by polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3188–3190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, H. J.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Skantzakis, E.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sola, L. J.

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starczewski, T.

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strelkov, V.

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

Szipöcs, R.

Tcherbakoff, O.

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time-gated high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tisch, J. W. G.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust cerrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosa, V.

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, R. Esposito, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Single isolated attosecond pulse from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2943–2945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Tosa, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “High-order harmonic generation by chirped and self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 063807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsakiris, G. D.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, T.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

C. Altucci, R. Esposito, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Single isolated attosecond pulse from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2943–2945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahlström, C.-G.

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), R30–R33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Westerwalbesloh, T.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zewail, A. H.

P. Baum and A. H. Zewail, “Attosecond electron pulses for 4D diffraction and microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(47), 18409–18414 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Q. Li, E. Moon, and Z. H. Chang, “Effects of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet spectra from double optical gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (4)

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust cerrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3(12), 846–850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (9)

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, I. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Temporal phase control of soft-x-ray harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), R30–R33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, “Ionization by few-cycle pulses: Tracing the electron orbits,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061404 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, “Quantum path analysis of isolated attosecond pulse generation by polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Tosa, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “High-order harmonic generation by chirped and self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 063807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Tcherbakoff, E. Mével, D. Descamps, J. Plumridge, and E. Constant, “Time-gated high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of nonadiabatic blueshift of high harmonics in an intense femtosecond laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(19), 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

P. Baum and A. H. Zewail, “Attosecond electron pulses for 4D diffraction and microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(47), 18409–18414 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Bucksbaum, “The future of attosecond spectroscopy,” Science 317(5839), 766–769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Other (2)

D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063816(R) (2006).

C. Altucci, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, “Beyond the single-atom response in isolated attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 061401(R) (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Final near field generated by the proposed scheme (black thick line) The on-axis electron fraction at the entrance (red solid line) and exit (blue solid line) of the interaction region, as well as the field ellipticity ε(t) (dot line) are also plotted. (b) Time dependence of the single dipole emitted on-axis at different distances of propagation, as specified in the legend. Three main bursts, labeled B1, B2, and B3 are emitted but only B1 survives after propagation. The field intensity (in PWcm−2) on x-axis is also shown by the red thick line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phases of the trajectories generating H23 on-axis along the propagation direction. Short and long trajectories contributing to the most intense bursts in Fig. 1(b)., emitted at t=−3.1T0 (B1) and t=−2.6T0 (B2) are included. The inset shows the extension of the trajectories generating the harmonics from H11 to H41.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrogram of the harmonic field producing the B1 burst: (a) near field for the on-axis and 20 μm off-axis emission, (b) on-axis far field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The near field obtained assuming different degrees of chirp variation along the radial coordinate. The upper pulse shows the far field obtained in constant chirp conditions, by placing a 1.5 mm iris at 0.5 m distance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The time dependence of the near field (black solid line) as compared to the similar signal obtained by modeling the polarization gate method proposed in [14] (red dotted line). Note the amplifying scale factor applied to the later signal. The FWHM durations are also mentioned.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ey(t,r,z)=E0yexp[1 .39(tTdτp)2]sin[ω0(tTd)+2πLλn2I(tTd)ζ(r,z)+φ0y].
2E(r,z,t)1c22E(r,z,t)t2=ω2c2(1ηeff2)E(r,z,t),
α(t)α(t')t't=p[p+A(t)]2=2Ip[p+A(t')]2=2(qωIp),
ϕk(q)=qω0tk'tktk'([A(t")A(t)]22+Ip)dt",

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