Abstract

To extend soft x-ray microscopy to a resolution of order 10 nm or better, we developed a new nanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. The new process, based on the double patterning technique, has enabled us to fabricate high quality gold zone plates with 12 nm outer zones. Testing of the zone plate with the full-field transmission x-ray microscope, XM-1, in Berkeley, showed that the lens clearly resolved 12 nm lines and spaces. This result represents a significant step towards 10 nm resolution and beyond.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M.-Y. Im, L. Bocklage, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Direct observation of stochastic domain-wall depinning in magnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(14), 147204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Harutyunyan, A. P. Kirchheim, P. J. M. Monteiro, A. P. Aivazyan, and P. Fischer, “Investigation of early growth of calcium hydroxide crystals in cement solution by soft X-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(4), 962–969 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P.J.M. Monteiro, A.P. Kirchheim, S. Chae, P. Fischer, A.A. MacDowell, E. Schaible, and H.R. Wenk “Characterizing the Nano and Micro Structure of Concrete to Improve its Durability” Cem. Concr. Compos. (2009) (in print).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol. 162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bocklage, B. Krueger, R. Eiselt, M. Bolte, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Time-resolved imaging of current-induced domain-wall oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 78(18), 180405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kasai, P. Fischer, M.-Y. Im, K. Yamada, Y. Nakatani, K. Kobayashi, H. Kohno, and T. Ono, “Real-time X-ray imaging of current-induced resonant motion of a vortex core in a ferromagnetic disk,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 237203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy of nanomagnetism,” Mater. Today 9(1-2), 26–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Langford and C. Clinton, “In situ lift-out using a FIB-SEM system,” Micron 35(7), 607–611 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. Ha, and J. A. Liddle, “Sub-pixel alignment for direct-write electron beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 74–79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201( 3), 395–403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. C. B. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils,” Science 286(5443), 1335–1337 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Abbey, B.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aivazyan, A. P.

V. S. Harutyunyan, A. P. Kirchheim, P. J. M. Monteiro, A. P. Aivazyan, and P. Fischer, “Investigation of early growth of calcium hydroxide crystals in cement solution by soft X-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(4), 962–969 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy of nanomagnetism,” Mater. Today 9(1-2), 26–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. Ha, and J. A. Liddle, “Sub-pixel alignment for direct-write electron beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 74–79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy of nanomagnetism,” Mater. Today 9(1-2), 26–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajt, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R.

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bocklage, L.

M.-Y. Im, L. Bocklage, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Direct observation of stochastic domain-wall depinning in magnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(14), 147204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bocklage, B. Krueger, R. Eiselt, M. Bolte, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Time-resolved imaging of current-induced domain-wall oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 78(18), 180405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bogan, M. J.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bolte, M.

L. Bocklage, B. Krueger, R. Eiselt, M. Bolte, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Time-resolved imaging of current-induced domain-wall oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 78(18), 180405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boutet, S.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. T.

S. C. B. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils,” Science 286(5443), 1335–1337 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalleri, A.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chae, S.

P.J.M. Monteiro, A.P. Kirchheim, S. Chae, P. Fischer, A.A. MacDowell, E. Schaible, and H.R. Wenk “Characterizing the Nano and Micro Structure of Concrete to Improve its Durability” Cem. Concr. Compos. (2009) (in print).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy of nanomagnetism,” Mater. Today 9(1-2), 26–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Gleber, J. Thieme, W. Chao, and P. Fischer “Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions” J. Microsc. (in print).
[PubMed]

Chao, W. L.

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charalambous, P.

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. N.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clinton, C.

R. M. Langford and C. Clinton, “In situ lift-out using a FIB-SEM system,” Micron 35(7), 607–611 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, C.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, M. D.

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denbeaux, G.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201( 3), 395–403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, M.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Düsterer, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eberhardt, W.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehrke, H.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eisebitt, S.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eiselt, R.

L. Bocklage, B. Krueger, R. Eiselt, M. Bolte, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Time-resolved imaging of current-induced domain-wall oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 78(18), 180405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Etkin, L. D.

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol. 162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, P.

P.J.M. Monteiro, A.P. Kirchheim, S. Chae, P. Fischer, A.A. MacDowell, E. Schaible, and H.R. Wenk “Characterizing the Nano and Micro Structure of Concrete to Improve its Durability” Cem. Concr. Compos. (2009) (in print).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Harutyunyan, A. P. Kirchheim, P. J. M. Monteiro, A. P. Aivazyan, and P. Fischer, “Investigation of early growth of calcium hydroxide crystals in cement solution by soft X-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(4), 962–969 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M.-Y. Im, L. Bocklage, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Direct observation of stochastic domain-wall depinning in magnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(14), 147204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kasai, P. Fischer, M.-Y. Im, K. Yamada, Y. Nakatani, K. Kobayashi, H. Kohno, and T. Ono, “Real-time X-ray imaging of current-induced resonant motion of a vortex core in a ferromagnetic disk,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 237203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bocklage, B. Krueger, R. Eiselt, M. Bolte, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Time-resolved imaging of current-induced domain-wall oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 78(18), 180405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy of nanomagnetism,” Mater. Today 9(1-2), 26–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Gleber, J. Thieme, W. Chao, and P. Fischer “Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions” J. Microsc. (in print).
[PubMed]

Frank, M.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gleber, S.-C.

S.-C. Gleber, J. Thieme, W. Chao, and P. Fischer “Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions” J. Microsc. (in print).
[PubMed]

Ha, D.

E. H. Anderson, D. Ha, and J. A. Liddle, “Sub-pixel alignment for direct-write electron beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 74–79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hajdu, J.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hamamoto, D.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201( 3), 395–403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harteneck, B.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harteneck, B. D.

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harutyunyan, V. S.

V. S. Harutyunyan, A. P. Kirchheim, P. J. M. Monteiro, A. P. Aivazyan, and P. Fischer, “Investigation of early growth of calcium hydroxide crystals in cement solution by soft X-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(4), 962–969 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hau-Riege, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hau-Riege, S. P.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hellwig, O.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howells, M. R.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Im, M.-Y.

M.-Y. Im, L. Bocklage, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Direct observation of stochastic domain-wall depinning in magnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(14), 147204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kasai, P. Fischer, M.-Y. Im, K. Yamada, Y. Nakatani, K. Kobayashi, H. Kohno, and T. Ono, “Real-time X-ray imaging of current-induced resonant motion of a vortex core in a ferromagnetic disk,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 237203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, L.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201( 3), 395–403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kasai, S.

S. Kasai, P. Fischer, M.-Y. Im, K. Yamada, Y. Nakatani, K. Kobayashi, H. Kohno, and T. Ono, “Real-time X-ray imaging of current-induced resonant motion of a vortex core in a ferromagnetic disk,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 237203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.-H.

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy of nanomagnetism,” Mater. Today 9(1-2), 26–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kirchheim, A. P.

V. S. Harutyunyan, A. P. Kirchheim, P. J. M. Monteiro, A. P. Aivazyan, and P. Fischer, “Investigation of early growth of calcium hydroxide crystals in cement solution by soft X-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(4), 962–969 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kirchheim, A.P.

P.J.M. Monteiro, A.P. Kirchheim, S. Chae, P. Fischer, A.A. MacDowell, E. Schaible, and H.R. Wenk “Characterizing the Nano and Micro Structure of Concrete to Improve its Durability” Cem. Concr. Compos. (2009) (in print).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

S. Kasai, P. Fischer, M.-Y. Im, K. Yamada, Y. Nakatani, K. Kobayashi, H. Kohno, and T. Ono, “Real-time X-ray imaging of current-induced resonant motion of a vortex core in a ferromagnetic disk,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 237203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohno, H.

S. Kasai, P. Fischer, M.-Y. Im, K. Yamada, Y. Nakatani, K. Kobayashi, H. Kohno, and T. Ono, “Real-time X-ray imaging of current-induced resonant motion of a vortex core in a ferromagnetic disk,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 237203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krueger, B.

L. Bocklage, B. Krueger, R. Eiselt, M. Bolte, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Time-resolved imaging of current-induced domain-wall oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 78(18), 180405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langford, R. M.

R. M. Langford and C. Clinton, “In situ lift-out using a FIB-SEM system,” Micron 35(7), 607–611 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larabell, C. A.

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol. 162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201( 3), 395–403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gros, M. A.

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol. 162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. Y.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Legros, M. A.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201( 3), 395–403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lelièvre, S. A.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201( 3), 395–403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, T. M.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy of nanomagnetism,” Mater. Today 9(1-2), 26–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. Ha, and J. A. Liddle, “Sub-pixel alignment for direct-write electron beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 74–79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lörgen, M.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucero, A.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lüning, J.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacDowell, A.A.

P.J.M. Monteiro, A.P. Kirchheim, S. Chae, P. Fischer, A.A. MacDowell, E. Schaible, and H.R. Wenk “Characterizing the Nano and Micro Structure of Concrete to Improve its Durability” Cem. Concr. Compos. (2009) (in print).
[CrossRef]

Marchesini, S.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, G. A.

S. C. B. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils,” Science 286(5443), 1335–1337 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDermott, G.

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol. 162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meier, G.

M.-Y. Im, L. Bocklage, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Direct observation of stochastic domain-wall depinning in magnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(14), 147204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bocklage, B. Krueger, R. Eiselt, M. Bolte, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Time-resolved imaging of current-induced domain-wall oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 78(18), 180405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, A.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer-Ilse, W.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201( 3), 395–403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. B. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils,” Science 286(5443), 1335–1337 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, J.

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, J. W.

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monteiro, P. J. M.

V. S. Harutyunyan, A. P. Kirchheim, P. J. M. Monteiro, A. P. Aivazyan, and P. Fischer, “Investigation of early growth of calcium hydroxide crystals in cement solution by soft X-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(4), 962–969 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monteiro, P.J.M.

P.J.M. Monteiro, A.P. Kirchheim, S. Chae, P. Fischer, A.A. MacDowell, E. Schaible, and H.R. Wenk “Characterizing the Nano and Micro Structure of Concrete to Improve its Durability” Cem. Concr. Compos. (2009) (in print).
[CrossRef]

Myneni, S. C. B.

S. C. B. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils,” Science 286(5443), 1335–1337 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nair, A.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201( 3), 395–403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakatani, Y.

S. Kasai, P. Fischer, M.-Y. Im, K. Yamada, Y. Nakatani, K. Kobayashi, H. Kohno, and T. Ono, “Real-time X-ray imaging of current-induced resonant motion of a vortex core in a ferromagnetic disk,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 237203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olynick, D. L.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ono, T.

S. Kasai, P. Fischer, M.-Y. Im, K. Yamada, Y. Nakatani, K. Kobayashi, H. Kohno, and T. Ono, “Real-time X-ray imaging of current-induced resonant motion of a vortex core in a ferromagnetic disk,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 237203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parkinson, D. Y.

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol. 162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paterson, D.

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, A. L.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201( 3), 395–403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peele, A. G.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, M. A.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilvi, T.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Putkunz, C. T.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raabe, J.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramunno-Johnson, D.

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritala, M.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakdinawat, A. E.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sayre, D.

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schaible, E.

P.J.M. Monteiro, A.P. Kirchheim, S. Chae, P. Fischer, A.A. MacDowell, E. Schaible, and H.R. Wenk “Characterizing the Nano and Micro Structure of Concrete to Improve its Durability” Cem. Concr. Compos. (2009) (in print).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, W. F.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibert, M. M.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shaevitz, J. W.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, D. A.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, C.

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stöhr, J.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stojanovic, N.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Szoke, A.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thieme, J.

S.-C. Gleber, J. Thieme, W. Chao, and P. Fischer “Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions” J. Microsc. (in print).
[PubMed]

Tobey, R.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tobey, R. A.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torrance, A.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Treusch, R.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veklerov, E.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. L.

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenk, H.R.

P.J.M. Monteiro, A.P. Kirchheim, S. Chae, P. Fischer, A.A. MacDowell, E. Schaible, and H.R. Wenk “Characterizing the Nano and Micro Structure of Concrete to Improve its Durability” Cem. Concr. Compos. (2009) (in print).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. J.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woods, B. W.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yager, D.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201( 3), 395–403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

S. Kasai, P. Fischer, M.-Y. Im, K. Yamada, Y. Nakatani, K. Kobayashi, H. Kohno, and T. Ono, “Real-time X-ray imaging of current-induced resonant motion of a vortex core in a ferromagnetic disk,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 237203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cem. Concr. Compos.

P.J.M. Monteiro, A.P. Kirchheim, S. Chae, P. Fischer, A.A. MacDowell, E. Schaible, and H.R. Wenk “Characterizing the Nano and Micro Structure of Concrete to Improve its Durability” Cem. Concr. Compos. (2009) (in print).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

V. S. Harutyunyan, A. P. Kirchheim, P. J. M. Monteiro, A. P. Aivazyan, and P. Fischer, “Investigation of early growth of calcium hydroxide crystals in cement solution by soft X-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(4), 962–969 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

S.-C. Gleber, J. Thieme, W. Chao, and P. Fischer “Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions” J. Microsc. (in print).
[PubMed]

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft X-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201( 3), 395–403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Struct. Biol.

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol. 162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. L. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, “Nanofabrication and diffractive optics for high-resolution x-ray applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 2970–2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy of nanomagnetism,” Mater. Today 9(1-2), 26–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

E. H. Anderson, D. Ha, and J. A. Liddle, “Sub-pixel alignment for direct-write electron beam lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 74–79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Micron

R. M. Langford and C. Clinton, “In situ lift-out using a FIB-SEM system,” Micron 35(7), 607–611 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, H. N. Chapman, and R. A. Tobey, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432(7019), 885–888 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

L. Bocklage, B. Krueger, R. Eiselt, M. Bolte, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Time-resolved imaging of current-induced domain-wall oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 78(18), 180405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Kasai, P. Fischer, M.-Y. Im, K. Yamada, Y. Nakatani, K. Kobayashi, H. Kohno, and T. Ono, “Real-time X-ray imaging of current-induced resonant motion of a vortex core in a ferromagnetic disk,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 237203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-Y. Im, L. Bocklage, P. Fischer, and G. Meier, “Direct observation of stochastic domain-wall depinning in magnetic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(14), 147204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. B. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils,” Science 286(5443), 1335–1337 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

http://www.emal.engin.umich.edu/handbooks/NovaNanoLab/online-009.pdf

S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., The 8th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy (Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2006); and references therein.

W. Chao, “Resolution Characterization and Nanofabrication for Soft X-ray Zone Plate Microscopy,” (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, 2005), chapt. 3.

D. T. Attwood, Soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation: principles and applications, 1st ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2000), chapt. 9.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical optics, Wiley classics library ed. ed., Wiley classics library (Wiley, New York, 2000), pp 303–324.

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of optics: electromagnetic theory of propagation, interference and diffraction of light, 7th expanded ed. (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1999), pp 441, 596–606.

K. K. H. Toh, and A. R. Neureuther, “Identifying and monitoring effects of lens aberrations in projection printing,” in Optical Microlithography VI., H. L. Stover, ed. (SPIE, Bellingham, Washington, 1987)

W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, P. Fischer, and D.-H. Kim, “Toward sub-10-nm resolution zone plates using the overlay nanofabrication processes,” in Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics, T. J. Suleski, W. V. Schoenfeld, and J. J. Wang, eds. (SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, 2008), p. 688309.

A. G. Michette, Optical systems for soft X rays (Plenum Press, New York, 1986).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the soft x-ray microscope, XM-1, at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. The microscope uses a micro zone plate to project a full field image of the sample onto a soft x-ray sensitive CCD camera. A condenser zone plate provides partially coherent, hollow-cone illumination at the sample. A central stop on the condenser and a pinhole provide monochromatization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

An illustration of the double patterning nanofabrication technique for micro zone plate fabrication. The zone plate (right) is divided into two less dense, complementary sub-patterns of alternating (black) rings, which when combined create the desired pattern. The two sub-patterns are exposed and fabricated sequentially to form the desired overlaid micro zone plate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A simplified illustration of the new HSQ double patterning zone plate fabrication process. (a) Fresh HSQ resist is spin coated on a silicon nitride substrate covered with a thin layer of gold plating base. The electron beam deflection is then calibrated to the outer set of alignment marks prefabricated outside the desired zone plate area. The first sub-pattern is exposed to the resist, which is then developed and inspected. (b) After blanket exposure and buttress fabrication, fresh HSQ is reapplied, and the same process steps for fabricating the first sub-pattern are used to fabricate the complementary pattern. (c) Using the resist structure as a mold, the desired zone plate structure is formed by electroplating with gold and subsequent resist strip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A scanning electron micrograph of a zone plate with 12 nm outermost zone, fabricated in-house using the new double-patterning process. Shown in the inset is a more detailed view of the outermost zones. The overlay accuracy is measured to be 1.6 nm. The breaks in the gold zones are caused by the buttresses pseudo-randomly placed in the outer zone region for improving the mechanical stability of the resist structure during the fabrication process

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Imaging setup of the test object and the 12 nm zone plate at the XM-1 microscope. To accommodate the lens’ short working distance, the zone plate is placed on the nominal sample plane, while the test object is mounted on an auxiliary stage upstream of the zone plate. Both the zone plate and test object are in air.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) An x-ray image of a gold star pattern obtained with a 12 nm micro zone plate at 1.75 nm wavelength (707eV). (b) A scanning transmission electron micrograph of the identical star pattern. (c) Two different areas of the x-ray image and the electron micrograph shown side by side for comparison. Defects revealed in the micrograph can be seen clearly in the x-ray image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A schematic of the optical configuration used for the zone plate testing.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Soft x-ray images of Mo/Si test patterns obtained with a 12 nm micro zone plate at 1.75 nm wavelength (707eV). The patterns have half-periods of (a) 20 nm, (b) 15 nm, (c) 12 nm, and (d) 10 nm. The lines and spaces can be clearly seen down to 12 nm half-period. Pixel sizes of 3.7 nm and 2.4 nm were used when taking the images (a) and (b), (c) and (d), respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The calculated and measured modulations for different periods of Mo/Si test objects imaged with a 12 nm zone plate at the XM-1 microscope. The normalized experimental modulations of 39% ± 5%, 24% ± 5%, 17% ± 7%, and 0% at the half-periods of 20 nm, 15 nm, 12 nm and 10 nm, respectively, are plotted in the graph. The calculation accounts for the optical configurations of the experiment here as well as the characteristics of the test sample used. In comparison to theory, the experimental modulations at the 12 nm, 15 nm, and 20 nm half-periods are 38%, 42%, and 56% of the theoretical values.

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