Abstract

We show by pump-probe spectroscopy that the optical response of a fishnet metamaterial can be modulated on the femtosecond time scale. The modulation dynamics is dominated by pump-induced changes in the constituting dielectric medium, but the strength of modulation is dramatically enhanced through the plasmon resonance. The pump-induced spectral responses of the metamaterial provide understanding on how the resonance is modified by pump excitation. Our study suggests that metamaterials can be used as high-speed amplitude/phase modulators with terahertz-bandwidth.

© 2009 OSA

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2009

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, Z. Yu, A. M. Bratkovsky, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Modulation of negative index metamaterials in the near-IR range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 3 (2007).

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. J. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4922–4930 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Gaarder, and S. Marcinkevicius, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and recombination in highly resistive ion implanted InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 1074–1078 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, “Carrier Lifetime Versus Anneal in Low-Temperature Growth Gaas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2248–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Esser, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, G. N. Parsons, C. Wang, B. N. Davidson, G. Lucovsky, and R. J. Nemanich, “Ultrafast Recombination and Trapping in Amorphous-Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(5), 2879–2884 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bratkovsky, A.

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bratkovsky, A. M.

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, Z. Yu, A. M. Bratkovsky, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Modulation of negative index metamaterials in the near-IR range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 3 (2007).

Brueck, S. R. J.

Cai, W. S.

Carmody, C.

C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Gaarder, and S. Marcinkevicius, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and recombination in highly resistive ion implanted InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 1074–1078 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. L.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, “Carrier Lifetime Versus Anneal in Low-Temperature Growth Gaas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2248–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Cho, D.

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D. J.

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, B. N.

A. Esser, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, G. N. Parsons, C. Wang, B. N. Davidson, G. Lucovsky, and R. J. Nemanich, “Ultrafast Recombination and Trapping in Amorphous-Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(5), 2879–2884 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

Esser, A.

A. Esser, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, G. N. Parsons, C. Wang, B. N. Davidson, G. Lucovsky, and R. J. Nemanich, “Ultrafast Recombination and Trapping in Amorphous-Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(5), 2879–2884 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W. J.

Fang, N.

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaarder, A.

C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Gaarder, and S. Marcinkevicius, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and recombination in highly resistive ion implanted InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 1074–1078 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, E. S.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, “Carrier Lifetime Versus Anneal in Low-Temperature Growth Gaas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2248–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Gaarder, and S. Marcinkevicius, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and recombination in highly resistive ion implanted InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 1074–1078 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kim, E.

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, Z. Yu, A. M. Bratkovsky, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Modulation of negative index metamaterials in the near-IR range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 3 (2007).

Kurz, H.

A. Esser, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, G. N. Parsons, C. Wang, B. N. Davidson, G. Lucovsky, and R. J. Nemanich, “Ultrafast Recombination and Trapping in Amorphous-Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(5), 2879–2884 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. M.

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lucovsky, G.

A. Esser, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, G. N. Parsons, C. Wang, B. N. Davidson, G. Lucovsky, and R. J. Nemanich, “Ultrafast Recombination and Trapping in Amorphous-Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(5), 2879–2884 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

Marcinkevicius, S.

C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Gaarder, and S. Marcinkevicius, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and recombination in highly resistive ion implanted InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 1074–1078 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, M. R.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, “Carrier Lifetime Versus Anneal in Low-Temperature Growth Gaas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2248–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nemanich, R. J.

A. Esser, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, G. N. Parsons, C. Wang, B. N. Davidson, G. Lucovsky, and R. J. Nemanich, “Ultrafast Recombination and Trapping in Amorphous-Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(5), 2879–2884 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, D. D.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, “Carrier Lifetime Versus Anneal in Low-Temperature Growth Gaas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2248–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Otsuka, N.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, “Carrier Lifetime Versus Anneal in Low-Temperature Growth Gaas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2248–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

Parsons, G. N.

A. Esser, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, G. N. Parsons, C. Wang, B. N. Davidson, G. Lucovsky, and R. J. Nemanich, “Ultrafast Recombination and Trapping in Amorphous-Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(5), 2879–2884 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ponizovskaya, E.

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, Z. Yu, A. M. Bratkovsky, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Modulation of negative index metamaterials in the near-IR range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 3 (2007).

Sarychev, A. K.

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seibert, K.

A. Esser, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, G. N. Parsons, C. Wang, B. N. Davidson, G. Lucovsky, and R. J. Nemanich, “Ultrafast Recombination and Trapping in Amorphous-Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(5), 2879–2884 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shen, Y. R.

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, Z. Yu, A. M. Bratkovsky, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Modulation of negative index metamaterials in the near-IR range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 3 (2007).

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. H.

C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Gaarder, and S. Marcinkevicius, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and recombination in highly resistive ion implanted InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 1074–1078 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tong, W.

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

A. Esser, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, G. N. Parsons, C. Wang, B. N. Davidson, G. Lucovsky, and R. J. Nemanich, “Ultrafast Recombination and Trapping in Amorphous-Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(5), 2879–2884 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Y.

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, Z. Yu, A. M. Bratkovsky, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Modulation of negative index metamaterials in the near-IR range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 3 (2007).

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. S.

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, Z. Yu, A. M. Bratkovsky, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Modulation of negative index metamaterials in the near-IR range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 3 (2007).

Woodall, J. M.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, “Carrier Lifetime Versus Anneal in Low-Temperature Growth Gaas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2248–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, Z. Yu, A. M. Bratkovsky, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Modulation of negative index metamaterials in the near-IR range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 3 (2007).

Xia, Q. F.

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, Z. Yu, A. M. Bratkovsky, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Modulation of negative index metamaterials in the near-IR range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 3 (2007).

Yu, Z. N.

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H. K.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, X.

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, Z. Yu, A. M. Bratkovsky, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Modulation of negative index metamaterials in the near-IR range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 3 (2007).

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, “Carrier Lifetime Versus Anneal in Low-Temperature Growth Gaas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2248–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

W. Wu, E. Ponizovskaya, E. Kim, D. Cho, A. Bratkovsky, Z. N. Yu, Q. F. Xia, X. M. Li, Y. R. Shen, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Geometrical dependence of optical negative index meta-materials at 1.55 mu,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1119–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, E. Kim, E. Ponizovskaya, Y. Liu, Z. Yu, N. Fang, Y. R. Shen, A. M. Bratkovsky, W. Tong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical metamaterials at near and mid-IR range fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 143–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Gaarder, and S. Marcinkevicius, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and recombination in highly resistive ion implanted InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 1074–1078 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Nat. Photonics

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[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Esser, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, G. N. Parsons, C. Wang, B. N. Davidson, G. Lucovsky, and R. J. Nemanich, “Ultrafast Recombination and Trapping in Amorphous-Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41(5), 2879–2884 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Science

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

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