Abstract

We report on the fabrication and optical properties of the first very low loss nonlinear Tellurite planar rib waveguides ever demonstrated. A new reactive ion etch process based on Hydrogen as the active species was developed to accomplish the low propagation losses. Optical losses below ~0.05dB/cm in most of the NIR spectrum and ~0.10dB/cm at 1550nm have been achieved - the lowest ever reported by more than an order of magnitude and clearly suitable for planar integrated devices. We demonstrate strong spectral broadening of 0.6ps pulses in waveguides fabricated from pure TeO2, in good agreement with simulations.

© 2009 OSA

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2008 (4)

2007 (2)

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Higher nonlinear indices, Raman gain coefficients, and bandwidths in the TeO2 -ZnO- Nb2O5 -MoO3 quaternary glass system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Kassab, R. Pinto, R. Kobayashi, M. Piasecki, P. Bragiel, and I. Kityk, “Photoinduced second-order optical susceptibilities of Er2O3 doped TeO2–GeO2–PbO glasses,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 461–465 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

D. A. Gaponov and A. S. Biryukov, “Optical properties of microstructure tellurite glass fibres,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 343–348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain coefficients and bandwidths in P2O5 and WO added tellurite glasses for Raman gain media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Nandi, G. Jose, C. Jayakrishnan, S. Debbarma, K. Chalapathi, K. Alti, A. K. Dharmadhikari, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, “Femtosecond laser written channel waveguides in tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12145–12150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

A. Jha, S. Shaoxiong, H. Li Hui, and P. Joshi, “Spectroscopic properties of rare earth metal ion doped tellurium oxide glasses and fibres,” J. Opt. 33, 157 (2004).

G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, and G. Righini, “Rare-earth doped tungsten tellurite glasses and waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345, 343–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

G. N. Conti, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Bettinelli, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, A. B. Seddon, and G. C. Righini, “Characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in tungsten tellurite and zinc tellurite Er3+ doped glasses,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2805–2811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, “Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 445(1), 118–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glass by pico and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472–475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

E. Monchiero, D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, L. Tallone, and E. Chierici, “Direct writing of waveguides on tellurite glasses”, ICOXIX: Optics for the Quality of life, Proc. SPIE 4829, 161–162 (2002).

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato, and M. Shimizu, “Ultra-Wideband tellurite based Raman fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1442–1443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, T. Luo, Y. Hu, and N. Peyghambarian, “Optical waveguides prepared in Er3+doped tellurite glass by Ag+-Na+ ion-exchange,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Man, E. Pun, and P. Chung, “Tellurite glass for 1.3μm optical amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 168(5-6), 369–373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Ghosh, “Sellmeier coefficients and chromatic dispersions for some tellurite glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(10), 2828–2830 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S.-H. Kim, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of TeO2-Based Glasses: MOx-TeO2 (M = Sc, Ti, V, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W) Binary Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. H. Clarke, “Theory of reflection from antireflection coatings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 62, 2885–2891 (1983).

Alti, K.

Berneschi, S.

G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, and G. Righini, “Rare-earth doped tungsten tellurite glasses and waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345, 343–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Conti, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Bettinelli, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, A. B. Seddon, and G. C. Righini, “Characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in tungsten tellurite and zinc tellurite Er3+ doped glasses,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2805–2811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, and G. Righini, “Rare-earth doped tungsten tellurite glasses and waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345, 343–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Conti, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Bettinelli, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, A. B. Seddon, and G. C. Righini, “Characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in tungsten tellurite and zinc tellurite Er3+ doped glasses,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2805–2811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bindra, K.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biryukov, A. S.

D. A. Gaponov and A. S. Biryukov, “Optical properties of microstructure tellurite glass fibres,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 343–348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. J.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bragiel, P.

L. Kassab, R. Pinto, R. Kobayashi, M. Piasecki, P. Bragiel, and I. Kityk, “Photoinduced second-order optical susceptibilities of Er2O3 doped TeO2–GeO2–PbO glasses,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 461–465 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brenci, M.

G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, and G. Righini, “Rare-earth doped tungsten tellurite glasses and waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345, 343–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Conti, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Bettinelli, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, A. B. Seddon, and G. C. Righini, “Characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in tungsten tellurite and zinc tellurite Er3+ doped glasses,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2805–2811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

Chalapathi, K.

Champarnaud-Mesjard, J. C.

Chen, B.

G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, and G. Righini, “Rare-earth doped tungsten tellurite glasses and waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345, 343–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Conti, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Bettinelli, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, A. B. Seddon, and G. C. Righini, “Characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in tungsten tellurite and zinc tellurite Er3+ doped glasses,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2805–2811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chierici, E.

E. Monchiero, D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, L. Tallone, and E. Chierici, “Direct writing of waveguides on tellurite glasses”, ICOXIX: Optics for the Quality of life, Proc. SPIE 4829, 161–162 (2002).

Chiodo, N.

Chung, P.

S. Man, E. Pun, and P. Chung, “Tellurite glass for 1.3μm optical amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 168(5-6), 369–373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, R. H.

R. H. Clarke, “Theory of reflection from antireflection coatings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 62, 2885–2891 (1983).

Conti, G. N.

G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, and G. Righini, “Rare-earth doped tungsten tellurite glasses and waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345, 343–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Conti, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Bettinelli, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, A. B. Seddon, and G. C. Righini, “Characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in tungsten tellurite and zinc tellurite Er3+ doped glasses,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2805–2811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Cusmai, G.

Dawar, A. L.

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, “Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 445(1), 118–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Debbarma, S.

Delfyett, P.

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

Dharmadhikari, J. A.

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, T. Luo, Y. Hu, and N. Peyghambarian, “Optical waveguides prepared in Er3+doped tellurite glass by Ag+-Na+ ion-exchange,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

Ferè, M.

Fernandez, T. T.

Ferraris, M.

E. Monchiero, D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, L. Tallone, and E. Chierici, “Direct writing of waveguides on tellurite glasses”, ICOXIX: Optics for the Quality of life, Proc. SPIE 4829, 161–162 (2002).

Gaponov, D. A.

D. A. Gaponov and A. S. Biryukov, “Optical properties of microstructure tellurite glass fibres,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 343–348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, A. K.

Ghosh, G.

G. Ghosh, “Sellmeier coefficients and chromatic dispersions for some tellurite glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(10), 2828–2830 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Gupta, V.

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, “Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 445(1), 118–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, T. Luo, Y. Hu, and N. Peyghambarian, “Optical waveguides prepared in Er3+doped tellurite glass by Ag+-Na+ ion-exchange,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Intyushin, E. B.

E. B. Intyushin and V. A. Novikov, “Tungsten-tellurite glasses and thin films doped with rare-earth elements produced by radio frequency magnetron deposition,” Thin Solid Films 516(12), 4194–4200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glass by pico and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472–475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jayakrishnan, C.

Jha, A.

T. T. Fernandez, G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, G. Jose, N. Chiodo, A. Jha, and P. Laporta, “Active waveguides written by femtosecond laser irradiation in an erbium-doped phospho-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15198–15205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jha, S. Shaoxiong, H. Li Hui, and P. Joshi, “Spectroscopic properties of rare earth metal ion doped tellurium oxide glasses and fibres,” J. Opt. 33, 157 (2004).

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, T. Luo, Y. Hu, and N. Peyghambarian, “Optical waveguides prepared in Er3+doped tellurite glass by Ag+-Na+ ion-exchange,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jose, G.

Jose, R.

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Higher nonlinear indices, Raman gain coefficients, and bandwidths in the TeO2 -ZnO- Nb2O5 -MoO3 quaternary glass system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain coefficients and bandwidths in P2O5 and WO added tellurite glasses for Raman gain media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, P.

A. Jha, S. Shaoxiong, H. Li Hui, and P. Joshi, “Spectroscopic properties of rare earth metal ion doped tellurium oxide glasses and fibres,” J. Opt. 33, 157 (2004).

Kanamori, T.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kassab, L.

L. Kassab, R. Pinto, R. Kobayashi, M. Piasecki, P. Bragiel, and I. Kityk, “Photoinduced second-order optical susceptibilities of Er2O3 doped TeO2–GeO2–PbO glasses,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 461–465 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato, and M. Shimizu, “Ultra-Wideband tellurite based Raman fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1442–1443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

S.-H. Kim, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of TeO2-Based Glasses: MOx-TeO2 (M = Sc, Ti, V, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W) Binary Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kityk, I.

L. Kassab, R. Pinto, R. Kobayashi, M. Piasecki, P. Bragiel, and I. Kityk, “Photoinduced second-order optical susceptibilities of Er2O3 doped TeO2–GeO2–PbO glasses,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 461–465 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kobayashi, K.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, R.

L. Kassab, R. Pinto, R. Kobayashi, M. Piasecki, P. Bragiel, and I. Kityk, “Photoinduced second-order optical susceptibilities of Er2O3 doped TeO2–GeO2–PbO glasses,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 461–465 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lanata, M.

Laporta, P.

Li Hui, H.

A. Jha, S. Shaoxiong, H. Li Hui, and P. Joshi, “Spectroscopic properties of rare earth metal ion doped tellurium oxide glasses and fibres,” J. Opt. 33, 157 (2004).

Liu, X.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, T. Luo, Y. Hu, and N. Peyghambarian, “Optical waveguides prepared in Er3+doped tellurite glass by Ag+-Na+ ion-exchange,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Man, S.

S. Man, E. Pun, and P. Chung, “Tellurite glass for 1.3μm optical amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 168(5-6), 369–373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

Masuda, H.

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato, and M. Shimizu, “Ultra-Wideband tellurite based Raman fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1442–1443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, D.

Milanese, D.

E. Monchiero, D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, L. Tallone, and E. Chierici, “Direct writing of waveguides on tellurite glasses”, ICOXIX: Optics for the Quality of life, Proc. SPIE 4829, 161–162 (2002).

Monchiero, E.

E. Monchiero, D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, L. Tallone, and E. Chierici, “Direct writing of waveguides on tellurite glasses”, ICOXIX: Optics for the Quality of life, Proc. SPIE 4829, 161–162 (2002).

Mori, A.

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato, and M. Shimizu, “Ultra-Wideband tellurite based Raman fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1442–1443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murugan, G. S.

G. S. Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Phospho-tellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides for ultrabroad band fiber Raman amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nandi, P.

Nayak, R.

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, “Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 445(1), 118–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, V. A.

E. B. Intyushin and V. A. Novikov, “Tungsten-tellurite glasses and thin films doped with rare-earth elements produced by radio frequency magnetron deposition,” Thin Solid Films 516(12), 4194–4200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Higher nonlinear indices, Raman gain coefficients, and bandwidths in the TeO2 -ZnO- Nb2O5 -MoO3 quaternary glass system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain coefficients and bandwidths in P2O5 and WO added tellurite glasses for Raman gain media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Phospho-tellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides for ultrabroad band fiber Raman amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, K.

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato, and M. Shimizu, “Ultra-Wideband tellurite based Raman fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1442–1443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, F. G.

Ono, H.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

Pelli, S.

G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, and G. Righini, “Rare-earth doped tungsten tellurite glasses and waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345, 343–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Conti, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Bettinelli, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, A. B. Seddon, and G. C. Righini, “Characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in tungsten tellurite and zinc tellurite Er3+ doped glasses,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2805–2811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, T. Luo, Y. Hu, and N. Peyghambarian, “Optical waveguides prepared in Er3+doped tellurite glass by Ag+-Na+ ion-exchange,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Piasecki, M.

L. Kassab, R. Pinto, R. Kobayashi, M. Piasecki, P. Bragiel, and I. Kityk, “Photoinduced second-order optical susceptibilities of Er2O3 doped TeO2–GeO2–PbO glasses,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 461–465 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piccinin, D.

Pietralunga, S. M.

Pinto, R.

L. Kassab, R. Pinto, R. Kobayashi, M. Piasecki, P. Bragiel, and I. Kityk, “Photoinduced second-order optical susceptibilities of Er2O3 doped TeO2–GeO2–PbO glasses,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 461–465 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pope, A.

Pun, E.

S. Man, E. Pun, and P. Chung, “Tellurite glass for 1.3μm optical amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 168(5-6), 369–373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Righini, G.

G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, and G. Righini, “Rare-earth doped tungsten tellurite glasses and waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345, 343–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G. C.

G. N. Conti, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Bettinelli, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, A. B. Seddon, and G. C. Righini, “Characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in tungsten tellurite and zinc tellurite Er3+ doped glasses,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2805–2811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

Saito, M.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glass by pico and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472–475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakka, S.

S.-H. Kim, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of TeO2-Based Glasses: MOx-TeO2 (M = Sc, Ti, V, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W) Binary Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

Seddon, A. B.

G. N. Conti, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Bettinelli, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, A. B. Seddon, and G. C. Righini, “Characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in tungsten tellurite and zinc tellurite Er3+ doped glasses,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2805–2811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaoxiong, S.

A. Jha, S. Shaoxiong, H. Li Hui, and P. Joshi, “Spectroscopic properties of rare earth metal ion doped tellurium oxide glasses and fibres,” J. Opt. 33, 157 (2004).

Shen, S.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shikano, K.

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato, and M. Shimizu, “Ultra-Wideband tellurite based Raman fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1442–1443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato, and M. Shimizu, “Ultra-Wideband tellurite based Raman fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1442–1443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, and G. Righini, “Rare-earth doped tungsten tellurite glasses and waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345, 343–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Conti, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Bettinelli, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, A. B. Seddon, and G. C. Righini, “Characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in tungsten tellurite and zinc tellurite Er3+ doped glasses,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2805–2811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sreenivas, K.

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, “Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 445(1), 118–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

Stegeman, R.

Suzuki, T.

G. S. Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Phospho-tellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides for ultrabroad band fiber Raman amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glass by pico and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472–475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tallone, L.

E. Monchiero, D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, L. Tallone, and E. Chierici, “Direct writing of waveguides on tellurite glasses”, ICOXIX: Optics for the Quality of life, Proc. SPIE 4829, 161–162 (2002).

Thomas, P.

Tikhomirov, V. K.

G. N. Conti, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Bettinelli, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, A. B. Seddon, and G. C. Righini, “Characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in tungsten tellurite and zinc tellurite Er3+ doped glasses,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2805–2811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, Y.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glass by pico and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472–475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Torregiani, M.

Valle, G. D.

Wang, A.

Watanabe, W.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glass by pico and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472–475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolchover, N. A.

Yamada, K.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glass by pico and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472–475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glass by pico and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472–475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Kim, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of TeO2-Based Glasses: MOx-TeO2 (M = Sc, Ti, V, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W) Binary Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain coefficients and bandwidths in P2O5 and WO added tellurite glasses for Raman gain media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Phospho-tellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides for ultrabroad band fiber Raman amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Higher nonlinear indices, Raman gain coefficients, and bandwidths in the TeO2 -ZnO- Nb2O5 -MoO3 quaternary glass system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 221104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

R. H. Clarke, “Theory of reflection from antireflection coatings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 62, 2885–2891 (1983).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato, and M. Shimizu, “Ultra-Wideband tellurite based Raman fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1442–1443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

ICOXIX: Optics for the Quality of life, Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Monchiero, D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, L. Tallone, and E. Chierici, “Direct writing of waveguides on tellurite glasses”, ICOXIX: Optics for the Quality of life, Proc. SPIE 4829, 161–162 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (3)

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(6), 1391–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Kim, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of TeO2-Based Glasses: MOx-TeO2 (M = Sc, Ti, V, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W) Binary Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Ghosh, “Sellmeier coefficients and chromatic dispersions for some tellurite glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(10), 2828–2830 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glass by pico and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472–475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Conti, S. Berneschi, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, and G. Righini, “Rare-earth doped tungsten tellurite glasses and waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345, 343–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

A. Jha, S. Shaoxiong, H. Li Hui, and P. Joshi, “Spectroscopic properties of rare earth metal ion doped tellurium oxide glasses and fibres,” J. Opt. 33, 157 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. Man, E. Pun, and P. Chung, “Tellurite glass for 1.3μm optical amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 168(5-6), 369–373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Kassab, R. Pinto, R. Kobayashi, M. Piasecki, P. Bragiel, and I. Kityk, “Photoinduced second-order optical susceptibilities of Er2O3 doped TeO2–GeO2–PbO glasses,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 461–465 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. N. Conti, V. K. Tikhomirov, M. Bettinelli, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, B. Chen, S. Pelli, A. Speghini, A. B. Seddon, and G. C. Righini, “Characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in tungsten tellurite and zinc tellurite Er3+ doped glasses,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2805–2811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, T. Luo, Y. Hu, and N. Peyghambarian, “Optical waveguides prepared in Er3+doped tellurite glass by Ag+-Na+ ion-exchange,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Gaponov and A. S. Biryukov, “Optical properties of microstructure tellurite glass fibres,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 343–348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

E. B. Intyushin and V. A. Novikov, “Tungsten-tellurite glasses and thin films doped with rare-earth elements produced by radio frequency magnetron deposition,” Thin Solid Films 516(12), 4194–4200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, “Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 445(1), 118–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, I. Bányász, A. Watterich, N. Khanh, M. Fried, and F. Pászti, “Channel waveguide fabrication in Er3+ doped tellurite glass by ion beam irradiation”, Proc. SPIE, 6475, 647509–1 – 647509–6, (2007).

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, and A. Jha, “Tm- and Er-doped tellurite glass fiber for a broadband amplifier at 1450-1600nm”, Proc. SPIE, 3849, Paper 3849–12, (1999).

E. Chierici, M. C. Didavide, A. Moro, O. Rossotto, L. Tallone, and E. Monchiero, “Direct writing of channel waveguide on a tellurite glass using a focused ultraviolet laser beam”, IEEE/LEOS Proc. Workshop Fibre Passive Components, 24–28, (2002).

H. Bookey, K. Bindra, A. Kar, and B. Wherrett, “Telluride glass fibres for all optical switching: - nonlinear optical properties and fibre characterization,” in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibre and Passive Optical Components, 29 – 34 (2002).

R. A. H. El-Mallawany, Tellurite Glasses Handbook: physical properties and data (CRC Press, 2002).

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, “Ultra-broadband Raman gain media for photonics device applications,” International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham WA, WA 98227–0010,San Jose, CA, 64690 (2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Refractive index vs composition for sputtered TeO2 films. The red dot indicates the value for bulk amorphous TeO2. b) Propagation loss vs film composition measured from prism coupling light streaks in 8cm long samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electron micrograph of etched TeO2 rib structure

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical micrograph of cleaved finished waveguide in the 1.6 µm thick Tellurite film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated mode intensity profiles for fabricated waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Measured wideband fiber to fiber insertion loss for 7.8cm long 4µm wide TeO2 waveguide. Solid curve indicates all calculated coupling and reflective losses as described in the text. Dashed curve shows fitted data points for absorption loss including Fabry-Perot enhancement as described in text b) Raw propagation loss after subtraction of calculated coupling and reflective losses and length normalization

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral broadening of pulses inside waveguide compared with results from Split Step Fourier modeling of waveguide with measured input pulse with n2 varied to obtain best fit.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 - Estimated absorption losses in the 1500-1700nm range

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