Abstract

An empirical model was developed to interpret differences in the experimentally measured reflectance and fluorescence spectra of freshly excised human pancreatic tissues: normal, adenocarcinoma, and pancreatitis (inflammation). The model provided the first quantitative links between spectroscopic measurements and histological characteristics in the human pancreas. The reflectance model enabled the first (to our knowledge) extraction of wavelength resolved absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for normal and diseased human pancreatic tissues. The fluorescence model employed reflectance information to extract attenuation free “intrinsic” endogenous fluorescence spectra from normal pancreatic tissue, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and pancreatitis. The method developed is simple, intuitive, and potentially useful for a range of applications in optical tissue diagnostics. This approach is potentially applicable to in vivo studies, because it can account for the absorptive effects of blood in tissues.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. “Cancer Statistics 2008,” www.cancer.org .
  2. W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: Are They All ‘Chronic Pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. V Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024008 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. Georgakoudi and M. S. Feld, “The combined use of fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 14(3), 519–537, ix (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014004 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Chandra, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Scheiman, and M.-A. Mycek, “Pancreatic tissue assessment using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6628, 66281R (2007), 8 pgs.
  12. R. H. Wilson, M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M. A. Mycek, “Mathematical modeling of reflectance and intrinsic fluorescence for early cancer detection in human pancreatic tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7187, 71870H (2009), 9 pgs.
  13. M. Chandra, K. Vishwanath, G. D. Fichter, E. Liao, S. J. Hollister, and M.-A. Mycek, “Quantitative molecular sensing in biological tissues: an approach to non-invasive optical characterization,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6157–6171 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Sefkow, M. Bree, and M.-A. Mycek, “A method for measuring cellular optical absorption and scattering evaluated using dilute cell suspension phantoms,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55(11), 1495–1501 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. F. Bohren, and D. A. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).
  16. L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. S. Saidi, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, “Mie and Rayleigh Modeling of Visible-Light Scattering in Neonatal Skin,” Appl. Opt. 34(31), 7410–7418 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Lin and G. Staerkel, “Cytologic criteria for well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens,” Cancer 99(1), 44–50 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. B. Cohen, D. P. Egerter, E. A. Holly, D. K. Ahn, and T. R. Miller, “Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: regression analysis to identify improved cytologic criteria,” Diagn. Cytopathol. 7(4), 341–345 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. J. Sears, C. W. Duckworth, C. Decaestecker, N. Bourgeois, T. Ledent, J. Deviere, I. Salmon, R. Kiss, and P. Yeaton, “Image cytometry as a discriminatory tool for cytologic specimens obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,” Cancer 84(2), 119–126 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative-Analysis of Collagen and Collagen Subtype-I, Subtype-Iii, and Subtype-V in Human Pancreatic-Cancer, Tumor-Associated Chronic-Pancreatitis, and Alcoholic Chronic-Pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Prahl, “Optical Absorption of Hemoglobin” (Oregon Medical Laser Center). http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/ .
  24. R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. Reif, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, “Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7317–7328 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. L. P. van Veen, W. Verkruysse, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy from 500 to 1060 nm by correction for inhomogeneously distributed absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 246–248 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. Rzepko, K. Jaśkiewicz, M. Klimkowska, A. Nałecz, and E. Izycka-Swieszewska, “Microvascular density in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma,” Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 41(4), 237–239 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  28. K. Vishwanath and M.-A. Mycek, “Do fluorescence decays remitted from tissues accurately reflect intrinsic fluorophore lifetimes?” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1512–1514 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. K. Vishwanath and M.-A. Mycek, “Time-resolved photon migration in bi-layered tissue models,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7466–7482 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. P. Hillemanns, J. Reiff, H. Stepp, and P. Soergel, “Lymph node metastasis detection of ovarian cancer by porphyrin fluorescence photodetection: case report,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(3), 131–135 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Effect of pigment packaging on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of samples containing red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 965–967 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J. Köninger, N. A. Giese, F. F. di Mola, P. Berberat, T. Giese, I. Esposito, M. G. Bachem, M. W. Büchler, and H. Friess, “Overexpressed decorin in pancreatic cancer: potential tumor growth inhibition and attenuation of chemotherapeutic action,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(14), 4776–4783 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. G. Zonios, I. Bassukas, and A. Dimou, “Comparative evaluation of two simple diffuse reflectance models for biological tissue applications,” Appl. Opt. 47(27), 4965–4973 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 37(16), 3586–3593 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. Xu, T. T. Wu, and J. Y. Qu, “Unified Mie and fractal scattering by cells and experimental study on application in optical characterization of cellular and subcellular structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024015 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  40. G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte-Carlo-based model for the extraction of intrinsic fluorescence from turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024017 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation,” Med. Phys. 31(7), 1949–1959 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, I. Bassukas, and A. Dimou, “Comparative evaluation of two simple diffuse reflectance models for biological tissue applications,” Appl. Opt. 47(27), 4965–4973 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu, T. T. Wu, and J. Y. Qu, “Unified Mie and fractal scattering by cells and experimental study on application in optical characterization of cellular and subcellular structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024015 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte-Carlo-based model for the extraction of intrinsic fluorescence from turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

P. Hillemanns, J. Reiff, H. Stepp, and P. Soergel, “Lymph node metastasis detection of ovarian cancer by porphyrin fluorescence photodetection: case report,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(3), 131–135 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, “Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7317–7328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Chandra, K. Vishwanath, G. D. Fichter, E. Liao, S. J. Hollister, and M.-A. Mycek, “Quantitative molecular sensing in biological tissues: an approach to non-invasive optical characterization,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6157–6171 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (6)

I. Georgakoudi and M. S. Feld, “The combined use of fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 14(3), 519–537, ix (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Vishwanath and M.-A. Mycek, “Do fluorescence decays remitted from tissues accurately reflect intrinsic fluorophore lifetimes?” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1512–1514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Effect of pigment packaging on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of samples containing red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 965–967 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Köninger, N. A. Giese, F. F. di Mola, P. Berberat, T. Giese, I. Esposito, M. G. Bachem, M. W. Büchler, and H. Friess, “Overexpressed decorin in pancreatic cancer: potential tumor growth inhibition and attenuation of chemotherapeutic action,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(14), 4776–4783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation,” Med. Phys. 31(7), 1949–1959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

R. Rzepko, K. Jaśkiewicz, M. Klimkowska, A. Nałecz, and E. Izycka-Swieszewska, “Microvascular density in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma,” Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 41(4), 237–239 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: Are They All ‘Chronic Pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Lin and G. Staerkel, “Cytologic criteria for well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens,” Cancer 99(1), 44–50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. P. van Veen, W. Verkruysse, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy from 500 to 1060 nm by correction for inhomogeneously distributed absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 246–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Sefkow, M. Bree, and M.-A. Mycek, “A method for measuring cellular optical absorption and scattering evaluated using dilute cell suspension phantoms,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55(11), 1495–1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. V Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

R. J. Sears, C. W. Duckworth, C. Decaestecker, N. Bourgeois, T. Ledent, J. Deviere, I. Salmon, R. Kiss, and P. Yeaton, “Image cytometry as a discriminatory tool for cytologic specimens obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,” Cancer 84(2), 119–126 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 37(16), 3586–3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Saidi, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, “Mie and Rayleigh Modeling of Visible-Light Scattering in Neonatal Skin,” Appl. Opt. 34(31), 7410–7418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative-Analysis of Collagen and Collagen Subtype-I, Subtype-Iii, and Subtype-V in Human Pancreatic-Cancer, Tumor-Associated Chronic-Pancreatitis, and Alcoholic Chronic-Pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. B. Cohen, D. P. Egerter, E. A. Holly, D. K. Ahn, and T. R. Miller, “Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: regression analysis to identify improved cytologic criteria,” Diagn. Cytopathol. 7(4), 341–345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A’Amar, O.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, “Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7317–7328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abraham, S. C.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: Are They All ‘Chronic Pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adsay, N. V.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, D. K.

M. B. Cohen, D. P. Egerter, E. A. Holly, D. K. Ahn, and T. R. Miller, “Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: regression analysis to identify improved cytologic criteria,” Diagn. Cytopathol. 7(4), 341–345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albores-Saavedra, J.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amorosino, M. S.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachem, M. G.

J. Köninger, N. A. Giese, F. F. di Mola, P. Berberat, T. Giese, I. Esposito, M. G. Bachem, M. W. Büchler, and H. Friess, “Overexpressed decorin in pancreatic cancer: potential tumor growth inhibition and attenuation of chemotherapeutic action,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(14), 4776–4783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. V Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bassukas, I.

Bechtel, K. L.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berberat, P.

J. Köninger, N. A. Giese, F. F. di Mola, P. Berberat, T. Giese, I. Esposito, M. G. Bachem, M. W. Büchler, and H. Friess, “Overexpressed decorin in pancreatic cancer: potential tumor growth inhibition and attenuation of chemotherapeutic action,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(14), 4776–4783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergmann, F.

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biankin, A. V.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biankin, S. A.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, “Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7317–7328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bobrowski, C.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boitnott, J. K.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: Are They All ‘Chronic Pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bourgeois, N.

R. J. Sears, C. W. Duckworth, C. Decaestecker, N. Bourgeois, T. Ledent, J. Deviere, I. Salmon, R. Kiss, and P. Yeaton, “Image cytometry as a discriminatory tool for cytologic specimens obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,” Cancer 84(2), 119–126 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, L.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bree, M.

Büchler, M. W.

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Köninger, N. A. Giese, F. F. di Mola, P. Berberat, T. Giese, I. Esposito, M. G. Bachem, M. W. Büchler, and H. Friess, “Overexpressed decorin in pancreatic cancer: potential tumor growth inhibition and attenuation of chemotherapeutic action,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(14), 4776–4783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calabro, K. W.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cameron, J. L.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: Are They All ‘Chronic Pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, M.

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Chandra, K. Vishwanath, G. D. Fichter, E. Liao, S. J. Hollister, and M.-A. Mycek, “Quantitative molecular sensing in biological tissues: an approach to non-invasive optical characterization,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6157–6171 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, M. B.

M. B. Cohen, D. P. Egerter, E. A. Holly, D. K. Ahn, and T. R. Miller, “Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: regression analysis to identify improved cytologic criteria,” Diagn. Cytopathol. 7(4), 341–345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Compton, C.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dam, J. V

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. V Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Werth, A.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decaestecker, C.

R. J. Sears, C. W. Duckworth, C. Decaestecker, N. Bourgeois, T. Ledent, J. Deviere, I. Salmon, R. Kiss, and P. Yeaton, “Image cytometry as a discriminatory tool for cytologic specimens obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,” Cancer 84(2), 119–126 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deviere, J.

R. J. Sears, C. W. Duckworth, C. Decaestecker, N. Bourgeois, T. Ledent, J. Deviere, I. Salmon, R. Kiss, and P. Yeaton, “Image cytometry as a discriminatory tool for cytologic specimens obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,” Cancer 84(2), 119–126 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

di Mola, F. F.

J. Köninger, N. A. Giese, F. F. di Mola, P. Berberat, T. Giese, I. Esposito, M. G. Bachem, M. W. Büchler, and H. Friess, “Overexpressed decorin in pancreatic cancer: potential tumor growth inhibition and attenuation of chemotherapeutic action,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(14), 4776–4783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diener, M. K.

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dimou, A.

Duckworth, C. W.

R. J. Sears, C. W. Duckworth, C. Decaestecker, N. Bourgeois, T. Ledent, J. Deviere, I. Salmon, R. Kiss, and P. Yeaton, “Image cytometry as a discriminatory tool for cytologic specimens obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,” Cancer 84(2), 119–126 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egerter, D. P.

M. B. Cohen, D. P. Egerter, E. A. Holly, D. K. Ahn, and T. R. Miller, “Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: regression analysis to identify improved cytologic criteria,” Diagn. Cytopathol. 7(4), 341–345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eick, A. A.

Esposito, I.

J. Köninger, N. A. Giese, F. F. di Mola, P. Berberat, T. Giese, I. Esposito, M. G. Bachem, M. W. Büchler, and H. Friess, “Overexpressed decorin in pancreatic cancer: potential tumor growth inhibition and attenuation of chemotherapeutic action,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(14), 4776–4783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi and M. S. Feld, “The combined use of fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 14(3), 519–537, ix (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. V Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fichter, G. D.

Finlay, J. C.

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Effect of pigment packaging on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of samples containing red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 965–967 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation,” Med. Phys. 31(7), 1949–1959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. V Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Follen, M.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, T. H.

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Effect of pigment packaging on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of samples containing red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 965–967 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation,” Med. Phys. 31(7), 1949–1959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

Friess, H.

J. Köninger, N. A. Giese, F. F. di Mola, P. Berberat, T. Giese, I. Esposito, M. G. Bachem, M. W. Büchler, and H. Friess, “Overexpressed decorin in pancreatic cancer: potential tumor growth inhibition and attenuation of chemotherapeutic action,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(14), 4776–4783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fritscher-Ravens, A.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukushima, N.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furukawa, T.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrett, E. S.

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

I. Georgakoudi and M. S. Feld, “The combined use of fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 14(3), 519–537, ix (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40(25), 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giese, N. A.

J. Köninger, N. A. Giese, F. F. di Mola, P. Berberat, T. Giese, I. Esposito, M. G. Bachem, M. W. Büchler, and H. Friess, “Overexpressed decorin in pancreatic cancer: potential tumor growth inhibition and attenuation of chemotherapeutic action,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(14), 4776–4783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giese, T.

J. Köninger, N. A. Giese, F. F. di Mola, P. Berberat, T. Giese, I. Esposito, M. G. Bachem, M. W. Büchler, and H. Friess, “Overexpressed decorin in pancreatic cancer: potential tumor growth inhibition and attenuation of chemotherapeutic action,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(14), 4776–4783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goggins, M.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, S. N.

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haka, A. S.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamano, T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hartwig, W.

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidt, D.

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

Hillemanns, P.

P. Hillemanns, J. Reiff, H. Stepp, and P. Soergel, “Lymph node metastasis detection of ovarian cancer by porphyrin fluorescence photodetection: case report,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(3), 131–135 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollister, S. J.

Holly, E. A.

M. B. Cohen, D. P. Egerter, E. A. Holly, D. K. Ahn, and T. R. Miller, “Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: regression analysis to identify improved cytologic criteria,” Diagn. Cytopathol. 7(4), 341–345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoopes, P. J.

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hruban, R. H.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: Are They All ‘Chronic Pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iguchi, H.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative-Analysis of Collagen and Collagen Subtype-I, Subtype-Iii, and Subtype-V in Human Pancreatic-Cancer, Tumor-Associated Chronic-Pancreatitis, and Alcoholic Chronic-Pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamura, M.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative-Analysis of Collagen and Collagen Subtype-I, Subtype-Iii, and Subtype-V in Human Pancreatic-Cancer, Tumor-Associated Chronic-Pancreatitis, and Alcoholic Chronic-Pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamura, T.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative-Analysis of Collagen and Collagen Subtype-I, Subtype-Iii, and Subtype-V in Human Pancreatic-Cancer, Tumor-Associated Chronic-Pancreatitis, and Alcoholic Chronic-Pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishigami, S.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative-Analysis of Collagen and Collagen Subtype-I, Subtype-Iii, and Subtype-V in Human Pancreatic-Cancer, Tumor-Associated Chronic-Pancreatitis, and Alcoholic Chronic-Pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, L.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Izycka-Swieszewska, E.

R. Rzepko, K. Jaśkiewicz, M. Klimkowska, A. Nałecz, and E. Izycka-Swieszewska, “Microvascular density in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma,” Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 41(4), 237–239 (2003).
[PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Saidi, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, “Mie and Rayleigh Modeling of Visible-Light Scattering in Neonatal Skin,” Appl. Opt. 34(31), 7410–7418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaskiewicz, K.

R. Rzepko, K. Jaśkiewicz, M. Klimkowska, A. Nałecz, and E. Izycka-Swieszewska, “Microvascular density in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma,” Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 41(4), 237–239 (2003).
[PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

Kato, Y.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kern, S. E.

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiss, R.

R. J. Sears, C. W. Duckworth, C. Decaestecker, N. Bourgeois, T. Ledent, J. Deviere, I. Salmon, R. Kiss, and P. Yeaton, “Image cytometry as a discriminatory tool for cytologic specimens obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,” Cancer 84(2), 119–126 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klimkowska, M.

R. Rzepko, K. Jaśkiewicz, M. Klimkowska, A. Nałecz, and E. Izycka-Swieszewska, “Microvascular density in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma,” Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 41(4), 237–239 (2003).
[PubMed]

Klimstra, D. S.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klöppel, G.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knöfel, W. T.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köninger, J.

J. Köninger, N. A. Giese, F. F. di Mola, P. Berberat, T. Giese, I. Esposito, M. G. Bachem, M. W. Büchler, and H. Friess, “Overexpressed decorin in pancreatic cancer: potential tumor growth inhibition and attenuation of chemotherapeutic action,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(14), 4776–4783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnaswamy, V.

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ledent, T.

R. J. Sears, C. W. Duckworth, C. Decaestecker, N. Bourgeois, T. Ledent, J. Deviere, I. Salmon, R. Kiss, and P. Yeaton, “Image cytometry as a discriminatory tool for cytologic specimens obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,” Cancer 84(2), 119–126 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, E.

Lima, C.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, F.

F. Lin and G. Staerkel, “Cytologic criteria for well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens,” Cancer 99(1), 44–50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longnecker, D. S.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüttges, J.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maitra, A.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manabe, T.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative-Analysis of Collagen and Collagen Subtype-I, Subtype-Iii, and Subtype-V in Human Pancreatic-Cancer, Tumor-Associated Chronic-Pancreatitis, and Alcoholic Chronic-Pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. V Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marin, N.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKenna, B.

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. R.

M. B. Cohen, D. P. Egerter, E. A. Holly, D. K. Ahn, and T. R. Miller, “Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: regression analysis to identify improved cytologic criteria,” Diagn. Cytopathol. 7(4), 341–345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

Müller, M. G.

Mycek, M.-A.

Nalecz, A.

R. Rzepko, K. Jaśkiewicz, M. Klimkowska, A. Nałecz, and E. Izycka-Swieszewska, “Microvascular density in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma,” Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 41(4), 237–239 (2003).
[PubMed]

Nazemi, J.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nusrat, A.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. A.

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Offerhaus, G. J.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohshio, G.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative-Analysis of Collagen and Collagen Subtype-I, Subtype-Iii, and Subtype-V in Human Pancreatic-Cancer, Tumor-Associated Chronic-Pancreatitis, and Alcoholic Chronic-Pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte-Carlo-based model for the extraction of intrinsic fluorescence from turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. V Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, J. Y.

M. Xu, T. T. Wu, and J. Y. Qu, “Unified Mie and fractal scattering by cells and experimental study on application in optical characterization of cellular and subcellular structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024015 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte-Carlo-based model for the extraction of intrinsic fluorescence from turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, R.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, “Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7317–7328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiff, J.

P. Hillemanns, J. Reiff, H. Stepp, and P. Soergel, “Lymph node metastasis detection of ovarian cancer by porphyrin fluorescence photodetection: case report,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(3), 131–135 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rzepko, R.

R. Rzepko, K. Jaśkiewicz, M. Klimkowska, A. Nałecz, and E. Izycka-Swieszewska, “Microvascular density in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma,” Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 41(4), 237–239 (2003).
[PubMed]

Saidi, I. S.

Salmon, I.

R. J. Sears, C. W. Duckworth, C. Decaestecker, N. Bourgeois, T. Ledent, J. Deviere, I. Salmon, R. Kiss, and P. Yeaton, “Image cytometry as a discriminatory tool for cytologic specimens obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,” Cancer 84(2), 119–126 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samkoe, K. S.

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheiman, J.

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, L.

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sears, R. J.

R. J. Sears, C. W. Duckworth, C. Decaestecker, N. Bourgeois, T. Ledent, J. Deviere, I. Salmon, R. Kiss, and P. Yeaton, “Image cytometry as a discriminatory tool for cytologic specimens obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,” Cancer 84(2), 119–126 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sefkow, A.

Seiler, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

Shenk, R.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simeone, D.

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S. K.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soehendra, N.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soergel, P.

P. Hillemanns, J. Reiff, H. Stepp, and P. Soergel, “Lymph node metastasis detection of ovarian cancer by porphyrin fluorescence photodetection: case report,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(3), 131–135 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohn, T. A.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: Are They All ‘Chronic Pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Staerkel, G.

F. Lin and G. Staerkel, “Cytologic criteria for well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens,” Cancer 99(1), 44–50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepp, H.

P. Hillemanns, J. Reiff, H. Stepp, and P. Soergel, “Lymph node metastasis detection of ovarian cancer by porphyrin fluorescence photodetection: case report,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(3), 131–135 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

Suwa, H.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative-Analysis of Collagen and Collagen Subtype-I, Subtype-Iii, and Subtype-V in Human Pancreatic-Cancer, Tumor-Associated Chronic-Pancreatitis, and Alcoholic Chronic-Pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takaori, K.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thonke, F.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

Topalidis, T.

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Veen, R. L. P.

Verkruysse, W.

Vishwanath, K.

Volynskaya, Z.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. H.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative-Analysis of Collagen and Collagen Subtype-I, Subtype-Iii, and Subtype-V in Human Pancreatic-Cancer, Tumor-Associated Chronic-Pancreatitis, and Alcoholic Chronic-Pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J.

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilentz, R. E.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: Are They All ‘Chronic Pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Wu, T. T.

M. Xu, T. T. Wu, and J. Y. Qu, “Unified Mie and fractal scattering by cells and experimental study on application in optical characterization of cellular and subcellular structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024015 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

M. Xu, T. T. Wu, and J. Y. Qu, “Unified Mie and fractal scattering by cells and experimental study on application in optical characterization of cellular and subcellular structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024015 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeaton, P.

R. J. Sears, C. W. Duckworth, C. Decaestecker, N. Bourgeois, T. Ledent, J. Deviere, I. Salmon, R. Kiss, and P. Yeaton, “Image cytometry as a discriminatory tool for cytologic specimens obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,” Cancer 84(2), 119–126 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeo, C. J.

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: Are They All ‘Chronic Pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yonezawa, S.

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimura, T.

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative-Analysis of Collagen and Collagen Subtype-I, Subtype-Iii, and Subtype-V in Human Pancreatic-Cancer, Tumor-Associated Chronic-Pancreatitis, and Alcoholic Chronic-Pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

G. Zonios, I. Bassukas, and A. Dimou, “Comparative evaluation of two simple diffuse reflectance models for biological tissue applications,” Appl. Opt. 47(27), 4965–4973 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. V Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

A. Fritscher-Ravens, L. Brand, W. T. Knöfel, C. Bobrowski, T. Topalidis, F. Thonke, A. de Werth, and N. Soehendra, “Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for focal pancreatic lesions in patients with normal parenchyma and chronic pancreatitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(11), 2768–2775 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (3)

S. C. Abraham, R. E. Wilentz, C. J. Yeo, T. A. Sohn, J. L. Cameron, J. K. Boitnott, and R. H. Hruban, “Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple resections) in patients without malignancy: Are They All ‘Chronic Pancreatitis’?” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 27(1), 110–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hruban, K. Takaori, D. S. Klimstra, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, A. V. Biankin, S. A. Biankin, C. Compton, N. Fukushima, T. Furukawa, M. Goggins, Y. Kato, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, A. Maitra, G. J. Offerhaus, M. Shimizu, and S. Yonezawa, “An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28(8), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Hruban, N. V. Adsay, J. Albores-Saavedra, C. Compton, E. S. Garrett, S. N. Goodman, S. E. Kern, D. S. Klimstra, G. Klöppel, D. S. Longnecker, J. Lüttges, and G. J. Offerhaus, “Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a new nomenclature and classification system for pancreatic duct lesions,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(5), 579–586 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Br. J. Surg. (1)

W. Hartwig, L. Schneider, M. K. Diener, F. Bergmann, M. W. Büchler, and J. Werner, “Preoperative tissue diagnosis for tumours of the pancreas,” Br. J. Surg. 96(1), 5–20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cancer (2)

F. Lin and G. Staerkel, “Cytologic criteria for well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens,” Cancer 99(1), 44–50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Sears, C. W. Duckworth, C. Decaestecker, N. Bourgeois, T. Ledent, J. Deviere, I. Salmon, R. Kiss, and P. Yeaton, “Image cytometry as a discriminatory tool for cytologic specimens obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,” Cancer 84(2), 119–126 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

J. Köninger, N. A. Giese, F. F. di Mola, P. Berberat, T. Giese, I. Esposito, M. G. Bachem, M. W. Büchler, and H. Friess, “Overexpressed decorin in pancreatic cancer: potential tumor growth inhibition and attenuation of chemotherapeutic action,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(14), 4776–4783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diagn. Cytopathol. (1)

M. B. Cohen, D. P. Egerter, E. A. Holly, D. K. Ahn, and T. R. Miller, “Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: regression analysis to identify improved cytologic criteria,” Diagn. Cytopathol. 7(4), 341–345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. (1)

R. Rzepko, K. Jaśkiewicz, M. Klimkowska, A. Nałecz, and E. Izycka-Swieszewska, “Microvascular density in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma,” Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 41(4), 237–239 (2003).
[PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. (1)

I. Georgakoudi and M. S. Feld, “The combined use of fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 14(3), 519–537, ix (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (7)

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, and M.-A. Mycek, “Probing pancreatic disease using tissue optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 060501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu, T. T. Wu, and J. Y. Qu, “Unified Mie and fractal scattering by cells and experimental study on application in optical characterization of cellular and subcellular structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024015 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte-Carlo-based model for the extraction of intrinsic fluorescence from turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

P. Hillemanns, J. Reiff, H. Stepp, and P. Soergel, “Lymph node metastasis detection of ovarian cancer by porphyrin fluorescence photodetection: case report,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(3), 131–135 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation,” Med. Phys. 31(7), 1949–1959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Pancreas (1)

T. Imamura, H. Iguchi, T. Manabe, G. Ohshio, T. Yoshimura, Z. H. Wang, H. Suwa, S. Ishigami, and M. Imamura, “Quantitative-Analysis of Collagen and Collagen Subtype-I, Subtype-Iii, and Subtype-V in Human Pancreatic-Cancer, Tumor-Associated Chronic-Pancreatitis, and Alcoholic Chronic-Pancreatitis,” Pancreas 11(4), 357–364 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. V Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

C. F. Bohren, and D. A. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).

“Cancer Statistics 2008,” www.cancer.org .

M. Chandra, D. Heidt, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Scheiman, and M.-A. Mycek, “Pancreatic tissue assessment using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6628, 66281R (2007), 8 pgs.

R. H. Wilson, M. Chandra, J. Scheiman, D. Simeone, B. McKenna, J. Purdy, and M. A. Mycek, “Mathematical modeling of reflectance and intrinsic fluorescence for early cancer detection in human pancreatic tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7187, 71870H (2009), 9 pgs.

S. Prahl, “Optical Absorption of Hemoglobin” (Oregon Medical Laser Center). http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/ .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative histology images [11] of normal pancreatic tissue (BPC = benign pancreatic cells), pancreatitis (WBC = white blood cells), and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (AC = adenocarcinoma cells with enlarged nuclei). The nuclei and stroma have been stained purple (hematoxylin stain) and pink (eosin stain), respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optimal fit of mathematical model (dotted red lines) versus average measured result for reflectance spectra (solid green lines) of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (left) and pancreatitis (right), with residuals (gray). The experimentally obtained reflectance spectrum for normal pancreatic tissue (dashed blue lines) is shown on both plots for comparison. Relative to normal pancreatic tissue, adenocarcinoma was modeled to exhibit a 1.33x increase in the diameter of cell nuclei, and a 3x increase in collagen concentration; the pancreatitis was modeled to also have a 3x increase in collagen concentration, but no significant change in the size of cell nuclei.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength-resolved reduced scattering (left) and absorption (right) coefficients of normal pancreatic tissue (solid blue lines), pancreatitis (dotted green lines), and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (dashed red lines), extracted from the reflectance model employed in this study. The error bars represent standard error as defined in Section 3.5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intrinsic fluorescence spectra (solid green lines) of normal pancreatic tissue (left), pancreatitis (middle), and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (right), each shown with an optimal fit to a linear combination (dotted red lines, residuals in gray) of measured and blue-shifted collagen, NADH, and FAD basis spectra.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Key histological features of pancreatic tissues detected by optical spectroscopy.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fit coefficients Ci (percentage contributions) for collagen, NADH, and FAD basis spectra to intrinsic fluorescence spectra of normal pancreatic tissue, pancreatitis, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Prominent disease-related changes in histology features and measured optical spectra of pancreatic tissues, along with corresponding changes made to mathematical models of reflectance and fluorescence.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μs(λ)=12πNsLo2[1sin2δλδλ+(sinδλδλ)2];δ=πLo(nsnm).
μa(λ)=[Hb]εHb+[HbO2]εHbO2.
RiEMP(λ)=aμs'(λ)exp(Ccorr(λ)μa(λ)b[Ccorr(λ)μa(λ)μs'(λ)]c).
RAMODEL(λ)=RNMEAS(λ)RAEMP(λ)/RNEMP(λ);
RPMODEL(λ)=RNMEAS(λ)RPEMP(λ)/RNEMP(λ).
FINTRINSIC(λ)=FMEAS(λ)exp[μa(λ)+μs'(λ)]z.
BasisFit(λ)=CCOLLAGENFCOLLAGEN(λ)+CNADHFNADH(λ)+CFADFFAD(λ).

Metrics