Abstract

Plasmonic multi-mode interference (MMI) couplers have been investigated both numerically and experimentally at the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 μm. In this study, the couplers are implemented using thin Au stripes that support long-range surface plasmons. We first detail the operation principle of these devices with numerical simulations and show that useful effects can be obtained despite the high material losses inherent to metallic structures. A series of MMI couplers is subsequently fabricated and experimentally characterized, showing a quantitative agreement with our numerical predictions. We conclude by discussing some of the possible applications for these structures.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  44. R. Daviau, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Broadside excitation of surface plasmon waveguides on Cytop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. Degiron, S. Y. Cho, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides,” N. J. Phys. 11(1), 015002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Daviau, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Broadside excitation of surface plasmon waveguides on Cytop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. Degiron, S. Cho, C. Harrison, N. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. Martin, and D. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Are negative index materials achievable with surface plasmon waveguides? A case study of three plasmonic geometries,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19001–19017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (8)

R. Buckley and P. Berini, “Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12174–12182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Degiron, C. Dellagiacoma, J. G. McIlhargey, G. Shvets, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Simulations of hybrid long-range plasmon modes with application to 90 ° bends,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2354–2356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetté-Charbonneau and P. Berini, “External cavity laser using a long-range surface plasmon grating as a distributed Bragg reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Mazingue, R. K. Kribich, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Simulations of refractive index variation in a multimode interference coupler: Application to gas sensing,” Opt. Commun. 278(2), 312–316 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Modotto, M. Conforti, A. Locatelli, and C. De Angelis, “Imaging properties of multimode photonic crystal waveguides and waveguide arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 402–409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1376–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dostálek, A. Kasry, and W. Knoll, “Long range surface plasmons for observation of biomolecular binding events at metallic surfaces,” Plasmonics 2(3), 97–106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (5)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 13(3), 977–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, “An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(6), 1315–1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Liu, A. R. Zakharian, M. Fallahi, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mansuripur, “Multimode interference-based photonic crystal waveguide power splitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(12), 2842–2846 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “A new design approach to large input/output-number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1292–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical Multi-Mode Interference Devices Based on Self-Imaging: Principles and Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 29(1-3), 261–267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

D. J. O’Shannessy, M. Brigham-Burke, and K. Peck, “Immobilization chemistries suitable for use in the BIAcore surface plasmon resonance detector,” Anal. Biochem. 205(1), 132–136 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux, and J. M. Heaton, “Waveguide beam splitters and recombiners based on multimode propagation phenomena,” Opt. Lett. 17(14), 991–993 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

G. J. Kovacs, “Optical excitation of surface plasma waves in an indium film bounded by dielectric layers,” Thin Solid Films 60(1), 33–44 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. Ulrich, “Image formation by phase coincidences in optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 13(3), 259–264 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1959 (1)

C. J. Powell and J. B. Swan, “Origin of the Characteristic Electron Energy Losses in Magnesium,” Phys. Rev. 116(1), 81–83 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma Losses by Fast Electrons in Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. 106(5), 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, “An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(6), 1315–1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

Bachmann, M.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton length scales: a route to sub-wavelength optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S87–S93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

R. Daviau, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Broadside excitation of surface plasmon waveguides on Cytop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1376–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jetté-Charbonneau and P. Berini, “External cavity laser using a long-range surface plasmon grating as a distributed Bragg reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Buckley and P. Berini, “Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12174–12182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Passive Integrated Optics Elements Based on Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 477–494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13030–13042 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 13(3), 977–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Plasmon polariton modes guided by a metal film of finite width,” Opt. Lett. 24(15), 1011–1013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Besse, P. A.

Boltasseva, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Breukelaar, I.

Brigham-Burke, M.

D. J. O’Shannessy, M. Brigham-Burke, and K. Peck, “Immobilization chemistries suitable for use in the BIAcore surface plasmon resonance detector,” Anal. Biochem. 205(1), 132–136 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryngdahl, O.

Buckley, R.

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, R.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1376–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Passive Integrated Optics Elements Based on Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 477–494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 13(3), 977–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

A. Degiron, S. Cho, C. Harrison, N. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. Martin, and D. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. Y.

A. Degiron, S. Y. Cho, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides,” N. J. Phys. 11(1), 015002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cleary, A.

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, “An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(6), 1315–1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Conforti, M.

Cooper, J. M.

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, “An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(6), 1315–1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Daviau, R.

R. Daviau, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Broadside excitation of surface plasmon waveguides on Cytop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, C.

Degiron, A.

A. Degiron, S. Y. Cho, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides,” N. J. Phys. 11(1), 015002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron, S. Cho, C. Harrison, N. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. Martin, and D. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron, C. Dellagiacoma, J. G. McIlhargey, G. Shvets, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Simulations of hybrid long-range plasmon modes with application to 90 ° bends,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2354–2356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dellagiacoma, C.

A. Degiron, S. Cho, C. Harrison, N. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. Martin, and D. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron, C. Dellagiacoma, J. G. McIlhargey, G. Shvets, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Simulations of hybrid long-range plasmon modes with application to 90 ° bends,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2354–2356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devereux, R. W. J.

Dionne, J. A.

Dostálek, J.

J. Dostálek, A. Kasry, and W. Knoll, “Long range surface plasmons for observation of biomolecular binding events at metallic surfaces,” Plasmonics 2(3), 97–106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Etienne, P.

T. Mazingue, R. K. Kribich, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Simulations of refractive index variation in a multimode interference coupler: Application to gas sensing,” Opt. Commun. 278(2), 312–316 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fafard, S.

Fallahi, M.

Fleischmann, M.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Blanco, S.

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, “An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(6), 1315–1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glidle, A.

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, “An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(6), 1315–1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R. D.

R. D. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 29(1-3), 261–267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, C.

A. Degiron, S. Cho, C. Harrison, N. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. Martin, and D. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heaton, J. M.

Hendra, P. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Z.

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “A new design approach to large input/output-number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1292–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, R. M.

Jette-Charbonneau, S.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jetté-Charbonneau, S.

S. Jetté-Charbonneau and P. Berini, “External cavity laser using a long-range surface plasmon grating as a distributed Bragg reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N.

A. Degiron, S. Cho, C. Harrison, N. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. Martin, and D. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

A. Degiron, S. Y. Cho, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides,” N. J. Phys. 11(1), 015002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasry, A.

J. Dostálek, A. Kasry, and W. Knoll, “Long range surface plasmons for observation of biomolecular binding events at metallic surfaces,” Plasmonics 2(3), 97–106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kjaer, K.

Knoll, W.

J. Dostálek, A. Kasry, and W. Knoll, “Long range surface plasmons for observation of biomolecular binding events at metallic surfaces,” Plasmonics 2(3), 97–106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kovacs, G. J.

G. J. Kovacs, “Optical excitation of surface plasma waves in an indium film bounded by dielectric layers,” Thin Solid Films 60(1), 33–44 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kribich, R. K.

T. Mazingue, R. K. Kribich, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Simulations of refractive index variation in a multimode interference coupler: Application to gas sensing,” Opt. Commun. 278(2), 312–316 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lahoud, N.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1376–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Passive Integrated Optics Elements Based on Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 477–494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 13(3), 977–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, M. S.

Laybourn, P.

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, “An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(6), 1315–1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lisicka-Skrzek, E.

R. Daviau, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Broadside excitation of surface plasmon waveguides on Cytop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.

Locatelli, A.

Macdonald, R. I.

Mansuripur, M.

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O.

A. Degiron, S. Cho, C. Harrison, N. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. Martin, and D. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

Mattiussi, G.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Passive Integrated Optics Elements Based on Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 477–494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 13(3), 977–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazingue, T.

T. Mazingue, R. K. Kribich, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Simulations of refractive index variation in a multimode interference coupler: Application to gas sensing,” Opt. Commun. 278(2), 312–316 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McIlhargey, J. G.

McQuillan, A. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

Modotto, D.

Moloney, J. V.

Moreau, Y.

T. Mazingue, R. K. Kribich, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Simulations of refractive index variation in a multimode interference coupler: Application to gas sensing,” Opt. Commun. 278(2), 312–316 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen, T.

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Shannessy, D. J.

D. J. O’Shannessy, M. Brigham-Burke, and K. Peck, “Immobilization chemistries suitable for use in the BIAcore surface plasmon resonance detector,” Anal. Biochem. 205(1), 132–136 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “A new design approach to large input/output-number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1292–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paiam, M. R.

Peck, K.

D. J. O’Shannessy, M. Brigham-Burke, and K. Peck, “Immobilization chemistries suitable for use in the BIAcore surface plasmon resonance detector,” Anal. Biochem. 205(1), 132–136 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical Multi-Mode Interference Devices Based on Self-Imaging: Principles and Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

Powell, C. J.

C. J. Powell and J. B. Swan, “Origin of the Characteristic Electron Energy Losses in Magnesium,” Phys. Rev. 116(1), 81–83 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma Losses by Fast Electrons in Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. 106(5), 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Salakhutdinov, I.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scales, C.

Scarmozzino, R.

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “A new design approach to large input/output-number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1292–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

Smith, D.

A. Degiron, S. Cho, C. Harrison, N. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. Martin, and D. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

A. Degiron, S. Y. Cho, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides,” N. J. Phys. 11(1), 015002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron, C. Dellagiacoma, J. G. McIlhargey, G. Shvets, O. J. F. Martin, and D. R. Smith, “Simulations of hybrid long-range plasmon modes with application to 90 ° bends,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2354–2356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical Multi-Mode Interference Devices Based on Self-Imaging: Principles and Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Swan, J. B.

C. J. Powell and J. B. Swan, “Origin of the Characteristic Electron Energy Losses in Magnesium,” Phys. Rev. 116(1), 81–83 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Tait, R. N.

R. Daviau, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Broadside excitation of surface plasmon waveguides on Cytop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, T.

A. Degiron, S. Y. Cho, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides,” N. J. Phys. 11(1), 015002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, “Image formation by phase coincidences in optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 13(3), 259–264 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Wilkinson, J. S.

R. D. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 29(1-3), 261–267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zakharian, A. R.

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

D. J. O’Shannessy, M. Brigham-Burke, and K. Peck, “Immobilization chemistries suitable for use in the BIAcore surface plasmon resonance detector,” Anal. Biochem. 205(1), 132–136 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. Daviau, E. Lisicka-Skrzek, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Broadside excitation of surface plasmon waveguides on Cytop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetté-Charbonneau and P. Berini, “External cavity laser using a long-range surface plasmon grating as a distributed Bragg reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 26(2), 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “A new design approach to large input/output-number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1292–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

A. Cleary, S. Garcia-Blanco, A. Glidle, J. S. Aitchison, P. Laybourn, and J. M. Cooper, “An integrated fluorescence array as a platform for lab-on-a-chip technology using multimode interference splitters,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(6), 1315–1320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jette-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton length scales: a route to sub-wavelength optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S87–S93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

N. J. Phys. (1)

A. Degiron, S. Y. Cho, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides,” N. J. Phys. 11(1), 015002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1376–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. Ulrich, “Image formation by phase coincidences in optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 13(3), 259–264 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. Mazingue, R. K. Kribich, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Simulations of refractive index variation in a multimode interference coupler: Application to gas sensing,” Opt. Commun. 278(2), 312–316 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma Losses by Fast Electrons in Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. 106(5), 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Powell and J. B. Swan, “Origin of the Characteristic Electron Energy Losses in Magnesium,” Phys. Rev. 116(1), 81–83 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Degiron, S. Cho, C. Harrison, N. Jokerst, C. Dellagiacoma, O. Martin, and D. Smith, “Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 021804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Plasmonics (1)

J. Dostálek, A. Kasry, and W. Knoll, “Long range surface plasmons for observation of biomolecular binding events at metallic surfaces,” Plasmonics 2(3), 97–106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

R. D. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 29(1-3), 261–267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

G. J. Kovacs, “Optical excitation of surface plasma waves in an indium film bounded by dielectric layers,” Thin Solid Films 60(1), 33–44 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, San Diego, 1998).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section of a long-range plasmonic waveguide. (b) Schematic layout of 1×N MMI couplers (top view).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Predicted field patterns for three coupler widths (24 μm, 36 μm, 60 μm). The Au thickness is 25 nm and the field amplitudes are calculated in a plane slightly above the metal stripe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscope image of a fabricated sample (note that the figure was created by combining three different views of the sample).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

. (a) Experimental characterization setup. (b) Infrared images obtained at the output ports of a 1×3 splitter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic diagram of the structures under investigation. Optical and AFM measurements indicate that the width of the input and output waveguides is 4.3 μm, the width of the MMI section is 24.6 μm and the Au thickness is 29.4 nm. (b) Measured and calculated transmission as a function of the coupling length.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental and numerical characterization of 1×3 MMI couplers. (a) Schematic of the sample. The width of the input and output waveguides is 4.8 μm, the width of the MMI section is 61.5 μm and the Au thickness is 26.3 nm. The center-to-center separation distance between the three output waveguides is 21 μm. (b) Fraction of the input signal coupled to the center output access waveguide as a function of the coupling length.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ratio of the energy coupled to the center access waveguide and the energy coupled to the side access waveguides [i.e. Icenter/avg(Ileft, Iright)]. The structures studied here are the 1×3 MMI couplers already considered in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Light emitted at the output of the 1×3 splitters studied in Fig. 7 and 8. The coupling length of the structures are (a) 1150 μm, (b) 1250 μm, (c) 1292 μm, (d) 1400 μm and (e) 1600 μm, respectively. The intensity of each picture has been arbitrarily and independently adjusted so that the spots remain visible when the coupling length is not optimum.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison between the simple analytical model [Eq. (3)] and the full eigenmode analysis (Fig. 2). β0 and β1 have been computed with our numerical eigensolver approach.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Hmmi(x,y,z)=ν=0m1cνHν(x,y)exp[jβνz],
cν=(Eν×Hin)·zdA(Eν×Hν)·zdA·(Ein×Hin)·zdA,
pN(34πβ0β1),p=0,1,2...

Metrics