Abstract

High power light-emitting diodes (HPLEDs) are frequently being operated in a pulsed manner. The research presented here focuses on the optical, electrical and thermal behaviour of a HPLED under pulse width modulation (PWM), and has the following twofold aim. Firstly, investigating the temperature dependence of the HPLED’s efficiency, where it was found that the exact method of operation and the definition of calculation is crucial when making claims. Secondly, we propose a method to simulate the absolute emitted luminous flux of a current driven HPLED under PWM. This is done by making use of experimentally determined characteristic parameters of the HPLED. This has as advantage that no further physical measurements are needed to investigate the HPLEDs behavior under numerous different PWM circumstances.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (5)

J. K. Kim and E. F Schubert, "Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting," Opt. Express 16, 21835-21842 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yang,. J. Hu, and M. Shin, "Dynamic Thermal Analysis of High-Power LEDs at Pulse Conditions," Electron. Device Lett. 29, 863-866 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Senawiratne, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, A. Chatterjee, J. L. Plawsky, and C. Wetzel, "Junction Temperature Measurements and Thermal Modeling of GaInN/GaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 37, 607-610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Chen, C. Lin, Y. Yang, C. Shen, T. Wang, and M. Wu, "Measurement of Junction Temperature in a Nitride Light-Emitting Diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8779-8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B-J. Huang and C-W. Tang, and M-S. Wu, "System dynamics model of high-power LED luminaire," Appl. Therm. Eng. 29, 609-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

H. Ra, K. S. Song, C. Ok and Y. Hahn, "Heat transfer behavior of high-power light-emitting diode packages," Korean J. Chem. Engin. 24, 197-203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. Kyu Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, "Origin of efciency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,183507-183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. George Craford, "Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Manninen and P. Orrevetelainen, "On spectral and thermal behaviors of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes under pulse-width modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y. Xi, J.-Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman "Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Bera, R. V. Singh, and V. K. Garg, "Temperature Behavior and Compensation of Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2286-2288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ryu, K. Ha, J. Chae, O. N. Nam, and Y. Park, "Measurement of junction temperature in GaN-based laser diodes using voltage-temperature characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Xi and E. F. Schubert, "Junction temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2163-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Figge, T. Bottcher, D. Hommel, C. Zellweger, and M. Ilegems, "Heat generation and dissipation in GaN-based light emitting devices," Phys. Status Solidi A,  200(1), 83-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. K. Wachutka, "Rigorous Thermodynamic Treatment of Heat Generation and Conduction in Semiconductor Device Modeling," IEEE Trans. Comp. Aided Design 9, 1141-1149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

W. Nakwaski and A. M. Kontkiewicz, "Temperature distribution in a light-emitting diode during a pulse operation," Electron. Lett. 20, 984-985 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adivarahan, V.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allerman, A. A.

Y. Xi, J.-Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman "Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asif Khan, M.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bera, S. C.

S. C. Bera, R. V. Singh, and V. K. Garg, "Temperature Behavior and Compensation of Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2286-2288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bogart, K. H. A.

Y. Xi, J.-Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman "Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bottcher, T.

S. Figge, T. Bottcher, D. Hommel, C. Zellweger, and M. Ilegems, "Heat generation and dissipation in GaN-based light emitting devices," Phys. Status Solidi A,  200(1), 83-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chae, J.

H. Ryu, K. Ha, J. Chae, O. N. Nam, and Y. Park, "Measurement of junction temperature in GaN-based laser diodes using voltage-temperature characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chatterjee, A.

J. Senawiratne, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, A. Chatterjee, J. L. Plawsky, and C. Wetzel, "Junction Temperature Measurements and Thermal Modeling of GaInN/GaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 37, 607-610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

N. Chen, C. Lin, Y. Yang, C. Shen, T. Wang, and M. Wu, "Measurement of Junction Temperature in a Nitride Light-Emitting Diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8779-8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chitnis, A.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

Y. Xi, J.-Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman "Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. Kyu Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, "Origin of efciency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,183507-183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

J. Senawiratne, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, A. Chatterjee, J. L. Plawsky, and C. Wetzel, "Junction Temperature Measurements and Thermal Modeling of GaInN/GaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 37, 607-610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Figge, S.

S. Figge, T. Bottcher, D. Hommel, C. Zellweger, and M. Ilegems, "Heat generation and dissipation in GaN-based light emitting devices," Phys. Status Solidi A,  200(1), 83-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

Y. Xi, J.-Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman "Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garg, V. K.

S. C. Bera, R. V. Singh, and V. K. Garg, "Temperature Behavior and Compensation of Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2286-2288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

George Craford, M.

Gessmann, Th.

Y. Xi, J.-Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman "Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ha, K.

H. Ryu, K. Ha, J. Chae, O. N. Nam, and Y. Park, "Measurement of junction temperature in GaN-based laser diodes using voltage-temperature characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, Y.

H. Ra, K. S. Song, C. Ok and Y. Hahn, "Heat transfer behavior of high-power light-emitting diode packages," Korean J. Chem. Engin. 24, 197-203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

Hommel, D.

S. Figge, T. Bottcher, D. Hommel, C. Zellweger, and M. Ilegems, "Heat generation and dissipation in GaN-based light emitting devices," Phys. Status Solidi A,  200(1), 83-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, B-J.

B-J. Huang and C-W. Tang, and M-S. Wu, "System dynamics model of high-power LED luminaire," Appl. Therm. Eng. 29, 609-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ilegems, M.

S. Figge, T. Bottcher, D. Hommel, C. Zellweger, and M. Ilegems, "Heat generation and dissipation in GaN-based light emitting devices," Phys. Status Solidi A,  200(1), 83-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim and E. F Schubert, "Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting," Opt. Express 16, 21835-21842 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xi, J.-Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman "Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

M. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. Kyu Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, "Origin of efciency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,183507-183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kontkiewicz, A. M.

W. Nakwaski and A. M. Kontkiewicz, "Temperature distribution in a light-emitting diode during a pulse operation," Electron. Lett. 20, 984-985 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

Kyu Kim, J.

M. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. Kyu Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, "Origin of efciency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,183507-183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Senawiratne, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, A. Chatterjee, J. L. Plawsky, and C. Wetzel, "Junction Temperature Measurements and Thermal Modeling of GaInN/GaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 37, 607-610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

N. Chen, C. Lin, Y. Yang, C. Shen, T. Wang, and M. Wu, "Measurement of Junction Temperature in a Nitride Light-Emitting Diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8779-8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mandavilli, V.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manninen, P.

P. Manninen and P. Orrevetelainen, "On spectral and thermal behaviors of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes under pulse-width modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Mueller-Mach, R.

Nakwaski, W.

W. Nakwaski and A. M. Kontkiewicz, "Temperature distribution in a light-emitting diode during a pulse operation," Electron. Lett. 20, 984-985 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nam, O. N.

H. Ryu, K. Ha, J. Chae, O. N. Nam, and Y. Park, "Measurement of junction temperature in GaN-based laser diodes using voltage-temperature characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ok, C.

H. Ra, K. S. Song, C. Ok and Y. Hahn, "Heat transfer behavior of high-power light-emitting diode packages," Korean J. Chem. Engin. 24, 197-203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orrevetelainen, P.

P. Manninen and P. Orrevetelainen, "On spectral and thermal behaviors of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes under pulse-width modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pachipulusu, R.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. Kyu Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, "Origin of efciency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,183507-183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ryu, K. Ha, J. Chae, O. N. Nam, and Y. Park, "Measurement of junction temperature in GaN-based laser diodes using voltage-temperature characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

M. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. Kyu Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, "Origin of efciency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,183507-183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Plawsky, J. L.

J. Senawiratne, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, A. Chatterjee, J. L. Plawsky, and C. Wetzel, "Junction Temperature Measurements and Thermal Modeling of GaInN/GaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 37, 607-610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ra, H.

H. Ra, K. S. Song, C. Ok and Y. Hahn, "Heat transfer behavior of high-power light-emitting diode packages," Korean J. Chem. Engin. 24, 197-203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.

H. Ryu, K. Ha, J. Chae, O. N. Nam, and Y. Park, "Measurement of junction temperature in GaN-based laser diodes using voltage-temperature characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F

Schubert, E. F.

M. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. Kyu Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, "Origin of efciency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,183507-183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xi, J.-Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman "Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xi and E. F. Schubert, "Junction temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2163-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. Kyu Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, "Origin of efciency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,183507-183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Senawiratne, J.

J. Senawiratne, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, A. Chatterjee, J. L. Plawsky, and C. Wetzel, "Junction Temperature Measurements and Thermal Modeling of GaInN/GaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 37, 607-610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sereika, A.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J. M.

Y. Xi, J.-Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman "Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shatalov, M.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

Shen, C.

N. Chen, C. Lin, Y. Yang, C. Shen, T. Wang, and M. Wu, "Measurement of Junction Temperature in a Nitride Light-Emitting Diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8779-8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simin, G.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R. V.

S. C. Bera, R. V. Singh, and V. K. Garg, "Temperature Behavior and Compensation of Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2286-2288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, K. S.

H. Ra, K. S. Song, C. Ok and Y. Hahn, "Heat transfer behavior of high-power light-emitting diode packages," Korean J. Chem. Engin. 24, 197-203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tamulaitis, G.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C-W.

B-J. Huang and C-W. Tang, and M-S. Wu, "System dynamics model of high-power LED luminaire," Appl. Therm. Eng. 29, 609-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wachutka, G. K.

G. K. Wachutka, "Rigorous Thermodynamic Treatment of Heat Generation and Conduction in Semiconductor Device Modeling," IEEE Trans. Comp. Aided Design 9, 1141-1149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

N. Chen, C. Lin, Y. Yang, C. Shen, T. Wang, and M. Wu, "Measurement of Junction Temperature in a Nitride Light-Emitting Diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8779-8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

J. Senawiratne, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, A. Chatterjee, J. L. Plawsky, and C. Wetzel, "Junction Temperature Measurements and Thermal Modeling of GaInN/GaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 37, 607-610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

N. Chen, C. Lin, Y. Yang, C. Shen, T. Wang, and M. Wu, "Measurement of Junction Temperature in a Nitride Light-Emitting Diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8779-8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M-S.

B-J. Huang and C-W. Tang, and M-S. Wu, "System dynamics model of high-power LED luminaire," Appl. Therm. Eng. 29, 609-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

Y. Xi, J.-Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman "Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Y.

Y. Xi, J.-Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman "Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xi and E. F. Schubert, "Junction temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2163-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

J. Senawiratne, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, A. Chatterjee, J. L. Plawsky, and C. Wetzel, "Junction Temperature Measurements and Thermal Modeling of GaInN/GaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 37, 607-610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

L. Yang,. J. Hu, and M. Shin, "Dynamic Thermal Analysis of High-Power LEDs at Pulse Conditions," Electron. Device Lett. 29, 863-866 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

N. Chen, C. Lin, Y. Yang, C. Shen, T. Wang, and M. Wu, "Measurement of Junction Temperature in a Nitride Light-Emitting Diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8779-8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yilmaz, I.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zellweger, C.

S. Figge, T. Bottcher, D. Hommel, C. Zellweger, and M. Ilegems, "Heat generation and dissipation in GaN-based light emitting devices," Phys. Status Solidi A,  200(1), 83-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. P.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

J. Senawiratne, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, A. Chatterjee, J. L. Plawsky, and C. Wetzel, "Junction Temperature Measurements and Thermal Modeling of GaInN/GaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 37, 607-610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Zhu, M.

J. Senawiratne, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, A. Chatterjee, J. L. Plawsky, and C. Wetzel, "Junction Temperature Measurements and Thermal Modeling of GaInN/GaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 37, 607-610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, "Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 167-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Manninen and P. Orrevetelainen, "On spectral and thermal behaviors of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes under pulse-width modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xi, J.-Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman "Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xi and E. F. Schubert, "Junction temperature measurement in GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using diode forward voltage method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2163-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ryu, K. Ha, J. Chae, O. N. Nam, and Y. Park, "Measurement of junction temperature in GaN-based laser diodes using voltage-temperature characteristics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 093506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. Kyu Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, "Origin of efciency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,183507-183509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Therm. Eng. (1)

B-J. Huang and C-W. Tang, and M-S. Wu, "System dynamics model of high-power LED luminaire," Appl. Therm. Eng. 29, 609-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Device Lett. (1)

L. Yang,. J. Hu, and M. Shin, "Dynamic Thermal Analysis of High-Power LEDs at Pulse Conditions," Electron. Device Lett. 29, 863-866 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Nakwaski and A. M. Kontkiewicz, "Temperature distribution in a light-emitting diode during a pulse operation," Electron. Lett. 20, 984-985 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. C. Bera, R. V. Singh, and V. K. Garg, "Temperature Behavior and Compensation of Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2286-2288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comp. Aided Design (1)

G. K. Wachutka, "Rigorous Thermodynamic Treatment of Heat Generation and Conduction in Semiconductor Device Modeling," IEEE Trans. Comp. Aided Design 9, 1141-1149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

J. Senawiratne, Y. Li, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, T. Detchprohm, A. Chatterjee, J. L. Plawsky, and C. Wetzel, "Junction Temperature Measurements and Thermal Modeling of GaInN/GaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 37, 607-610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Chen, C. Lin, Y. Yang, C. Shen, T. Wang, and M. Wu, "Measurement of Junction Temperature in a Nitride Light-Emitting Diode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8779-8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korean J. Chem. Engin. (1)

H. Ra, K. S. Song, C. Ok and Y. Hahn, "Heat transfer behavior of high-power light-emitting diode packages," Korean J. Chem. Engin. 24, 197-203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

S. Figge, T. Bottcher, D. Hommel, C. Zellweger, and M. Ilegems, "Heat generation and dissipation in GaN-based light emitting devices," Phys. Status Solidi A,  200(1), 83-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

Y. Gu, N. Narendran, T. Dong, and H. Wu, "Spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power LEDs under different dimming methods," Proc. SPIE 6337, 63370J (2006).

R. V. Steele, "The story of a new light source," Nat. Photonics 1, 25-26 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Prospects for LED lighting," Nat. Photonics 3, 180-182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. R. McCluney and R. McCluney, Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry (Artech House, 1994).

R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the detection of optical radiation (Artech House, 1994).

CIE, The Basis of Physical Photometry, 2nd ed. (publ. no. 18.2 1983).

CIE, International Lighting Vocabulary (publ. no. 17.4" 1987).

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, Second Edition (Cambridge, 2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Keppens,W. R. Ryckaert, G. Deconick, and P. Hanselaer, "High power light-emitting diode junction temperature determination from current-voltage characteristics," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093104.1-093104.8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, "Color Rendering and Luminous Efficacy of White LED Spectra," Proc. SPIE Vol. 5530, 88-89 (2004).

L. Jayasinghe and Y. Gu, and N. Nadarajah, "Characterization of thermal resistance coefficient of high-power LEDs," Proc. SPIE 6337, 63370V (2006).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The relation between the oven temperature and voltage of the HPLED at different currents.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The fitted parameters of Fig 1. a) The gradients of the fitted lines and b) the voltage when Tj =0°C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The calculated Keff at different duty cycles and periods. The 700ms, 1000ms and 1400ms plotted points represent the measurements at those currents with T=10ms over the duty cycle range of D=10%,20%…90%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured pulse with D=70%: a) Current b)Voltage c) Tot. luminous flux d) radiant flux.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Zoomed in on y-axis of the pulse: a) Current, b) Voltage, c) Tot. luminous flux d) Temperature.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The relative luminous flux and relative power : a) 700mA b)1000mA c) 1400mA.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The relative radiant flux and relative power : a) 700mA b)1000mA c) 1400mA.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The calculated luminous efficacy of the HPLED: a) 700mA, b)1000mA, c) 1400mA.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The calculated radiant efficiency of the HPLED: a) 700mA, b)1000mA, c) 1400mA.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

The external quantum efficiency: a) 700mA, b) 1000mA, c) 1400mA

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

LED structure and temperature flow

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

The measured heat sink temperature as function of mean power sent to the device.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

The calculated K values for each of the three operating currents as function of mean electrical power supplied to the HPLED in one cycle.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

The calculated H-parameters as function of mean electrical power.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Simulated vs.measurement for D=40%, K=101 s -1, H=1400 J °C -1, Ths =28.23 ηv =35.6, ηe =0.081766, If =700mA, a) Current b) luminous flux c) Junction temperature.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Difference between simulation and measurement results a)The absolute temperature difference b) the relative difference in luminous flux.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Different pulse durations and periods investigated.

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D=τT,
ηe=ΦePd=ΦeVfIf.
ηext=Φe(hν)Ife.
ηv=ΦvPd.
Vf=A0(If)·Tj+V0(If).
Keff=Km380780V(λ)S(λ)dλ380780S(λ)dλ,
Φe=ΦvKeff,
Φv=ηv(If)·Vf(If,Tf)·If,
=ηv(If)·[A0(If)Tj+V0(If)]·If.
MjCp,jdTjdt=PheatAhjc(TjTc)Ahjsl(TjTsl).
dTjdt=H PheatK (TjThs) .
H=1MjCp,j,K=AhjhsMjCp,j.
dTjdt=K(TjThs).
Pheat=PdΦe=[1ηe(If)]·If·Vf(If,Tj),
=[1ηe(If)]·If·[A0(If)Tj+V0(If)].
dTjdt=H [1ηe(If)]·If·[A0(If)Tj+V0(If)]K(Pd)(TjThs).
H=K(Pd)[1ηe(If)] · [TjThs]If·[A0(If)Tj+V0(If)] .
Φv,rel=Φv,simΦv,measΦv,meas * 100 .

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