Abstract

We present the design and the realization of active photonic crystal (PhC) semiconductor lasers. The PhC consists of semiconductor nanostructure pillars which provide gain at a quantized transition energy. The vertical layer sequence is that of a terahertz quantum cascade laser. Thereby, the artificial crystal itself provides the optical gain and the lateral confinement. The cavities do not rely on a central defect, the lasing is observed in flat-band regions at high symmetry points. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the finite-difference time-domain simulations. For the vertical confinement a double-metal waveguide is used. The lasers are showing a stable single-mode emission under all driving conditions. Varying the period of the PhC allows to tune the frequency by 400 GHz.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H.-W. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, E. H. Lienfield, A. G. Davis, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature (London) 417, 156-159 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, J. Xu, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosiunas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335-5345 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 113-128 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdr, G. Scalari, L. Sirigu, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Small optical volume terahertz emitting microdisk quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Fasching, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, R. Zobl, T. Roch,W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, and V. Tamosiunas, "Sub-wavelength terahertz quantum-cascade laser resonators (presented conference paper style)," presented at CLEO06, Los Angeles, CA, May 21-26, 2006 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Benz, G. Fasching, C. Deutsch, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz photonic crystal resonators in double-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12418-12424 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Benz, G. Fasching, A. M. Andrews, M. Martl, K. Unterrainer, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, and G. Strasser, "The influence of doping on the performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. Sakoda, "Enhanced light amplification due to group-velocity anomaly peculiar to two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Express 4, 167-176 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and G. Burr, "Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in fdtd," Opt. Lett. 31, 2972-2974 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Nojima, "Single-mode laser oscillation in semiconductor gain photonic crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 867-869 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (7)

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 113-128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benz, G. Fasching, C. Deutsch, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz photonic crystal resonators in double-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12418-12424 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, L. A. Dunbar, G. Scalari, R. Houdre, and J. Faist, "Terahertz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 15, 16818-16827 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kroll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature (London) 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdr, G. Scalari, L. Sirigu, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Small optical volume terahertz emitting microdisk quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Benz, G. Fasching, A. M. Andrews, M. Martl, K. Unterrainer, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, and G. Strasser, "The influence of doping on the performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, J. Xu, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosiunas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335-5345 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and G. Burr, "Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in fdtd," Opt. Lett. 31, 2972-2974 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

L. A. Dunbar, V. Moreau, R. Ferrini, R. Houdr, L. Sirigu, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Design, fabrication and optical characterisation of quantum cascade lasers at terahertz frequencies using photonic crystal reflectors," Opt. Express 13, 8960-8968 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, E. H. Lienfield, A. G. Davis, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature (London) 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

1999 (3)

S. Nojima, "Single-mode laser oscillation in semiconductor gain photonic crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 867-869 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakoda, "Enhanced light amplification due to group-velocity anomaly peculiar to two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Express 4, 167-176 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, A. M.

A. Benz, G. Fasching, C. Deutsch, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz photonic crystal resonators in double-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12418-12424 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benz, G. Fasching, A. M. Andrews, M. Martl, K. Unterrainer, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, and G. Strasser, "The influence of doping on the performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baryshev, A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baselmans, J. J. A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, J. Xu, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosiunas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335-5345 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, E. H. Lienfield, A. G. Davis, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature (London) 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

Beltram, F.

Benz, A.

A. Benz, G. Fasching, A. M. Andrews, M. Martl, K. Unterrainer, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, and G. Strasser, "The influence of doping on the performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Benz, G. Fasching, C. Deutsch, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz photonic crystal resonators in double-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12418-12424 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Burr, G.

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

J. Kroll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature (London) 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Darmo, J.

J. Kroll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature (London) 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

Davis, A. G.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, E. H. Lienfield, A. G. Davis, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature (London) 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Demichel, O.

Deutsch, C.

Dhillon, S. S.

J. Kroll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature (London) 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dunbar, L. A.

Faist, J.

H. Zhang, L. A. Dunbar, G. Scalari, R. Houdre, and J. Faist, "Terahertz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 15, 16818-16827 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdr, G. Scalari, L. Sirigu, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Small optical volume terahertz emitting microdisk quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Dunbar, V. Moreau, R. Ferrini, R. Houdr, L. Sirigu, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Design, fabrication and optical characterisation of quantum cascade lasers at terahertz frequencies using photonic crystal reflectors," Opt. Express 13, 8960-8968 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, J. A.

Fan, S.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Farjadpour, A.

Fasching, G.

A. Benz, G. Fasching, A. M. Andrews, M. Martl, K. Unterrainer, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, and G. Strasser, "The influence of doping on the performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Benz, G. Fasching, C. Deutsch, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz photonic crystal resonators in double-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12418-12424 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferrini, R.

Fischer, M.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

Golka, S.

A. Benz, G. Fasching, A. M. Andrews, M. Martl, K. Unterrainer, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, and G. Strasser, "The influence of doping on the performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, R.

Hormoz, S.

Houdr, R.

Houdre, R.

Hovenier, J. N.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoyler, N.

Hu, Q.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 113-128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hubers, H.-W.

H.-W. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Iotti, R. C.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, E. H. Lienfield, A. G. Davis, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature (London) 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Khanna, S. P.

Klang, P.

Kohen, S.

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, R.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, E. H. Lienfield, A. G. Davis, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature (London) 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, J.

J. Kroll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature (London) 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 113-128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lachab, M.

Lee, A. W. M.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 113-128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lienfield, E. H.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, E. H. Lienfield, A. G. Davis, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature (London) 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

Losco, T.

Mahler, L.

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, J. Xu, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosiunas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335-5345 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marcadet, X.

J. Kroll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature (London) 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martl, M.

A. Benz, G. Fasching, A. M. Andrews, M. Martl, K. Unterrainer, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, and G. Strasser, "The influence of doping on the performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mauro, C.

Moreau, V.

Nojima, S.

S. Nojima, "Optical-gain enhancement in two-dimensional active photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 545-551 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nojima, "Single-mode laser oscillation in semiconductor gain photonic crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 867-869 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, S. G.

H.-W. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Q.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 113-128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 113-128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richter, H.

H.-W. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

H.-W. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, J. Xu, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosiunas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335-5345 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, E. H. Lienfield, A. G. Davis, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature (London) 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roch, T.

A. Benz, G. Fasching, A. M. Andrews, M. Martl, K. Unterrainer, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, and G. Strasser, "The influence of doping on the performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, A.

Rossi, F.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, E. H. Lienfield, A. G. Davis, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature (London) 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roundy, D.

Sakoda, K.

Scalari, G.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdr, G. Scalari, L. Sirigu, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Small optical volume terahertz emitting microdisk quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, L. A. Dunbar, G. Scalari, R. Houdre, and J. Faist, "Terahertz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 15, 16818-16827 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Dunbar, V. Moreau, R. Ferrini, R. Houdr, L. Sirigu, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Design, fabrication and optical characterisation of quantum cascade lasers at terahertz frequencies using photonic crystal reflectors," Opt. Express 13, 8960-8968 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrenk, W.

A. Benz, G. Fasching, A. M. Andrews, M. Martl, K. Unterrainer, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, and G. Strasser, "The influence of doping on the performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Benz, G. Fasching, C. Deutsch, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz photonic crystal resonators in double-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12418-12424 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A. D.

H.-W. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sirigu, L.

Sirtori, C.

J. Kroll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature (London) 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

A. Benz, G. Fasching, C. Deutsch, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz photonic crystal resonators in double-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12418-12424 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benz, G. Fasching, A. M. Andrews, M. Martl, K. Unterrainer, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, and G. Strasser, "The influence of doping on the performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamosiunas, V.

Terazzi, R.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

H.-W. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, J. Xu, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosiunas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335-5345 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, E. H. Lienfield, A. G. Davis, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature (London) 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

A. Benz, G. Fasching, A. M. Andrews, M. Martl, K. Unterrainer, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, and G. Strasser, "The influence of doping on the performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kroll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature (London) 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Benz, G. Fasching, C. Deutsch, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz photonic crystal resonators in double-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12418-12424 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walther, C.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 113-128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Yang, Z. Q.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zobl, R.

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdr, G. Scalari, L. Sirigu, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Small optical volume terahertz emitting microdisk quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Benz, G. Fasching, A. M. Andrews, M. Martl, K. Unterrainer, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, and G. Strasser, "The influence of doping on the performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Nojima, "Optical-gain enhancement in two-dimensional active photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 545-551 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Nojima, "Single-mode laser oscillation in semiconductor gain photonic crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 867-869 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

J. Kroll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature (London) 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, E. H. Lienfield, A. G. Davis, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature (London) 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

K. Sakoda, "Enhanced light amplification due to group-velocity anomaly peculiar to two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Express 4, 167-176 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Dunbar, V. Moreau, R. Ferrini, R. Houdr, L. Sirigu, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Design, fabrication and optical characterisation of quantum cascade lasers at terahertz frequencies using photonic crystal reflectors," Opt. Express 13, 8960-8968 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, J. Xu, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosiunas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335-5345 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 113-128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benz, G. Fasching, C. Deutsch, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz photonic crystal resonators in double-metal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12418-12424 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, L. A. Dunbar, G. Scalari, R. Houdre, and J. Faist, "Terahertz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 15, 16818-16827 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K," Opt. Express 16, 3242-3248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Fasching, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, R. Zobl, T. Roch,W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, and V. Tamosiunas, "Sub-wavelength terahertz quantum-cascade laser resonators (presented conference paper style)," presented at CLEO06, Los Angeles, CA, May 21-26, 2006 (2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic of the real device and the mode evolution inside the resonator. (a) The devices are built up by a defect-free 2D-PhC which is embedded in a double-metal waveguide, the active pillars provide the required gain. The inset is showing a calculated bandstructure of the ideal PhC. The pillar-based PhCs are typically showing bandgaps for TM-modes, the first one spans from 0.22 to 0.31 [fa/c] in our structure. (b) FDTD-results of the mode evolution as a function of time. The gaussian broad band source is placed in the central pillar, it has a center frequency of 0.18 [fa/c] and a spectral width of 0.1 [fa/c]. The gain maximum of the pillars lies at 0.24 [fa/c] and has a FWHM of 0.03 [fa/c], the loss peaks at 0.24 [fa/c] with a FWHM of 0.09 [fa/c]. Nevertheless, the surviving laser mode lies at 0.215 [fa/c] which corresponds to the K-point.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectra of a FP resonator and of 2D-PhC lasers with a period of 26.6 μm. (a) The reference FP spectrum is showing multi-mode emission around 2.6 to 2.7 THz due to the inhomogeneously broadened gain region and has a field dependence. (b) The PhC-based device with a period of 26.6 μm shows single-mode emission at 2.56 THz. The single-mode emission is independent of the driving conditions or the device size, it is defined by the PhC itself.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectra of the 2D-PhC with a period of 31.1 μm and normalized spectra of the 2D-PhCs. (a) The PhC-based device with a period of 31.1 μm shows a stable single-mode emission at 2.25 THz independently of the applied field. (b) The devices are lasing at the K-point in the PhC bandstructure. The gray shaded area shows the first bandgap. The deviations are caused by processing imperfections and uncertainties in the refractive index of the active region.

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