Abstract

The lifetime of Er3+ in silicon-rich silicon oxide has been reported with quite widely varying values ranging from 9 ms to 2 ms. In this work, we consider the direct impact of silicon nanoclusters on the erbium radiative lifetime, and show that it is a function of the silicon nanocluster size, and also the erbium proximity to the nanocluster.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, "Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6, L319-L324 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Q1. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H-S. Han, J-H. Hong, J. S. Chang, S-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 783-795 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H-S. Han, S-Y. Seo, and J. H. Shin, "Optical gain at 1.54μm in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4568-4570 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Q2. G. Franzo, V. Vinciguerra, and F. Priolo, "The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. A 69, 3-12 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Exciton-erbium interactions in Si nanocrystal-doped SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992-1998 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, and A. Polman, "Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2459-2462 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J-H. Jhe, J. H. Shin, K. J. Kim, and D. W. Moon, "The characteristic carrier-Er interaction distance in Er-doped a-Si/SiO2 superlattices formed by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4489-4491 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Chew, "Transition rates of atoms near spherical surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1355-1360 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q3. H. Schniepp and V. Sandoghdar, "Spontaneous emission of Europium ions embedded in dielectric nanospheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257403-1 - 245703-4 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. V. Klimov, "Spontaneous atomic radiation in the presence of nanobodies," Physics - Uspekhi 46, 979-984 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
  12. K. Watanabe, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, "Resonant excitation of Er3+ by the energy transfer from Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4761-4767 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, J. Vicens, R. Rizk, C. Sada, F. Enrichi, and G. Battaglin, "Room-temperature 1.54μm photoluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silica layers obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3869-3874 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Forcales, N. J. Smith, and R. G. Elliman, "Pump-probe experiments at 1.54μm on silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 14902-1 - 014902-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. J. Miniscalco, "Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500nm," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 234-250 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 233315-1 - 233315-4 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006

Q1. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H-S. Han, J-H. Hong, J. S. Chang, S-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 783-795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Forcales, N. J. Smith, and R. G. Elliman, "Pump-probe experiments at 1.54μm on silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 14902-1 - 014902-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 233315-1 - 233315-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

V. V. Klimov, "Spontaneous atomic radiation in the presence of nanobodies," Physics - Uspekhi 46, 979-984 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, J. Vicens, R. Rizk, C. Sada, F. Enrichi, and G. Battaglin, "Room-temperature 1.54μm photoluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silica layers obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3869-3874 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J-H. Jhe, J. H. Shin, K. J. Kim, and D. W. Moon, "The characteristic carrier-Er interaction distance in Er-doped a-Si/SiO2 superlattices formed by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4489-4491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Q3. H. Schniepp and V. Sandoghdar, "Spontaneous emission of Europium ions embedded in dielectric nanospheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257403-1 - 245703-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H-S. Han, S-Y. Seo, and J. H. Shin, "Optical gain at 1.54μm in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4568-4570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Watanabe, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, "Resonant excitation of Er3+ by the energy transfer from Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4761-4767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Exciton-erbium interactions in Si nanocrystal-doped SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992-1998 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

Q2. G. Franzo, V. Vinciguerra, and F. Priolo, "The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. A 69, 3-12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, and A. Polman, "Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2459-2462 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, "Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6, L319-L324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. J. Miniscalco, "Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500nm," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 234-250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

H. Chew, "Transition rates of atoms near spherical surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1355-1360 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1946

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Battaglin, G.

F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, J. Vicens, R. Rizk, C. Sada, F. Enrichi, and G. Battaglin, "Room-temperature 1.54μm photoluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silica layers obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3869-3874 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. S.

Q1. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H-S. Han, J-H. Hong, J. S. Chang, S-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 783-795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chew, H.

H. Chew, "Transition rates of atoms near spherical surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1355-1360 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dufour, C.

F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, J. Vicens, R. Rizk, C. Sada, F. Enrichi, and G. Battaglin, "Room-temperature 1.54μm photoluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silica layers obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3869-3874 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elliman, R. G.

M. Forcales, N. J. Smith, and R. G. Elliman, "Pump-probe experiments at 1.54μm on silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 14902-1 - 014902-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Enrichi, F.

F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, J. Vicens, R. Rizk, C. Sada, F. Enrichi, and G. Battaglin, "Room-temperature 1.54μm photoluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silica layers obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3869-3874 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Federighi, M.

A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, "Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6, L319-L324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Forcales, M.

M. Forcales, N. J. Smith, and R. G. Elliman, "Pump-probe experiments at 1.54μm on silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 14902-1 - 014902-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 233315-1 - 233315-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franzo, G.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 233315-1 - 233315-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q2. G. Franzo, V. Vinciguerra, and F. Priolo, "The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. A 69, 3-12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

K. Watanabe, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, "Resonant excitation of Er3+ by the energy transfer from Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4761-4767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gourbilleau, F.

F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, J. Vicens, R. Rizk, C. Sada, F. Enrichi, and G. Battaglin, "Room-temperature 1.54μm photoluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silica layers obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3869-3874 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gregorkiewicz, T.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 233315-1 - 233315-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gusev, O. B.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 233315-1 - 233315-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, H-S.

Q1. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H-S. Han, J-H. Hong, J. S. Chang, S-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 783-795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H-S. Han, S-Y. Seo, and J. H. Shin, "Optical gain at 1.54μm in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4568-4570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

K. Watanabe, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, "Resonant excitation of Er3+ by the energy transfer from Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4761-4767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J-H.

Q1. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H-S. Han, J-H. Hong, J. S. Chang, S-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 783-795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iacona, F.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 233315-1 - 233315-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jhe, J-H.

J-H. Jhe, J. H. Shin, K. J. Kim, and D. W. Moon, "The characteristic carrier-Er interaction distance in Er-doped a-Si/SiO2 superlattices formed by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4489-4491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kenyon, A. J.

A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, "Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6, L319-L324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Exciton-erbium interactions in Si nanocrystal-doped SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992-1998 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. J.

J-H. Jhe, J. H. Shin, K. J. Kim, and D. W. Moon, "The characteristic carrier-Er interaction distance in Er-doped a-Si/SiO2 superlattices formed by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4489-4491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klik, M.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 233315-1 - 233315-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. V.

V. V. Klimov, "Spontaneous atomic radiation in the presence of nanobodies," Physics - Uspekhi 46, 979-984 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, and A. Polman, "Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2459-2462 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

Q1. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H-S. Han, J-H. Hong, J. S. Chang, S-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 783-795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Q1. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H-S. Han, J-H. Hong, J. S. Chang, S-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 783-795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levalois, M.

F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, J. Vicens, R. Rizk, C. Sada, F. Enrichi, and G. Battaglin, "Room-temperature 1.54μm photoluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silica layers obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3869-3874 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

W. J. Miniscalco, "Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500nm," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 234-250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. W.

J-H. Jhe, J. H. Shin, K. J. Kim, and D. W. Moon, "The characteristic carrier-Er interaction distance in Er-doped a-Si/SiO2 superlattices formed by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4489-4491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 233315-1 - 233315-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

Q1. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H-S. Han, J-H. Hong, J. S. Chang, S-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 783-795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pitt, C. W.

A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, "Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6, L319-L324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Exciton-erbium interactions in Si nanocrystal-doped SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992-1998 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, and A. Polman, "Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2459-2462 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priolo, F.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 233315-1 - 233315-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q2. G. Franzo, V. Vinciguerra, and F. Priolo, "The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. A 69, 3-12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Rizk, R.

F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, J. Vicens, R. Rizk, C. Sada, F. Enrichi, and G. Battaglin, "Room-temperature 1.54μm photoluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silica layers obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3869-3874 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sada, C.

F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, J. Vicens, R. Rizk, C. Sada, F. Enrichi, and G. Battaglin, "Room-temperature 1.54μm photoluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silica layers obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3869-3874 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

Q3. H. Schniepp and V. Sandoghdar, "Spontaneous emission of Europium ions embedded in dielectric nanospheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257403-1 - 245703-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schniepp, H.

Q3. H. Schniepp and V. Sandoghdar, "Spontaneous emission of Europium ions embedded in dielectric nanospheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257403-1 - 245703-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S-Y.

Q1. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H-S. Han, J-H. Hong, J. S. Chang, S-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 783-795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H-S. Han, S-Y. Seo, and J. H. Shin, "Optical gain at 1.54μm in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4568-4570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. H.

Q1. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H-S. Han, J-H. Hong, J. S. Chang, S-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 783-795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J-H. Jhe, J. H. Shin, K. J. Kim, and D. W. Moon, "The characteristic carrier-Er interaction distance in Er-doped a-Si/SiO2 superlattices formed by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4489-4491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H-S. Han, S-Y. Seo, and J. H. Shin, "Optical gain at 1.54μm in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4568-4570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N. J.

M. Forcales, N. J. Smith, and R. G. Elliman, "Pump-probe experiments at 1.54μm on silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 14902-1 - 014902-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Snoeks, E.

E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, and A. Polman, "Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2459-2462 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trwoga, P. F.

A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, "Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6, L319-L324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vicens, J.

F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, J. Vicens, R. Rizk, C. Sada, F. Enrichi, and G. Battaglin, "Room-temperature 1.54μm photoluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silica layers obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3869-3874 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vinciguerra, V.

Q2. G. Franzo, V. Vinciguerra, and F. Priolo, "The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. A 69, 3-12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

K. Watanabe, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, "Resonant excitation of Er3+ by the energy transfer from Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4761-4767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wojdak, M.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 233315-1 - 233315-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

Q2. G. Franzo, V. Vinciguerra, and F. Priolo, "The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. A 69, 3-12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J-H. Jhe, J. H. Shin, K. J. Kim, and D. W. Moon, "The characteristic carrier-Er interaction distance in Er-doped a-Si/SiO2 superlattices formed by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4489-4491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H-S. Han, S-Y. Seo, and J. H. Shin, "Optical gain at 1.54μm in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4568-4570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Q1. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H-S. Han, J-H. Hong, J. S. Chang, S-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 783-795 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Exciton-erbium interactions in Si nanocrystal-doped SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992-1998 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Watanabe, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, "Resonant excitation of Er3+ by the energy transfer from Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4761-4767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, J. Vicens, R. Rizk, C. Sada, F. Enrichi, and G. Battaglin, "Room-temperature 1.54μm photoluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silica layers obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3869-3874 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Forcales, N. J. Smith, and R. G. Elliman, "Pump-probe experiments at 1.54μm on silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 14902-1 - 014902-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

H. Chew, "Transition rates of atoms near spherical surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1355-1360 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

W. J. Miniscalco, "Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500nm," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 234-250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter

A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, "Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6, L319-L324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. B

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 233315-1 - 233315-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, and A. Polman, "Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2459-2462 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q3. H. Schniepp and V. Sandoghdar, "Spontaneous emission of Europium ions embedded in dielectric nanospheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257403-1 - 245703-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Physics - Uspekhi

V. V. Klimov, "Spontaneous atomic radiation in the presence of nanobodies," Physics - Uspekhi 46, 979-984 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Enhancement in the radiative decay rate of an emitter located in silica, close to a (semi-infinite) silicon plane, for polarizations orthogonal (solid line) and parallel (dotted line) to the interface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Er lifetime as a function of Si nanocluster size, and for a range of distances from the nanoclusters. The curves are calculated from Eqn 1, and the experimental data points from the reports of 5 different groups: oe-17-02-906-i001 Watanabe et al. [15]; oe-17-02-906-i002 Gourbilleau et al. [13]; oe-17-02-906-i003 Franzo et al. [4]; oe-17-02-906-i004 Forcales et al. [14]; oe-17-02-906-i005 Han et al. [3]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Expected Er lifetime as a function of Si nanocluster size, assuming a randomly distributed Er population, and for different Er concentrations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Er lifetime as a function of Si nanocluster size, as in Fig 2, but assuming a pure silica matrix immediately outside the nanocluster. The curves are calculated from Eqn 1, and the experimental data points from the reports of 5 different groups: oe-17-02-906-i006 Watanabe et al. [15]; oe-17-02-906-i007 Gourbilleau et al. [13]; oe-17-02-906-i008 Franzo et al. [4]; oe-17-02-906-i009 Forcales et al. [14]; oe-17-02-906-i010 Han et al. [3]

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ γ 0 = 1 + 3 2 k 3 Im d · E S d 2
τ SRSO τ 0 = 1 + 2 ( ε 1 ) ε + 2 ( a r ) 3 2 + O ( ( k a ) 2 )

Metrics