Abstract

A reflectance spectroscopic device that utilizes a single fiber for both light delivery and collection has advantages over classical multi-fiber probes. This study presents a novel empirical relationship between the single fiber path length and the combined effect of both the absorption coefficient, μa (range: 0.1–6 mm-1), and the reduced scattering coefficient, μ′s (range: 0.3 – 10 mm-1), for different anisotropy values (0.75 and 0.92), and is applicable to probes containing a wide range of fiber diameters (range: 200 – 2000 μm). The results indicate that the model is capable of accurately predicting the single fiber path length over a wide range (r = 0.995; range: 180 – 3940 μm) and predictions do not show bias as a function of either μa or μ′s.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  3. I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, "Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy," Cancer Biol. Ther. 3, 259-267 (2004).
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  4. J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurement of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
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  8. R. L. P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms an in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation," Med. Phys. 31, 1949-1959 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Reif, M. Wang, S. Joshi, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, "Optical method for real-time monitoring of drug concentrations facilitates the development of novel methods for drug delivery to brain tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034036 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, "Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence," Appl. Opt. 47, 365-371 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Amelink, M. P. L. Bard, S. A. Burgers, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Single-scattering spectroscopy for endoscopic analysis of particle size in superficial layers of turbid media," Appl. Opt. 42, 4095-4101 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. Vangemert, "Light-scattering in Intralipid-10-percent in the wavelength region of 400−1100 nm," Appl. Opt. 30, 4507-4514, (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 05040144 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Marquardt, "An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters," SIAM J. App. Math. 11, 431-444 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Amelink, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, W. J. de Wolf, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Monitoring PDT by means of superficial reflectance spectroscopy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 79, 243-251 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. Kruijt, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, R. W. de Bruin, H. J. Sterenborg, A. Amelink, and D. J. Robinson, "Monitoring ALA-induced PPIX photodynamic therapy in the rat esophagus using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 1515-1527 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, "Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence," Appl. Opt. 47, 365-371 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 05040144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Kruijt, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, R. W. de Bruin, H. J. Sterenborg, A. Amelink, and D. J. Robinson, "Monitoring ALA-induced PPIX photodynamic therapy in the rat esophagus using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 1515-1527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Reif, M. Wang, S. Joshi, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, "Optical method for real-time monitoring of drug concentrations facilitates the development of novel methods for drug delivery to brain tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034036 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

R. L. P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, W. J. de Wolf, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Monitoring PDT by means of superficial reflectance spectroscopy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 79, 243-251 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, "Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy," Cancer Biol. Ther. 3, 259-267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms an in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation," Med. Phys. 31, 1949-1959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Canpolat and J. R. Mourant, "Particle size analysis of turbid media with a single optical fiber in contact with the medium to deliver and detect white light," Appl. Opt. 40, 3792-3799 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marquet, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo local determination of tissue optical properties: Applications to human brain," Appl. Opt. 384939-4950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurement of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, "Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 352, 649-659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

B. W. Wilson and S. L. Jacques, "Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues: Principles and applications,". IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2186-2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

D. Marquardt, "An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters," SIAM J. App. Math. 11, 431-444 (1963).
[CrossRef]

A’Amar, O.

R. Reif, M. Wang, S. Joshi, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, "Optical method for real-time monitoring of drug concentrations facilitates the development of novel methods for drug delivery to brain tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034036 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 05040144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Kruijt, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, R. W. de Bruin, H. J. Sterenborg, A. Amelink, and D. J. Robinson, "Monitoring ALA-induced PPIX photodynamic therapy in the rat esophagus using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 1515-1527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, "Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence," Appl. Opt. 47, 365-371 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, W. J. de Wolf, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Monitoring PDT by means of superficial reflectance spectroscopy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 79, 243-251 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, M. P. L. Bard, S. A. Burgers, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Single-scattering spectroscopy for endoscopic analysis of particle size in superficial layers of turbid media," Appl. Opt. 42, 4095-4101 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bard, M. P. L.

Bevilacqua, F.

Bigio, I. J.

R. Reif, M. Wang, S. Joshi, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, "Optical method for real-time monitoring of drug concentrations facilitates the development of novel methods for drug delivery to brain tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034036 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, "Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy," Cancer Biol. Ther. 3, 259-267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurement of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, "Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy," Cancer Biol. Ther. 3, 259-267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgers, S. A.

Canpolat, M.

Cheong, W.

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, "Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 352, 649-659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Bruijn, H. S.

B. Kruijt, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, R. W. de Bruin, H. J. Sterenborg, A. Amelink, and D. J. Robinson, "Monitoring ALA-induced PPIX photodynamic therapy in the rat esophagus using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 1515-1527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Bruin, R. W.

B. Kruijt, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, R. W. de Bruin, H. J. Sterenborg, A. Amelink, and D. J. Robinson, "Monitoring ALA-induced PPIX photodynamic therapy in the rat esophagus using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 1515-1527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Wolf, W. J.

A. Amelink, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, W. J. de Wolf, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Monitoring PDT by means of superficial reflectance spectroscopy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 79, 243-251 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, "Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 352, 649-659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

Finlay, J. C.

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms an in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation," Med. Phys. 31, 1949-1959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, T. H.

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms an in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation," Med. Phys. 31, 1949-1959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, J. D.

Jacques, S. L.

B. W. Wilson and S. L. Jacques, "Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues: Principles and applications,". IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2186-2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurement of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, S.

R. Reif, M. Wang, S. Joshi, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, "Optical method for real-time monitoring of drug concentrations facilitates the development of novel methods for drug delivery to brain tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034036 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaspers, O. P.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, "Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence," Appl. Opt. 47, 365-371 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruijt, B.

B. Kruijt, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, R. W. de Bruin, H. J. Sterenborg, A. Amelink, and D. J. Robinson, "Monitoring ALA-induced PPIX photodynamic therapy in the rat esophagus using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 1515-1527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Los, G.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurement of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquardt, D.

D. Marquardt, "An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters," SIAM J. App. Math. 11, 431-444 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Marquet, P.

Menke-Pluymers, M.

R. L. P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moes, C. J. M.

Moffit, T. P.

T. P. Moffit and S. A. Prahl, "In-vivo sized-fiber spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 3917, 225-231, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mourant, J. R.

Piguet, D.

Prahl, S. A.

T. P. Moffit and S. A. Prahl, "In-vivo sized-fiber spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 3917, 225-231, (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. Vangemert, "Light-scattering in Intralipid-10-percent in the wavelength region of 400−1100 nm," Appl. Opt. 30, 4507-4514, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reif, R.

R. Reif, M. Wang, S. Joshi, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, "Optical method for real-time monitoring of drug concentrations facilitates the development of novel methods for drug delivery to brain tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034036 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, D. J.

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 05040144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Kruijt, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, R. W. de Bruin, H. J. Sterenborg, A. Amelink, and D. J. Robinson, "Monitoring ALA-induced PPIX photodynamic therapy in the rat esophagus using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 1515-1527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amelink, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, W. J. de Wolf, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Monitoring PDT by means of superficial reflectance spectroscopy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 79, 243-251 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roodenburg, J. L. N.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sterenborg, H. J.

B. Kruijt, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, R. W. de Bruin, H. J. Sterenborg, A. Amelink, and D. J. Robinson, "Monitoring ALA-induced PPIX photodynamic therapy in the rat esophagus using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 1515-1527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 05040144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, "Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence," Appl. Opt. 47, 365-371 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, W. J. de Wolf, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Monitoring PDT by means of superficial reflectance spectroscopy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 79, 243-251 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, M. P. L. Bard, S. A. Burgers, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Single-scattering spectroscopy for endoscopic analysis of particle size in superficial layers of turbid media," Appl. Opt. 42, 4095-4101 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thennadil, S. N.

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

Troy, T. L.

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, A.

B. Kruijt, H. S. de Bruijn, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, R. W. de Bruin, H. J. Sterenborg, A. Amelink, and D. J. Robinson, "Monitoring ALA-induced PPIX photodynamic therapy in the rat esophagus using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 1515-1527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amelink, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, W. J. de Wolf, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Monitoring PDT by means of superficial reflectance spectroscopy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 79, 243-251 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Pol, C.

R. L. P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
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R. L. P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
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R. Reif, M. Wang, S. Joshi, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, "Optical method for real-time monitoring of drug concentrations facilitates the development of novel methods for drug delivery to brain tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034036 (2007).
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A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
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A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
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H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. Vangemert, "Light-scattering in Intralipid-10-percent in the wavelength region of 400−1100 nm," Appl. Opt. 30, 4507-4514, (1991).
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I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, "Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy," Cancer Biol. Ther. 3, 259-267 (2004).
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B. W. Wilson and S. L. Jacques, "Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues: Principles and applications,". IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2186-2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
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R. Reif, M. Wang, S. Joshi, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, "Optical method for real-time monitoring of drug concentrations facilitates the development of novel methods for drug delivery to brain tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034036 (2007).
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A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 05040144 (2008).
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A. Amelink, A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, W. J. de Wolf, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Monitoring PDT by means of superficial reflectance spectroscopy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 79, 243-251 (2005).
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A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
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J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurement of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
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R. L. P. van Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. van der Pol, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
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D. W. Chicken, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Falzon, A. C. Lee, G. Briggs, D. Pickard, I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, "Elastic Scattering Spectroscopy for Detection of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastases in Breast Carcinoma," in Diagnostic Optical Spectroscopy in Biomedicine III, A. Mycek, ed., Vol. SPIE Volume 5862 of Progress In Biomedical Optics And Imaging (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper WB2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the single fiber probe setups utilized in this study. (A) Single fiber probe that utilizes a single fiber to preform light delivery and collection and constructed with d fiber in the range of [200 – 1000] μm. (B) Single fiber bundle probe that utilizes a bundle of small fibers (diameters of 200 μm) to effectively function as a larger single fiber (d fiber of 2000 μm). See text for details.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Single fiber reflectance spectra measured from Intralipid 20% solution (μ′s =5 mm-1 at 611 nm) both with Evans Blue added (RSF , μa =0.4 mm-1 at 611 nm) and without (RSF o ). Spectra are normalized to the mean reflectance value over the wavelength range: 750 – 800 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Effect of reduced scattering coefficient on single fiber path length for selected μa values, as measured by single fiber diameters of (A) 200 and (B) 2000 μm. Dimensionless reduced scattering μ′s d fiber vs. dimensionless single fiber path length (τSF /d fiber) for fiber diameters of (C) 200 and (D) 2000 μm, and as measured with constant μa (0.4 mm-1) (E) over a range of fiber diameters [200 – 1000] μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Effect of absorption coefficient on single fiber path length for selected μ′s values, as measured by single fiber diameters of (A) 200 and (B) 2000 μm. Dimensionless absorption μad fiber vs. dimensionless single fiber path length (τSF /d fiber) for fiber diameters of (C) 200 and (D) 2000 μm, and as measured with constant μ′s (3.75 mm-1) (E) over a range of fiber diameters [200 – 1000] μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured vs. model predicted single fiber path length on a linear (A) and log (B) scale, with the line of unity included for comparative purposes. (C) Residual plot showing percentage deviation of model prediction from measured single fiber path length vs. measured value, with ±20% indicated with dashed lines.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Single fiber path length for a 200 μm fiber diameter probe as a function of reduced scattering coefficient in optical phantoms prepared with Intralipid 20% (x) and polystyrene beads (∘).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

RSF=ccal[(IIwater)(IwhiteIblack)]
RSF=ccal[(I)(Iwhite)]
RSF=RoSFexp(μaiCiτSF)
τSF=ln(RSF/RoSF)(μaEBCEB)
τmodelSFdfiber=p1e(p2dfiber)(μsdfiber)p3+(p4+(μadfiber)p4)

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