Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) endomicroscopy imaging of the human gastrointestinal tract is demonstrated in vivo using a swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. 3D datasets of normal and pathologic regions of the colon, rectum, and anal verge were obtained from seven volunteers undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic colonoscopy. 3D-OCT enables high resolution endomicroscopy examination through visualization of tissue architectural morphology using virtual cross-sectional images with arbitrary orientations as well as en face projection images. Axial image resolutions of 6 μm in tissue are obtained over a ~180 mm2 field with an imaging range of 1.6 mm. A Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) laser providing a tuning range of 180 nm at a sweep rate of 62 kHz is used as the system light source. This clinical pilot study demonstrates the potential of 3D-OCT for distinguishing normal from pathologic colorectal tissue, assessing endoscopic therapies and healing progression.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging," Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745-753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, J. Zhang, L. F. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. P. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, "K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 16, 8916-8937 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (8)

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second," Opt. Lett. 32, 2049-2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Photonics 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashimo, Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, Q. Huang, A. Aguirre, J. Schmitt, and J. Fujimoto, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography reveals Barrett's underneath squarnous neo-epithelium after radiofrequency ablation," Gastroenterology 132, A96-A96 (2007).

B. A. Standish, X. Jin, J. Smolen, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, "Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography monitors microvascular changes during photodynamic therapy in a Dunning prostate model under varying treatment conditions," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Standish, V. X. D. Yang, N. R. Munce, L. M. W. K. Song, G. Gardiner, A. Lin, Y. I. Mao, A. Vitkin, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "Doppler optical coherence tomography monitoring of microvascular tissue response during photodynamic therapy in an animal model of Barrett's esophagus," Gastrointest. Endosc. 66, 326-333 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. A. Bejarano, C. D. Smith, K. Chang, A. S. Livingstone, and W. S. Melvin, "Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device," Surg. Endosc. 20, 125-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3225-3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s," Opt. Lett. 31, 2975-2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T. H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S. J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J. L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. de Parades, I. Etienney, P. Bauer, J. Bourguignon, N. Meary, B. Mory, S. Sultan, M. Taouk, C. Thomas, and P. Atienza, "Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis - An effective but not risk-free procedure: A prospective study of 33 patients," Dis. Colon Rectum 48, 1535-1541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. H. Itzkowitz, and N. Harpaz, "Diagnosis and management of dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases," Gastroenterology 126, 1634-1648 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Loftus, "Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences," Gastroenterology 126, 1504-1517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, Jr., T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, "In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 2, 1080-1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2001 (4)

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Eaden, K. R. Abrams, and J. F. Mayberry, "The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis," Gut 48, 526-535 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kennedy, K. Bruninga, E. A. Mutlu, J. Losurdo, S. Choudhary, and A. Keshavarzian, "Successful and sustained treatment of chronic radiation proctitis with antioxidant vitamins E and C," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 1080-1084 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ventrucci, M. P. Di Simone, P. Giulietti, and G. De Luca, "Efficacy and safety of Nd : YAG laser for the treatment of bleeding from radiation proctocolitis," Digest. Liver Dis. 33, 230-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Soehendra, and N. Schrödern, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract--toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. C. Fantin, J. Binek, W. R. Suter, and C. Meyenberger, "Argon beam coagulation for treatment of symptomatic radiation-induced proctitis," Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 515-518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. Takayama, S. Katsuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Ohi, S. Nojiri, S. Sakamaki, J. Kato, K. Kogawa, H. Miyake, and Y. Niitsu, "Aberrant crypt foci of the colon as precursors of adenoma and cancer," New Engl. J. Med. 339, 1277-1284 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

D. M. Jensen, G. A. Machicado, S. Cheng, M. E. Jensen, and R. Jutabha, "A randomized prospective study of endoscopic bipolar electrocoagulation and heater probe treatment of chronic rectal bleeding from radiation telangiectasia," Gastrointest. Endosc. 45, 20-25 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

S. S. Donaldson, "Radiation Proctitis after Prostate Carcinoma-Therapy," JAMA-J. Am. Med. Assoc. 271, 819-820 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. E. Lucarotti, R. A. Mountford, and D. C. C. Bartolo, "Surgical-Management of Intestinal Radiation-Injury," Dis. Colon Rectum 34, 865-869 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abrams, K. R.

J. A. Eaden, K. R. Abrams, and J. F. Mayberry, "The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis," Gut 48, 526-535 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Aguirre, A.

H. Mashimo, Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, Q. Huang, A. Aguirre, J. Schmitt, and J. Fujimoto, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography reveals Barrett's underneath squarnous neo-epithelium after radiofrequency ablation," Gastroenterology 132, A96-A96 (2007).

Aguirre, A. D.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T. H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S. J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J. L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atienza, P.

V. de Parades, I. Etienney, P. Bauer, J. Bourguignon, N. Meary, B. Mory, S. Sultan, M. Taouk, C. Thomas, and P. Atienza, "Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis - An effective but not risk-free procedure: A prospective study of 33 patients," Dis. Colon Rectum 48, 1535-1541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bambrick, M. L.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, Jr., T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, "In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 2, 1080-1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bartolo, D. C. C.

M. E. Lucarotti, R. A. Mountford, and D. C. C. Bartolo, "Surgical-Management of Intestinal Radiation-Injury," Dis. Colon Rectum 34, 865-869 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, P.

V. de Parades, I. Etienney, P. Bauer, J. Bourguignon, N. Meary, B. Mory, S. Sultan, M. Taouk, C. Thomas, and P. Atienza, "Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis - An effective but not risk-free procedure: A prospective study of 33 patients," Dis. Colon Rectum 48, 1535-1541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bejarano, P. A.

B. J. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. A. Bejarano, C. D. Smith, K. Chang, A. S. Livingstone, and W. S. Melvin, "Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device," Surg. Endosc. 20, 125-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bevins, C. L.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, Jr., T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, "In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 2, 1080-1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biedermann, B. R.

Binek, J.

A. C. Fantin, J. Binek, W. R. Suter, and C. Meyenberger, "Argon beam coagulation for treatment of symptomatic radiation-induced proctitis," Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 515-518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging," Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745-753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourguignon, J.

V. de Parades, I. Etienney, P. Bauer, J. Bourguignon, N. Meary, B. Mory, S. Sultan, M. Taouk, C. Thomas, and P. Atienza, "Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis - An effective but not risk-free procedure: A prospective study of 33 patients," Dis. Colon Rectum 48, 1535-1541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourquin, S.

P. L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T. H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S. J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J. L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, B.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Soehendra, and N. Schrödern, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract--toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, S.

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

J. P. Su, J. Zhang, L. F. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. P. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressner, J.

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruninga, K.

M. Kennedy, K. Bruninga, E. A. Mutlu, J. Losurdo, S. Choudhary, and A. Keshavarzian, "Successful and sustained treatment of chronic radiation proctitis with antioxidant vitamins E and C," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 1080-1084 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chak, A.

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Chang, K.

B. J. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. A. Bejarano, C. D. Smith, K. Chang, A. S. Livingstone, and W. S. Melvin, "Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device," Surg. Endosc. 20, 125-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

H. Mashimo, Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, Q. Huang, A. Aguirre, J. Schmitt, and J. Fujimoto, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography reveals Barrett's underneath squarnous neo-epithelium after radiofrequency ablation," Gastroenterology 132, A96-A96 (2007).

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Photonics 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T. H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S. J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J. L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. P.

J. P. Su, J. Zhang, L. F. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. P. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, S.

D. M. Jensen, G. A. Machicado, S. Cheng, M. E. Jensen, and R. Jutabha, "A randomized prospective study of endoscopic bipolar electrocoagulation and heater probe treatment of chronic rectal bleeding from radiation telangiectasia," Gastrointest. Endosc. 45, 20-25 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Choudhary, S.

M. Kennedy, K. Bruninga, E. A. Mutlu, J. Losurdo, S. Choudhary, and A. Keshavarzian, "Successful and sustained treatment of chronic radiation proctitis with antioxidant vitamins E and C," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 1080-1084 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colt, H. G.

J. P. Su, J. Zhang, L. F. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. P. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Compton, C. C.

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Photonics 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J. L.

P. L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T. H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S. J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J. L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connor, J. T.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, Jr., T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, "In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 2, 1080-1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Das, A.

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Luca, G.

M. Ventrucci, M. P. Di Simone, P. Giulietti, and G. De Luca, "Efficacy and safety of Nd : YAG laser for the treatment of bleeding from radiation proctocolitis," Digest. Liver Dis. 33, 230-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Parades, V.

V. de Parades, I. Etienney, P. Bauer, J. Bourguignon, N. Meary, B. Mory, S. Sultan, M. Taouk, C. Thomas, and P. Atienza, "Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis - An effective but not risk-free procedure: A prospective study of 33 patients," Dis. Colon Rectum 48, 1535-1541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, C. P.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, Jr., T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, "In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 2, 1080-1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Desai, S.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Di Simone, M. P.

M. Ventrucci, M. P. Di Simone, P. Giulietti, and G. De Luca, "Efficacy and safety of Nd : YAG laser for the treatment of bleeding from radiation proctocolitis," Digest. Liver Dis. 33, 230-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, S. S.

S. S. Donaldson, "Radiation Proctitis after Prostate Carcinoma-Therapy," JAMA-J. Am. Med. Assoc. 271, 819-820 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dunkin, B. J.

B. J. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. A. Bejarano, C. D. Smith, K. Chang, A. S. Livingstone, and W. S. Melvin, "Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device," Surg. Endosc. 20, 125-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eaden, J. A.

J. A. Eaden, K. R. Abrams, and J. F. Mayberry, "The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis," Gut 48, 526-535 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Etienney, I.

V. de Parades, I. Etienney, P. Bauer, J. Bourguignon, N. Meary, B. Mory, S. Sultan, M. Taouk, C. Thomas, and P. Atienza, "Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis - An effective but not risk-free procedure: A prospective study of 33 patients," Dis. Colon Rectum 48, 1535-1541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J. A.

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H. Mashimo, Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, Q. Huang, A. Aguirre, J. Schmitt, and J. Fujimoto, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography reveals Barrett's underneath squarnous neo-epithelium after radiofrequency ablation," Gastroenterology 132, A96-A96 (2007).

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D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Photonics 1, 709-716 (2007).
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B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, Jr., T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, "In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 2, 1080-1087 (2004).
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J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
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Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
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H. Mashimo, Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, Q. Huang, A. Aguirre, J. Schmitt, and J. Fujimoto, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography reveals Barrett's underneath squarnous neo-epithelium after radiofrequency ablation," Gastroenterology 132, A96-A96 (2007).

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
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Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
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X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
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S. H. Itzkowitz, and N. Harpaz, "Diagnosis and management of dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases," Gastroenterology 126, 1634-1648 (2004).
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M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
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S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Soehendra, and N. Schrödern, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract--toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
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D. M. Jensen, G. A. Machicado, S. Cheng, M. E. Jensen, and R. Jutabha, "A randomized prospective study of endoscopic bipolar electrocoagulation and heater probe treatment of chronic rectal bleeding from radiation telangiectasia," Gastrointest. Endosc. 45, 20-25 (1997).
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D. M. Jensen, G. A. Machicado, S. Cheng, M. E. Jensen, and R. Jutabha, "A randomized prospective study of endoscopic bipolar electrocoagulation and heater probe treatment of chronic rectal bleeding from radiation telangiectasia," Gastrointest. Endosc. 45, 20-25 (1997).
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B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, Jr., T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, "In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 2, 1080-1087 (2004).
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T. Takayama, S. Katsuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Ohi, S. Nojiri, S. Sakamaki, J. Kato, K. Kogawa, H. Miyake, and Y. Niitsu, "Aberrant crypt foci of the colon as precursors of adenoma and cancer," New Engl. J. Med. 339, 1277-1284 (1998).
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P. L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T. H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S. J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J. L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
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M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
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Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
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X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
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B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, Jr., T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, "In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 2, 1080-1087 (2004).
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M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging," Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745-753 (2008).
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J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
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Li, X. D.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
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B. A. Standish, V. X. D. Yang, N. R. Munce, L. M. W. K. Song, G. Gardiner, A. Lin, Y. I. Mao, A. Vitkin, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "Doppler optical coherence tomography monitoring of microvascular tissue response during photodynamic therapy in an animal model of Barrett's esophagus," Gastrointest. Endosc. 66, 326-333 (2007).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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B. J. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. A. Bejarano, C. D. Smith, K. Chang, A. S. Livingstone, and W. S. Melvin, "Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device," Surg. Endosc. 20, 125-130 (2006).
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M. Kennedy, K. Bruninga, E. A. Mutlu, J. Losurdo, S. Choudhary, and A. Keshavarzian, "Successful and sustained treatment of chronic radiation proctitis with antioxidant vitamins E and C," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 1080-1084 (2001).
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M. E. Lucarotti, R. A. Mountford, and D. C. C. Bartolo, "Surgical-Management of Intestinal Radiation-Injury," Dis. Colon Rectum 34, 865-869 (1991).
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D. M. Jensen, G. A. Machicado, S. Cheng, M. E. Jensen, and R. Jutabha, "A randomized prospective study of endoscopic bipolar electrocoagulation and heater probe treatment of chronic rectal bleeding from radiation telangiectasia," Gastrointest. Endosc. 45, 20-25 (1997).
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B. A. Standish, V. X. D. Yang, N. R. Munce, L. M. W. K. Song, G. Gardiner, A. Lin, Y. I. Mao, A. Vitkin, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "Doppler optical coherence tomography monitoring of microvascular tissue response during photodynamic therapy in an animal model of Barrett's esophagus," Gastrointest. Endosc. 66, 326-333 (2007).
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B. A. Standish, V. X. D. Yang, N. R. Munce, L. M. W. K. Song, G. Gardiner, A. Lin, Y. I. Mao, A. Vitkin, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "Doppler optical coherence tomography monitoring of microvascular tissue response during photodynamic therapy in an animal model of Barrett's esophagus," Gastrointest. Endosc. 66, 326-333 (2007).
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B. A. Standish, X. Jin, J. Smolen, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, "Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography monitors microvascular changes during photodynamic therapy in a Dunning prostate model under varying treatment conditions," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034022 (2007).
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Martinez, J.

B. J. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. A. Bejarano, C. D. Smith, K. Chang, A. S. Livingstone, and W. S. Melvin, "Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device," Surg. Endosc. 20, 125-130 (2006).
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Mashimo, H.

H. Mashimo, Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, Q. Huang, A. Aguirre, J. Schmitt, and J. Fujimoto, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography reveals Barrett's underneath squarnous neo-epithelium after radiofrequency ablation," Gastroenterology 132, A96-A96 (2007).

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
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P. L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T. H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S. J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J. L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
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X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
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J. A. Eaden, K. R. Abrams, and J. F. Mayberry, "The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis," Gut 48, 526-535 (2001).
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V. de Parades, I. Etienney, P. Bauer, J. Bourguignon, N. Meary, B. Mory, S. Sultan, M. Taouk, C. Thomas, and P. Atienza, "Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis - An effective but not risk-free procedure: A prospective study of 33 patients," Dis. Colon Rectum 48, 1535-1541 (2005).
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Melvin, W. S.

B. J. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. A. Bejarano, C. D. Smith, K. Chang, A. S. Livingstone, and W. S. Melvin, "Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device," Surg. Endosc. 20, 125-130 (2006).
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A. C. Fantin, J. Binek, W. R. Suter, and C. Meyenberger, "Argon beam coagulation for treatment of symptomatic radiation-induced proctitis," Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 515-518 (1999).
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Mino-Kenudson, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging," Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745-753 (2008).
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J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
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Miyake, H.

T. Takayama, S. Katsuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Ohi, S. Nojiri, S. Sakamaki, J. Kato, K. Kogawa, H. Miyake, and Y. Niitsu, "Aberrant crypt foci of the colon as precursors of adenoma and cancer," New Engl. J. Med. 339, 1277-1284 (1998).
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Mory, B.

V. de Parades, I. Etienney, P. Bauer, J. Bourguignon, N. Meary, B. Mory, S. Sultan, M. Taouk, C. Thomas, and P. Atienza, "Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis - An effective but not risk-free procedure: A prospective study of 33 patients," Dis. Colon Rectum 48, 1535-1541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mountford, R. A.

M. E. Lucarotti, R. A. Mountford, and D. C. C. Bartolo, "Surgical-Management of Intestinal Radiation-Injury," Dis. Colon Rectum 34, 865-869 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munce, N. R.

B. A. Standish, X. Jin, J. Smolen, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, "Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography monitors microvascular changes during photodynamic therapy in a Dunning prostate model under varying treatment conditions," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Standish, V. X. D. Yang, N. R. Munce, L. M. W. K. Song, G. Gardiner, A. Lin, Y. I. Mao, A. Vitkin, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "Doppler optical coherence tomography monitoring of microvascular tissue response during photodynamic therapy in an animal model of Barrett's esophagus," Gastrointest. Endosc. 66, 326-333 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mutinga, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mutlu, E. A.

M. Kennedy, K. Bruninga, E. A. Mutlu, J. Losurdo, S. Choudhary, and A. Keshavarzian, "Successful and sustained treatment of chronic radiation proctitis with antioxidant vitamins E and C," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 1080-1084 (2001).
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Niitsu, Y.

T. Takayama, S. Katsuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Ohi, S. Nojiri, S. Sakamaki, J. Kato, K. Kogawa, H. Miyake, and Y. Niitsu, "Aberrant crypt foci of the colon as precursors of adenoma and cancer," New Engl. J. Med. 339, 1277-1284 (1998).
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M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging," Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745-753 (2008).
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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
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J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
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J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
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B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467-474 (2000).
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T. Takayama, S. Katsuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Ohi, S. Nojiri, S. Sakamaki, J. Kato, K. Kogawa, H. Miyake, and Y. Niitsu, "Aberrant crypt foci of the colon as precursors of adenoma and cancer," New Engl. J. Med. 339, 1277-1284 (1998).
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Oh, W. Y.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Ohi, M.

T. Takayama, S. Katsuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Ohi, S. Nojiri, S. Sakamaki, J. Kato, K. Kogawa, H. Miyake, and Y. Niitsu, "Aberrant crypt foci of the colon as precursors of adenoma and cancer," New Engl. J. Med. 339, 1277-1284 (1998).
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Palte, G.

Pantanowitz, L.

P. L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T. H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S. J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J. L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
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Park, B. H.

Pedrosa, M.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
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Phatak, D.

P. L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T. H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S. J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J. L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
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Pierce, M. C.

Pitris, C.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
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Pitvis, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
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Poneros, J. M.

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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Qi, X.

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
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P. L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T. H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S. J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J. L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
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Remzi, F. H.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, Jr., T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, "In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 2, 1080-1087 (2004).
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Rollins, A.

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
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Rollins, A. M.

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
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M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
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Rowland, D. Y.

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
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Sakamaki, S.

T. Takayama, S. Katsuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Ohi, S. Nojiri, S. Sakamaki, J. Kato, K. Kogawa, H. Miyake, and Y. Niitsu, "Aberrant crypt foci of the colon as precursors of adenoma and cancer," New Engl. J. Med. 339, 1277-1284 (1998).
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Sarunic, M. V.

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nat. Photonics 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashimo, Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, Q. Huang, A. Aguirre, J. Schmitt, and J. Fujimoto, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography reveals Barrett's underneath squarnous neo-epithelium after radiofrequency ablation," Gastroenterology 132, A96-A96 (2007).

Schmitt, J. M.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitt, S. J.

P. L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T. H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S. J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J. L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
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Schrödern, N.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Soehendra, and N. Schrödern, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract--toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
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Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seitz, U.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Soehendra, and N. Schrödern, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract--toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Soehendra, and N. Schrödern, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract--toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, B.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, Jr., T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, "In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 2, 1080-1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shishko, M.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging," Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745-753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sivak, M. V.

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C. D.

B. J. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. A. Bejarano, C. D. Smith, K. Chang, A. S. Livingstone, and W. S. Melvin, "Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device," Surg. Endosc. 20, 125-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smolen, J.

B. A. Standish, X. Jin, J. Smolen, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, "Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography monitors microvascular changes during photodynamic therapy in a Dunning prostate model under varying treatment conditions," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soehendra, S.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Soehendra, and N. Schrödern, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract--toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, L. M. W. K.

B. A. Standish, V. X. D. Yang, N. R. Munce, L. M. W. K. Song, G. Gardiner, A. Lin, Y. I. Mao, A. Vitkin, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "Doppler optical coherence tomography monitoring of microvascular tissue response during photodynamic therapy in an animal model of Barrett's esophagus," Gastrointest. Endosc. 66, 326-333 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Standish, B. A.

B. A. Standish, V. X. D. Yang, N. R. Munce, L. M. W. K. Song, G. Gardiner, A. Lin, Y. I. Mao, A. Vitkin, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "Doppler optical coherence tomography monitoring of microvascular tissue response during photodynamic therapy in an animal model of Barrett's esophagus," Gastrointest. Endosc. 66, 326-333 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Standish, X. Jin, J. Smolen, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, "Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography monitors microvascular changes during photodynamic therapy in a Dunning prostate model under varying treatment conditions," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J. P.

J. P. Su, J. Zhang, L. F. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. P. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sultan, S.

V. de Parades, I. Etienney, P. Bauer, J. Bourguignon, N. Meary, B. Mory, S. Sultan, M. Taouk, C. Thomas, and P. Atienza, "Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis - An effective but not risk-free procedure: A prospective study of 33 patients," Dis. Colon Rectum 48, 1535-1541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging," Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745-753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Suter, W. R.

A. C. Fantin, J. Binek, W. R. Suter, and C. Meyenberger, "Argon beam coagulation for treatment of symptomatic radiation-induced proctitis," Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 515-518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, Y.

T. Takayama, S. Katsuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Ohi, S. Nojiri, S. Sakamaki, J. Kato, K. Kogawa, H. Miyake, and Y. Niitsu, "Aberrant crypt foci of the colon as precursors of adenoma and cancer," New Engl. J. Med. 339, 1277-1284 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takayama, T.

T. Takayama, S. Katsuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Ohi, S. Nojiri, S. Sakamaki, J. Kato, K. Kogawa, H. Miyake, and Y. Niitsu, "Aberrant crypt foci of the colon as precursors of adenoma and cancer," New Engl. J. Med. 339, 1277-1284 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taouk, M.

V. de Parades, I. Etienney, P. Bauer, J. Bourguignon, N. Meary, B. Mory, S. Sultan, M. Taouk, C. Thomas, and P. Atienza, "Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis - An effective but not risk-free procedure: A prospective study of 33 patients," Dis. Colon Rectum 48, 1535-1541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging," Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745-753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Poneros, S. Brand, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terentieva, A.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Soehendra, and N. Schrödern, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography of the human gastrointestinal tract--toward optical biopsy," Endoscopy 32, 743-749 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, C.

V. de Parades, I. Etienney, P. Bauer, J. Bourguignon, N. Meary, B. Mory, S. Sultan, M. Taouk, C. Thomas, and P. Atienza, "Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis - An effective but not risk-free procedure: A prospective study of 33 patients," Dis. Colon Rectum 48, 1535-1541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trolli, P.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, Jr., T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, "In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 2, 1080-1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ung-Runyawee, R.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging," Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745-753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ventrucci, M.

M. Ventrucci, M. P. Di Simone, P. Giulietti, and G. De Luca, "Efficacy and safety of Nd : YAG laser for the treatment of bleeding from radiation proctocolitis," Digest. Liver Dis. 33, 230-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vitkin, A.

B. A. Standish, V. X. D. Yang, N. R. Munce, L. M. W. K. Song, G. Gardiner, A. Lin, Y. I. Mao, A. Vitkin, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "Doppler optical coherence tomography monitoring of microvascular tissue response during photodynamic therapy in an animal model of Barrett's esophagus," Gastrointest. Endosc. 66, 326-333 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

B. A. Standish, X. Jin, J. Smolen, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, "Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography monitors microvascular changes during photodynamic therapy in a Dunning prostate model under varying treatment conditions," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, J.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, J. E.

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

B. A. Standish, X. Jin, J. Smolen, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, "Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography monitors microvascular changes during photodynamic therapy in a Dunning prostate model under varying treatment conditions," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Standish, V. X. D. Yang, N. R. Munce, L. M. W. K. Song, G. Gardiner, A. Lin, Y. I. Mao, A. Vitkin, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "Doppler optical coherence tomography monitoring of microvascular tissue response during photodynamic therapy in an animal model of Barrett's esophagus," Gastrointest. Endosc. 66, 326-333 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolf, B.

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, R. C.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, R. C. K.

G. Isenberg, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, J. E. Willis, B. Wolf, D. Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yachimski, P. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging," Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745-753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

Yang, V. X. D.

B. A. Standish, X. Jin, J. Smolen, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, "Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography monitors microvascular changes during photodynamic therapy in a Dunning prostate model under varying treatment conditions," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Standish, V. X. D. Yang, N. R. Munce, L. M. W. K. Song, G. Gardiner, A. Lin, Y. I. Mao, A. Vitkin, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "Doppler optical coherence tomography monitoring of microvascular tissue response during photodynamic therapy in an animal model of Barrett's esophagus," Gastrointest. Endosc. 66, 326-333 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L. F.

J. P. Su, J. Zhang, L. F. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. P. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nature Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. P. Su, J. Zhang, L. F. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. P. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuccaro, G.

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Supplementary Material (3)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

3D-OCT images of columnar epithelial tissue in the human colon. a, En face image constructed by axial summation of the entire dataset. Dashed lines show locations of cross-sections. b, XZ cross-section showing typical columnar structure. c, YZ cross-section. d, Enlarged view of a, showing en face crypt pattern. e, Representative en face histology of human colon. f, White light video endoscopy image of region analyzed with 3D-OCT.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

3D-OCT images near the dentate line. a, En face image constructed by axial summation of entire dataset. Dashed lines show locations of cross-sections. b, XZ cross-section showing typical squamous structure. c, YZ cross-section showing shift from columnar C to squamous S epithelium over a transition zone T. d, White light video endoscopy image of region analyzed with 3D-OCT. e, Representative cross-sectional histology of columnar epithelium. f, Representative cross-sectional histology of squamous epithelium. Arrows in b and f indicate normal anal vessels.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Conventional examination of UC. a, White light video endoscopy image of UC showing the 3D-OCT probe in position. The tissue surface is inflamed with ulcerations and bleeding. b, Representative cross-sectional histology of UC showing an ulcerative pseudo-polyp.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

3D-OCT images of ulcerative colitis. a, En face image constructed by summation of 20 µm axial section. Large subsurface voids and ulcerations are present, while regular crypt pattern is absent. Dashed lines show locations of cross-sectional images. b, XZ cross-section containing normal squamous epithelium S and ulcerative colitis U. c, YZ cross-section showing similar structure. d, Enlarged view of left portion of c, showing disorganized structure and superficial voids. e, Enlarged view of right portion of c, showing regular squamous epithelium. (Media 1)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Conventional examination of radiation proctitis. a, White light video endoscopy image of radiation proctitis prior to treatment with radiofrequency ablation. Arrows indicate regions of bleeding and ulceration. b, Image 12 months after treatment. c, Image 14 months after treatment. d, Representative cross-sectional histology image of radiation proctitis. Arrow indicates a large superficial vessel.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

3D-OCT images of radiation proctitis 12 months after treatment. a, Full thickness en face summation. Arrow indicates a large abnormality. b, 20 µm en face summation. Subsurface vessels and voids are present. Dashed lines show locations of cross-sectional images. c, XZ cross-section showing irregular epithelium with vascular structures V. Dashed line shows depth of the en face image in b. d–f, YZ cross-sections showing similar features, including vascular structures V and superficial focal fibrosis F. (Media 2)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

3D-OCT images of radiation proctitis 14 months after treatment. a, 20 µm en face summation. Columnar epithelium proximal of the dentate line appears normal. Squamous epithelium is largely normal, with likely former ectatic vessels shown by arrows. Dashed lines show locations of cross-sectional images. b, XZ cross-section showing regular squamous S and columnar C epithelium. c, YZ cross-sections showing similar features. d, Arbitrary cross-section through the long axis of an ectatic vessel remnant R. (Media 3)

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