Abstract

A novel speckle noise reduction algorithm based on a combination of Anisotropic Diffusion (AD) filtering and Interval Type-II fuzzy system was developed for reducing speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images. Unlike regular AD, the Interval Type-II fuzzy based AD algorithm considers the uncertainty in the calculated diffusion coefficient and appropriate adjustments to the coefficient are made. The new algorithm offers flexibility in optimizing the trade-off between the two image metrics: signal-to-noise (SNR) and Edginess, which are directly related to the structure of the imaged object. Application of the Interval Type-II fuzzy AD algorithm to OCT tomograms acquired in-vivo from a human finger tip and human retina show reduction in the speckle noise with very little edge blurring and about 13 dB and 7 dB image SNR improvement respectively. Comparison with Wiener, Adaptive Lee and regular Anisotropic Diffusion filters, applied to the same images, demonstrates the superior performance of the fuzzy Type-II AD algorithm in terms image SNR and edge preservation metrics improvement.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  24. A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 24, 1901-1910 (2007).
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2008 (1)

2007 (4)

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. R. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Angle-resolved Optical Coherence Tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction," Opt. Express 15, 6200-6209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Puvanathasan and K. Bizheva, "Speckle noise reduction algorithm for optical coherence tomography based on interval type II fuzzy set," Opt. Express  15, 15747-15758 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Salinas and D. C. Fernandez, "Comparison of pde-based nonlinear diffusion approaches for image enhancement and denoising in optical coherence tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 26, 761-771 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 24, 1901-1910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

D. C. Fernandez, H. M. Salinas and C. A. Puliafito, "Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 10200-10216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Fernandez and H. M. Salinas, "Evaluation of a nonlinear diffusion process for segmentation and quantification of lesions in optical coherence tomography images," Proc. SPIE 5747, 1834-1843 (2005).

R. K. Wang, "Reduction of speckle noise for optical coherence tomography by the use of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion," Proc. SPIE 5690, 380-385 (2005).

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, "Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 64034 -9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A.F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by path length encoded angular compounding," J. Bio. Opt. 8, 260-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, "Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19, 1261-1266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Bio. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

F. Catte, P. L. Lions, J. M. Morel, and T. Coll, "Image selective smoothing and edge detection by nonlinear diffusion," SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 29, 182-193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Gerig, O. Kubler, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, "Nonlinear anisotropic filtering of mri data," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 11, 221-232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. and Mach. Intell. 12, 629-639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Koenderink, "The structure of images," Biol. Cybern. 50, 363-370 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

L. A. Zadeh, "Fuzzy sets," Information Control 8, 338-353 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Aja, S.

S. Aja, C. Alberola, and J. Ruiz, "Fuzzy anisotropic diffusion for speckle filtering," in IEEE Int. Conf. Acoust. Speech Signal Process.  2, 1261-1264 (2001).

Alberola, C.

S. Aja, C. Alberola, and J. Ruiz, "Fuzzy anisotropic diffusion for speckle filtering," in IEEE Int. Conf. Acoust. Speech Signal Process.  2, 1261-1264 (2001).

Bilenca, A.

A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 24, 1901-1910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bizheva, K.

Bouma, B. E.

A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 24, 1901-1910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. R. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Angle-resolved Optical Coherence Tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction," Opt. Express 15, 6200-6209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by path length encoded angular compounding," J. Bio. Opt. 8, 260-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, S.

Brezinski, M. E.

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, "Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19, 1261-1266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Catte, F.

F. Catte, P. L. Lions, J. M. Morel, and T. Coll, "Image selective smoothing and edge detection by nonlinear diffusion," SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 29, 182-193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Coll, T.

F. Catte, P. L. Lions, J. M. Morel, and T. Coll, "Image selective smoothing and edge detection by nonlinear diffusion," SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 29, 182-193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, A. E.

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. R. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Angle-resolved Optical Coherence Tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction," Opt. Express 15, 6200-6209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 24, 1901-1910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Bio. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A.F.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A.F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, D. C.

H. M. Salinas and D. C. Fernandez, "Comparison of pde-based nonlinear diffusion approaches for image enhancement and denoising in optical coherence tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 26, 761-771 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Fernandez and H. M. Salinas, "Evaluation of a nonlinear diffusion process for segmentation and quantification of lesions in optical coherence tomography images," Proc. SPIE 5747, 1834-1843 (2005).

D. C. Fernandez, H. M. Salinas and C. A. Puliafito, "Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 10200-10216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, P.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gerig, G.

G. Gerig, O. Kubler, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, "Nonlinear anisotropic filtering of mri data," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 11, 221-232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A.F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A.F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iftimia, N.

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by path length encoded angular compounding," J. Bio. Opt. 8, 260-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jolesz, F. A.

G. Gerig, O. Kubler, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, "Nonlinear anisotropic filtering of mri data," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 11, 221-232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kikinis, R.

G. Gerig, O. Kubler, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, "Nonlinear anisotropic filtering of mri data," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 11, 221-232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, "Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 64034 -9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, "Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 64034 -9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

Koenderink, J.

J. Koenderink, "The structure of images," Biol. Cybern. 50, 363-370 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kubler, O.

G. Gerig, O. Kubler, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, "Nonlinear anisotropic filtering of mri data," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 11, 221-232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A.F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lions, P. L.

F. Catte, P. L. Lions, J. M. Morel, and T. Coll, "Image selective smoothing and edge detection by nonlinear diffusion," SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 29, 182-193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Malchow, D.

Malik, J.

P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. and Mach. Intell. 12, 629-639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. T.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, "Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 64034 -9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, "Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 64034 -9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morel, J. M.

F. Catte, P. L. Lions, J. M. Morel, and T. Coll, "Image selective smoothing and edge detection by nonlinear diffusion," SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 29, 182-193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Motaghiannezam, S. M. R.

Noble, A.

G. Sanchez-Ortiz and A. Noble, "Fuzzy clustering driven anisotropic diffusion: Enhancement and segmentation of cardiac MR images," in IEEE Nuclear Symp. and Med. Imag. Conf.  3, 1873-1874 (1998).

Oh, J.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, "Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 64034 -9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, "Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 64034 -9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, W. Y.

Ozcan, A.

A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 24, 1901-1910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perona, P.

P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. and Mach. Intell. 12, 629-639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A.F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

Puvanathasan, P.

Ren, Z.

Rogowska, J.

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, "Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19, 1261-1266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, J.

S. Aja, C. Alberola, and J. Ruiz, "Fuzzy anisotropic diffusion for speckle filtering," in IEEE Int. Conf. Acoust. Speech Signal Process.  2, 1261-1264 (2001).

Salinas, H. M.

H. M. Salinas and D. C. Fernandez, "Comparison of pde-based nonlinear diffusion approaches for image enhancement and denoising in optical coherence tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 26, 761-771 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Fernandez and H. M. Salinas, "Evaluation of a nonlinear diffusion process for segmentation and quantification of lesions in optical coherence tomography images," Proc. SPIE 5747, 1834-1843 (2005).

D. C. Fernandez, H. M. Salinas and C. A. Puliafito, "Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 10200-10216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Ortiz, G.

G. Sanchez-Ortiz and A. Noble, "Fuzzy clustering driven anisotropic diffusion: Enhancement and segmentation of cardiac MR images," in IEEE Nuclear Symp. and Med. Imag. Conf.  3, 1873-1874 (1998).

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Bio. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. R. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Angle-resolved Optical Coherence Tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction," Opt. Express 15, 6200-6209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 24, 1901-1910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by path length encoded angular compounding," J. Bio. Opt. 8, 260-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, "Reduction of speckle noise for optical coherence tomography by the use of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion," Proc. SPIE 5690, 380-385 (2005).

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Bio. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Bio. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zadeh, L. A.

L. A. Zadeh, "Fuzzy sets," Information Control 8, 338-353 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Biol. Cybern. (1)

J. Koenderink, "The structure of images," Biol. Cybern. 50, 363-370 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (3)

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, "Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19, 1261-1266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Gerig, O. Kubler, R. Kikinis, and F. A. Jolesz, "Nonlinear anisotropic filtering of mri data," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 11, 221-232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Salinas and D. C. Fernandez, "Comparison of pde-based nonlinear diffusion approaches for image enhancement and denoising in optical coherence tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 26, 761-771 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. and Mach. Intell. (1)

P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. and Mach. Intell. 12, 629-639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Information Control (1)

L. A. Zadeh, "Fuzzy sets," Information Control 8, 338-353 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Bio. Opt. (3)

W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Bio. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Bio. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by path length encoded angular compounding," J. Bio. Opt. 8, 260-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, "Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 64034 -9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A.F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 24, 1901-1910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. C. Fernandez and H. M. Salinas, "Evaluation of a nonlinear diffusion process for segmentation and quantification of lesions in optical coherence tomography images," Proc. SPIE 5747, 1834-1843 (2005).

R. K. Wang, "Reduction of speckle noise for optical coherence tomography by the use of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion," Proc. SPIE 5690, 380-385 (2005).

SIAM J. Numer. Anal. (1)

F. Catte, P. L. Lions, J. M. Morel, and T. Coll, "Image selective smoothing and edge detection by nonlinear diffusion," SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 29, 182-193 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

J. Song and H. R. Tizhoosh, "Fuzzy Anisotropic Diffusion: A Rule-based Approach," in Proc. SCI, 4, 241-246 (2003).

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