Abstract

We report on the photodriven, polarization-controlled response of UV-pretreated azobenzene-based liquid crystal polymer networks (azo- LCN) of polydomain orientation to higher wavelength CW argon-ion laser light (Ar+) of 457-514 nm. The significant absorbance of the azo-LCN cantilever in the UV is used to form an approximately 1 µm thick cis-isomer rich skin. Subsequent exposure to the Ar+ laser drives a bidirectional bending process that is the result of two distinguishable photochemical processes. First, 457-514 nm laser light (regardless of polarization state) drives cis-trans photoisomerization of the UV-pretreated surface, restoring the order of the azobenzene liquid crystalline moieties. Mechanically, the cis-trans process results in an expansion on the exposed surface that forces the cantilever to undergo a rapid bend away from the laser source. Once a sufficient number of trans-azobenzene moieties are regenerated, continued Ar+ illumination promotes both the trans-cis and cis-trans processes enabling trans-cis-trans reorientation. In this particular system and conditions, trans-cis-trans reorientation enables polarization controlled mechanical bending of different angles towards the Ar+ source. Photomechanical responses of UV-pretreated azo-LCN demonstrate the viability of photogenerated effects in UV-rich environments such as space.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

T. J. White, N. Tabiryan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Serak, V. Hrozhyk, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, "High Frequency Photodriven Polymer Oscillator," Soft Matter 4, 1796-1798 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Corbett and M. Warner, "Bleaching and stimulated recovery of dyes and of photocantilevers," Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys. 77, 051710-051711 (2008).

K. K. Hon, D. Corbett, and E. M. Terentjev, "Thermal diffusion and bending kinetics in nematic elastomer cantilever," Eur. Phys. J. E 25, 83-89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Koerner, T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Photogenerating work from polymers," Maters. Today  11, 34-42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. J. Barrett, J.-I. Mamiya, K. G. Yager, and T. Ikeda, "Photo-mechanical effects in azobenzene-containing soft materials," Soft Matter 3, 1249-1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, "Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials," Adv. Mater. 19, 3244-3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J Bunning, "Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration," J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 16, 1-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. van Oosten, K. D. Harris, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, "Glassy photomechanical liquid-crystal network actuators for microscale devices," Eur. Phys. J. E 23, 329-336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, "Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers," Proc. SPIE 6654, 3-5 (2007).

2006

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, "Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1088-1089 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Corbett and M. Warner, "Nonlinear Photoresponse of Disordered Elastomers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 237802-237804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Li and P. Keller, "Artificial muscles based on liquid crystal elastomers," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 2763-2777 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

N. Tabiryan, S. Serak, X.-M. Dai, and T. Bunning, "Polymer film with optically controlled form and actuation," Opt. Express 13, 7442-7448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lub, and D. J. Broer, "Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators," J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, T. Maeda, M. Kondo, and T. Ikeda, "Precisely direction-controllable bending of cross-linked liquid-crystalline polymer films by light," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 436, 1235-1244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Camacho-Lopez, H. Finkelmann, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and M. Shelley, "Fast liquid crystal elastomer swims in the dark," Nature Materials 3, 307-310 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Effect of Cross-linking Density on Photoinduced Bending Behavior of Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Network Films Containing Azobenzene," Chem. Mater. 16, 1637-1643 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M.-H. Li, P. Keller, B. Li, X. Wang, and M. Brunet, "Light-driven side-on nematic elastomer actuators," Adv. Mater. 15, 569-572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, "Photomechanics: Directed bending of a polymer film by light," Nature 425, 145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Kempe, M. Rutloh, and J. Stumpe, "Photo-orientation of azobenzene side chain polymers parallel or perpendicular to the polarization of red HeNe light," J. Phys. Condens. Mattter 15, S813-S823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Warner and E. Terentjev, "Thermal and photo-actuation in nematic elastomers," Macromol. Symp. 200, 81-92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. M. Hogan, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "UV manipulation of order and macroscopic shape in nematic elastomers," Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys. 65, 41721 (2002).

J. Cviklinski, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "UV isomerisation in nematic elastomers as a route to photo-mechanical transducer," Eur. Phys. J. E 9, 427-434 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, T. B. Norris, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, R. H. Berg, P. H. Rasmussen, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light," Macromol. Symp. 137, 83-103 (1999).

1971

A. M. Makushenko, B. S. Neporent, and O.V. Stolbova, "Orientational photodichroism and photoisomerization of aromatic azo compounds I: model of the system," Opt. Spectrosc. 31, 295-299 (1971).

Barrett, C. J.

C. J. Barrett, J.-I. Mamiya, K. G. Yager, and T. Ikeda, "Photo-mechanical effects in azobenzene-containing soft materials," Soft Matter 3, 1249-1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

C. L. van Oosten, K. D. Harris, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, "Glassy photomechanical liquid-crystal network actuators for microscale devices," Eur. Phys. J. E 23, 329-336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lub, and D. J. Broer, "Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators," J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R. H.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, T. B. Norris, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, R. H. Berg, P. H. Rasmussen, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light," Macromol. Symp. 137, 83-103 (1999).

Broer, D. J.

C. L. van Oosten, K. D. Harris, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, "Glassy photomechanical liquid-crystal network actuators for microscale devices," Eur. Phys. J. E 23, 329-336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lub, and D. J. Broer, "Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators," J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brunet, M.

M.-H. Li, P. Keller, B. Li, X. Wang, and M. Brunet, "Light-driven side-on nematic elastomer actuators," Adv. Mater. 15, 569-572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buguin, A.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, "Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1088-1089 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T.

Bunning, T. J

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J Bunning, "Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration," J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 16, 1-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

H. Koerner, T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Photogenerating work from polymers," Maters. Today  11, 34-42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, N. Tabiryan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Serak, V. Hrozhyk, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, "High Frequency Photodriven Polymer Oscillator," Soft Matter 4, 1796-1798 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, "Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers," Proc. SPIE 6654, 3-5 (2007).

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, "Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials," Adv. Mater. 19, 3244-3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Lopez, M.

M. Camacho-Lopez, H. Finkelmann, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and M. Shelley, "Fast liquid crystal elastomer swims in the dark," Nature Materials 3, 307-310 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, D.

K. K. Hon, D. Corbett, and E. M. Terentjev, "Thermal diffusion and bending kinetics in nematic elastomer cantilever," Eur. Phys. J. E 25, 83-89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Corbett and M. Warner, "Bleaching and stimulated recovery of dyes and of photocantilevers," Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys. 77, 051710-051711 (2008).

D. Corbett and M. Warner, "Nonlinear Photoresponse of Disordered Elastomers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 237802-237804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cuypers, R.

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lub, and D. J. Broer, "Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators," J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cviklinski, J.

J. Cviklinski, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "UV isomerisation in nematic elastomers as a route to photo-mechanical transducer," Eur. Phys. J. E 9, 427-434 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dai, X.-M.

Finkelmann, H.

M. Camacho-Lopez, H. Finkelmann, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and M. Shelley, "Fast liquid crystal elastomer swims in the dark," Nature Materials 3, 307-310 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grozhik, V.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, "Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers," Proc. SPIE 6654, 3-5 (2007).

Harris, K. D.

C. L. van Oosten, K. D. Harris, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, "Glassy photomechanical liquid-crystal network actuators for microscale devices," Eur. Phys. J. E 23, 329-336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lub, and D. J. Broer, "Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators," J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hogan, P. M.

P. M. Hogan, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "UV manipulation of order and macroscopic shape in nematic elastomers," Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys. 65, 41721 (2002).

Holme, N. C. R.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, T. B. Norris, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, R. H. Berg, P. H. Rasmussen, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light," Macromol. Symp. 137, 83-103 (1999).

Hon, K. K.

K. K. Hon, D. Corbett, and E. M. Terentjev, "Thermal diffusion and bending kinetics in nematic elastomer cantilever," Eur. Phys. J. E 25, 83-89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, "Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials," Adv. Mater. 19, 3244-3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hrozhyk, V.

T. J. White, N. Tabiryan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Serak, V. Hrozhyk, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, "High Frequency Photodriven Polymer Oscillator," Soft Matter 4, 1796-1798 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hvilsted, S.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, T. B. Norris, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, R. H. Berg, P. H. Rasmussen, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light," Macromol. Symp. 137, 83-103 (1999).

Ikeda, T.

C. J. Barrett, J.-I. Mamiya, K. G. Yager, and T. Ikeda, "Photo-mechanical effects in azobenzene-containing soft materials," Soft Matter 3, 1249-1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, T. Maeda, M. Kondo, and T. Ikeda, "Precisely direction-controllable bending of cross-linked liquid-crystalline polymer films by light," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 436, 1235-1244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Effect of Cross-linking Density on Photoinduced Bending Behavior of Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Network Films Containing Azobenzene," Chem. Mater. 16, 1637-1643 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, "Photomechanics: Directed bending of a polymer film by light," Nature 425, 145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, P.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, "Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1088-1089 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Li and P. Keller, "Artificial muscles based on liquid crystal elastomers," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 2763-2777 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Li, P. Keller, B. Li, X. Wang, and M. Brunet, "Light-driven side-on nematic elastomer actuators," Adv. Mater. 15, 569-572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kempe, C.

C. Kempe, M. Rutloh, and J. Stumpe, "Photo-orientation of azobenzene side chain polymers parallel or perpendicular to the polarization of red HeNe light," J. Phys. Condens. Mattter 15, S813-S823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koerner, H.

H. Koerner, T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Photogenerating work from polymers," Maters. Today  11, 34-42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, M.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, T. Maeda, M. Kondo, and T. Ikeda, "Precisely direction-controllable bending of cross-linked liquid-crystalline polymer films by light," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 436, 1235-1244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koval, J. J.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, "Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers," Proc. SPIE 6654, 3-5 (2007).

Ladoux, B.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, "Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1088-1089 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

M.-H. Li, P. Keller, B. Li, X. Wang, and M. Brunet, "Light-driven side-on nematic elastomer actuators," Adv. Mater. 15, 569-572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.-H.

M.-H. Li and P. Keller, "Artificial muscles based on liquid crystal elastomers," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 2763-2777 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, "Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1088-1089 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Li, P. Keller, B. Li, X. Wang, and M. Brunet, "Light-driven side-on nematic elastomer actuators," Adv. Mater. 15, 569-572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lub, J.

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lub, and D. J. Broer, "Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators," J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, T.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, T. Maeda, M. Kondo, and T. Ikeda, "Precisely direction-controllable bending of cross-linked liquid-crystalline polymer films by light," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 436, 1235-1244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Makushenko, A. M.

A. M. Makushenko, B. S. Neporent, and O.V. Stolbova, "Orientational photodichroism and photoisomerization of aromatic azo compounds I: model of the system," Opt. Spectrosc. 31, 295-299 (1971).

Mamiya, J.-I.

C. J. Barrett, J.-I. Mamiya, K. G. Yager, and T. Ikeda, "Photo-mechanical effects in azobenzene-containing soft materials," Soft Matter 3, 1249-1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, M.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, T. Maeda, M. Kondo, and T. Ikeda, "Precisely direction-controllable bending of cross-linked liquid-crystalline polymer films by light," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 436, 1235-1244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Effect of Cross-linking Density on Photoinduced Bending Behavior of Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Network Films Containing Azobenzene," Chem. Mater. 16, 1637-1643 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, "Photomechanics: Directed bending of a polymer film by light," Nature 425, 145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, "Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers," Proc. SPIE 6654, 3-5 (2007).

Neporent, B. S.

A. M. Makushenko, B. S. Neporent, and O.V. Stolbova, "Orientational photodichroism and photoisomerization of aromatic azo compounds I: model of the system," Opt. Spectrosc. 31, 295-299 (1971).

Nikolova, L.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, T. B. Norris, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, R. H. Berg, P. H. Rasmussen, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light," Macromol. Symp. 137, 83-103 (1999).

Norris, T. B.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, T. B. Norris, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, R. H. Berg, P. H. Rasmussen, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light," Macromol. Symp. 137, 83-103 (1999).

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

M. Camacho-Lopez, H. Finkelmann, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and M. Shelley, "Fast liquid crystal elastomer swims in the dark," Nature Materials 3, 307-310 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, M.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, T. B. Norris, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, R. H. Berg, P. H. Rasmussen, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light," Macromol. Symp. 137, 83-103 (1999).

Ramanujam, P. S.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, T. B. Norris, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, R. H. Berg, P. H. Rasmussen, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light," Macromol. Symp. 137, 83-103 (1999).

Rasmussen, P. H.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, T. B. Norris, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, R. H. Berg, P. H. Rasmussen, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light," Macromol. Symp. 137, 83-103 (1999).

Rutloh, M.

C. Kempe, M. Rutloh, and J. Stumpe, "Photo-orientation of azobenzene side chain polymers parallel or perpendicular to the polarization of red HeNe light," J. Phys. Condens. Mattter 15, S813-S823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scheibe, P.

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lub, and D. J. Broer, "Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators," J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S.

T. J. White, N. Tabiryan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Serak, V. Hrozhyk, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, "High Frequency Photodriven Polymer Oscillator," Soft Matter 4, 1796-1798 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, "Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers," Proc. SPIE 6654, 3-5 (2007).

N. Tabiryan, S. Serak, X.-M. Dai, and T. Bunning, "Polymer film with optically controlled form and actuation," Opt. Express 13, 7442-7448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S. V.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J Bunning, "Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration," J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 16, 1-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, "Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials," Adv. Mater. 19, 3244-3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelley, M.

M. Camacho-Lopez, H. Finkelmann, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and M. Shelley, "Fast liquid crystal elastomer swims in the dark," Nature Materials 3, 307-310 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiono, T.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Effect of Cross-linking Density on Photoinduced Bending Behavior of Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Network Films Containing Azobenzene," Chem. Mater. 16, 1637-1643 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shishido, A.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Effect of Cross-linking Density on Photoinduced Bending Behavior of Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Network Films Containing Azobenzene," Chem. Mater. 16, 1637-1643 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silberzan, P.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, "Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1088-1089 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stolbova, O.V.

A. M. Makushenko, B. S. Neporent, and O.V. Stolbova, "Orientational photodichroism and photoisomerization of aromatic azo compounds I: model of the system," Opt. Spectrosc. 31, 295-299 (1971).

Stumpe, J.

C. Kempe, M. Rutloh, and J. Stumpe, "Photo-orientation of azobenzene side chain polymers parallel or perpendicular to the polarization of red HeNe light," J. Phys. Condens. Mattter 15, S813-S823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tabirian, N.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, "Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers," Proc. SPIE 6654, 3-5 (2007).

Tabiryan, N.

T. J. White, N. Tabiryan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Serak, V. Hrozhyk, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, "High Frequency Photodriven Polymer Oscillator," Soft Matter 4, 1796-1798 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Tabiryan, S. Serak, X.-M. Dai, and T. Bunning, "Polymer film with optically controlled form and actuation," Opt. Express 13, 7442-7448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

H. Koerner, T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Photogenerating work from polymers," Maters. Today  11, 34-42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J Bunning, "Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration," J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 16, 1-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, "Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials," Adv. Mater. 19, 3244-3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tajbakhsh, A. R.

J. Cviklinski, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "UV isomerisation in nematic elastomers as a route to photo-mechanical transducer," Eur. Phys. J. E 9, 427-434 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Hogan, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "UV manipulation of order and macroscopic shape in nematic elastomers," Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys. 65, 41721 (2002).

Terentjev, E.

M. Warner and E. Terentjev, "Thermal and photo-actuation in nematic elastomers," Macromol. Symp. 200, 81-92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Terentjev, E. M.

K. K. Hon, D. Corbett, and E. M. Terentjev, "Thermal diffusion and bending kinetics in nematic elastomer cantilever," Eur. Phys. J. E 25, 83-89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Hogan, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "UV manipulation of order and macroscopic shape in nematic elastomers," Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys. 65, 41721 (2002).

J. Cviklinski, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "UV isomerisation in nematic elastomers as a route to photo-mechanical transducer," Eur. Phys. J. E 9, 427-434 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

T. J. White, N. Tabiryan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Serak, V. Hrozhyk, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, "High Frequency Photodriven Polymer Oscillator," Soft Matter 4, 1796-1798 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, "Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers," Proc. SPIE 6654, 3-5 (2007).

Vaia, R. A.

T. J. White, N. Tabiryan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Serak, V. Hrozhyk, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, "High Frequency Photodriven Polymer Oscillator," Soft Matter 4, 1796-1798 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Koerner, T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Photogenerating work from polymers," Maters. Today  11, 34-42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, "Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers," Proc. SPIE 6654, 3-5 (2007).

van Oosten, C. L.

C. L. van Oosten, K. D. Harris, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, "Glassy photomechanical liquid-crystal network actuators for microscale devices," Eur. Phys. J. E 23, 329-336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lub, and D. J. Broer, "Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators," J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

M.-H. Li, P. Keller, B. Li, X. Wang, and M. Brunet, "Light-driven side-on nematic elastomer actuators," Adv. Mater. 15, 569-572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Warner, M.

D. Corbett and M. Warner, "Bleaching and stimulated recovery of dyes and of photocantilevers," Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys. 77, 051710-051711 (2008).

D. Corbett and M. Warner, "Nonlinear Photoresponse of Disordered Elastomers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 237802-237804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Warner and E. Terentjev, "Thermal and photo-actuation in nematic elastomers," Macromol. Symp. 200, 81-92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, T. J.

H. Koerner, T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Photogenerating work from polymers," Maters. Today  11, 34-42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, N. Tabiryan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Serak, V. Hrozhyk, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, "High Frequency Photodriven Polymer Oscillator," Soft Matter 4, 1796-1798 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, "Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers," Proc. SPIE 6654, 3-5 (2007).

Yager, K. G.

C. J. Barrett, J.-I. Mamiya, K. G. Yager, and T. Ikeda, "Photo-mechanical effects in azobenzene-containing soft materials," Soft Matter 3, 1249-1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, T. Maeda, M. Kondo, and T. Ikeda, "Precisely direction-controllable bending of cross-linked liquid-crystalline polymer films by light," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 436, 1235-1244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Effect of Cross-linking Density on Photoinduced Bending Behavior of Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Network Films Containing Azobenzene," Chem. Mater. 16, 1637-1643 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, "Photomechanics: Directed bending of a polymer film by light," Nature 425, 145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

M.-H. Li, P. Keller, B. Li, X. Wang, and M. Brunet, "Light-driven side-on nematic elastomer actuators," Adv. Mater. 15, 569-572 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, "Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials," Adv. Mater. 19, 3244-3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Effect of Cross-linking Density on Photoinduced Bending Behavior of Oriented Liquid-Crystalline Network Films Containing Azobenzene," Chem. Mater. 16, 1637-1643 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E

J. Cviklinski, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "UV isomerisation in nematic elastomers as a route to photo-mechanical transducer," Eur. Phys. J. E 9, 427-434 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Hon, D. Corbett, and E. M. Terentjev, "Thermal diffusion and bending kinetics in nematic elastomer cantilever," Eur. Phys. J. E 25, 83-89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. van Oosten, K. D. Harris, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, "Glassy photomechanical liquid-crystal network actuators for microscale devices," Eur. Phys. J. E 23, 329-336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, "Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1088-1089 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lub, and D. J. Broer, "Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators," J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J Bunning, "Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration," J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 16, 1-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Mattter

C. Kempe, M. Rutloh, and J. Stumpe, "Photo-orientation of azobenzene side chain polymers parallel or perpendicular to the polarization of red HeNe light," J. Phys. Condens. Mattter 15, S813-S823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Symp.

M. Warner and E. Terentjev, "Thermal and photo-actuation in nematic elastomers," Macromol. Symp. 200, 81-92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, T. B. Norris, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, R. H. Berg, P. H. Rasmussen, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light," Macromol. Symp. 137, 83-103 (1999).

Maters. Today

H. Koerner, T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Photogenerating work from polymers," Maters. Today  11, 34-42 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, T. Maeda, M. Kondo, and T. Ikeda, "Precisely direction-controllable bending of cross-linked liquid-crystalline polymer films by light," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 436, 1235-1244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, "Photomechanics: Directed bending of a polymer film by light," Nature 425, 145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature Materials

M. Camacho-Lopez, H. Finkelmann, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and M. Shelley, "Fast liquid crystal elastomer swims in the dark," Nature Materials 3, 307-310 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Spectrosc.

A. M. Makushenko, B. S. Neporent, and O.V. Stolbova, "Orientational photodichroism and photoisomerization of aromatic azo compounds I: model of the system," Opt. Spectrosc. 31, 295-299 (1971).

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A

M.-H. Li and P. Keller, "Artificial muscles based on liquid crystal elastomers," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 2763-2777 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Corbett and M. Warner, "Nonlinear Photoresponse of Disordered Elastomers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 237802-237804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, "Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers," Proc. SPIE 6654, 3-5 (2007).

Soft Matter

T. J. White, N. Tabiryan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Serak, V. Hrozhyk, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, "High Frequency Photodriven Polymer Oscillator," Soft Matter 4, 1796-1798 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Barrett, J.-I. Mamiya, K. G. Yager, and T. Ikeda, "Photo-mechanical effects in azobenzene-containing soft materials," Soft Matter 3, 1249-1261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soft Matter Phys.

P. M. Hogan, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "UV manipulation of order and macroscopic shape in nematic elastomers," Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys. 65, 41721 (2002).

D. Corbett and M. Warner, "Bleaching and stimulated recovery of dyes and of photocantilevers," Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys. 77, 051710-051711 (2008).

Other

E. M. Terentjev and M. Warner, Liquid Crystal Elastomers (Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2003).

M. Warner and L. Mahadevan, "Photoinduced Deformations of Beams, Plates, and Films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 134302/134301-134302/134304 (2004).

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, "The mechanism of large and high-speed photocontrol ability of azobenzene elastomers," Book of Abstracts, p. 40. 12th International Topical Meeting on Optics of Liquid Crystals OLC’07, October 1-5, 2007, Puebla City, Mexico.

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, "Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 11901-1-11901-4 (2004).

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