Abstract

An interferometric Mach-Zehnder technique very recently developed has been applied to measure photorefractive index changes in different types of z-cut proton-exchanged planar waveguides in LiNbO3. These measurements are complemented by determining the intensity-threshold for the onset of optical damage with a standard single-beam setup. In the intensity region just below the threshold-intensity obtained in the single-beam experiment the refractive index change is found to saturate at values around 1×10-4. Furthermore, we measure the dark conductivities of proton-exchanged waveguides by monitoring the decay of the light-induced index changes. Via the time constant of the decay we obtain dark conductivities of the order of about 5 × 10-16 Ω-1 cm-1, that are negligible compared with the photoconductivity within the light intensity range used. The results of the measurements compare well with the predictions of a recent work, that uses a two-center model to explain the optical damage.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Glavas, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, "A comparison of optical damage in different types of LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 22, 611-616 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Fujiwara, X. Cao, R. Srivastava, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Photorefractive effect in annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743-745 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Light-induced damage mechanisms in α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 68, 989-993 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Optical damage in x-cut proton exchanged LiNbO3 planar waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Fujiwara, R. Srivastava, X. Cao, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Comparison of photorefractive index change in proton-exchanged and Ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 18, 346-348 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Carrascosa, J. Villarroel, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Understanding light intensity thresholds for catastrophic optical damage in LiNbO3," Opt. Express 16, 115 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Rams, A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Optical damage inhibition and thresholding effects in lithium niobate above room temperature," Opt. Commun. 178, 211-216 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  8. I.  Breunig, M.  Falk, B.  Knabe, R.  Sowade, K.  Buse, P.  Rabiei, and D. H.  Jundt, "Second harmonic generation of 2.6 W green light with thermoelectrically oxidized undoped congruent lithium niobate crystals below 100 °C," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221110 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Luedtke, J. Villaroel, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, H. Steigerwald, and K. Buse "Mach-Zehnder technique for investigation of optical damage in planar LiNbO3 waveguides," Ferroelectrics, in press
  10. A. Méndez, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, "Photorefractive charge compensation in α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1412-1419 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Falk and K. Buse, "Thermo-electric method for nearly complete oxidization of highly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals," Appl. Phys. B 81, 853-855 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, "Hydrogen in lithium niobate," Adv. Phys. 45, 349-392 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Light intensity measurements in optical wavegudies using prism couplers," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074509 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Agulló-López, G.F. Calvo, and M. Carrascosa, Photorefractive Materials and their Applications 1 - Basic Effects, P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, ed. (Springer, 2005), Chap. 3.
  15. J. Villarroel, M. Carrascosa, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Light intensity dependence of holographic response and dark decays in α-phase PE:LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 104008 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Mansingh and A. Dhar, "The AC conductivity and dielectric constant of lithium niobate single crystals," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 18, 2059-2071 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Althoff and E. Krätzig, 'Strong light-induced refractive index changes in LiNbO3,' Nonlinear Optical Materials III, SPIE 1273, 12-19 (1990).
  18. F. Jermann and J. Otten, 'Light-induced charge transport in LiNbO3:Fe at high light intensities,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2085-2092 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Falk, Th. Woike, and K. Buse, "Reduction of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals by thermo-electric oxidization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251912 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Carnicero, M. Carrascosa, A. Mendez, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Optical damage control via the Fe2+/Fe3+-ratio in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2294-2296 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Carrascosa, J. Villarroel, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Understanding light intensity thresholds for catastrophic optical damage in LiNbO3," Opt. Express 16, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Villarroel, M. Carrascosa, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Light intensity dependence of holographic response and dark decays in α-phase PE:LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 104008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Light intensity measurements in optical wavegudies using prism couplers," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I.  Breunig, M.  Falk, B.  Knabe, R.  Sowade, K.  Buse, P.  Rabiei, and D. H.  Jundt, "Second harmonic generation of 2.6 W green light with thermoelectrically oxidized undoped congruent lithium niobate crystals below 100 °C," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221110 (2007)
[CrossRef]

M. Falk, Th. Woike, and K. Buse, "Reduction of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals by thermo-electric oxidization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Carnicero, M. Carrascosa, A. Mendez, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Optical damage control via the Fe2+/Fe3+-ratio in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2294-2296 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Optical damage in x-cut proton exchanged LiNbO3 planar waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Falk and K. Buse, "Thermo-electric method for nearly complete oxidization of highly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals," Appl. Phys. B 81, 853-855 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Méndez, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, "Photorefractive charge compensation in α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1412-1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Rams, A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Optical damage inhibition and thresholding effects in lithium niobate above room temperature," Opt. Commun. 178, 211-216 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Light-induced damage mechanisms in α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 68, 989-993 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, "Hydrogen in lithium niobate," Adv. Phys. 45, 349-392 (1996)
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

T. Fujiwara, X. Cao, R. Srivastava, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Photorefractive effect in annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743-745 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

O. Althoff and E. Krätzig, 'Strong light-induced refractive index changes in LiNbO3,' Nonlinear Optical Materials III, SPIE 1273, 12-19 (1990).

1988 (1)

E. Glavas, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, "A comparison of optical damage in different types of LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 22, 611-616 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. Mansingh and A. Dhar, "The AC conductivity and dielectric constant of lithium niobate single crystals," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 18, 2059-2071 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-López, F.

J. Rams, A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Optical damage inhibition and thresholding effects in lithium niobate above room temperature," Opt. Commun. 178, 211-216 (2000)
[CrossRef]

A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Light-induced damage mechanisms in α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 68, 989-993 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alcázar, A.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Light intensity measurements in optical wavegudies using prism couplers," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Optical damage in x-cut proton exchanged LiNbO3 planar waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alcázar-de-Velasco, A.

J. Rams, A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Optical damage inhibition and thresholding effects in lithium niobate above room temperature," Opt. Commun. 178, 211-216 (2000)
[CrossRef]

A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Light-induced damage mechanisms in α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 68, 989-993 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Althoff, O.

O. Althoff and E. Krätzig, 'Strong light-induced refractive index changes in LiNbO3,' Nonlinear Optical Materials III, SPIE 1273, 12-19 (1990).

Breunig, I.

I.  Breunig, M.  Falk, B.  Knabe, R.  Sowade, K.  Buse, P.  Rabiei, and D. H.  Jundt, "Second harmonic generation of 2.6 W green light with thermoelectrically oxidized undoped congruent lithium niobate crystals below 100 °C," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221110 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

I.  Breunig, M.  Falk, B.  Knabe, R.  Sowade, K.  Buse, P.  Rabiei, and D. H.  Jundt, "Second harmonic generation of 2.6 W green light with thermoelectrically oxidized undoped congruent lithium niobate crystals below 100 °C," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221110 (2007)
[CrossRef]

M. Falk, Th. Woike, and K. Buse, "Reduction of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals by thermo-electric oxidization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Falk and K. Buse, "Thermo-electric method for nearly complete oxidization of highly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals," Appl. Phys. B 81, 853-855 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Luedtke, J. Villaroel, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, H. Steigerwald, and K. Buse "Mach-Zehnder technique for investigation of optical damage in planar LiNbO3 waveguides," Ferroelectrics, in press

Caballero-Calero, O.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Light intensity measurements in optical wavegudies using prism couplers," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Optical damage in x-cut proton exchanged LiNbO3 planar waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. M.

M. Carrascosa, J. Villarroel, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Understanding light intensity thresholds for catastrophic optical damage in LiNbO3," Opt. Express 16, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Villarroel, M. Carrascosa, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Light intensity dependence of holographic response and dark decays in α-phase PE:LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 104008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Light intensity measurements in optical wavegudies using prism couplers," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Carnicero, M. Carrascosa, A. Mendez, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Optical damage control via the Fe2+/Fe3+-ratio in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2294-2296 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Optical damage in x-cut proton exchanged LiNbO3 planar waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Rams, A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Optical damage inhibition and thresholding effects in lithium niobate above room temperature," Opt. Commun. 178, 211-216 (2000)
[CrossRef]

A. Méndez, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, "Photorefractive charge compensation in α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1412-1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Light-induced damage mechanisms in α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 68, 989-993 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, "Hydrogen in lithium niobate," Adv. Phys. 45, 349-392 (1996)
[CrossRef]

E. Glavas, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, "A comparison of optical damage in different types of LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 22, 611-616 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X.

T. Fujiwara, R. Srivastava, X. Cao, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Comparison of photorefractive index change in proton-exchanged and Ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 18, 346-348 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fujiwara, X. Cao, R. Srivastava, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Photorefractive effect in annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743-745 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carnicero, J.

Carrascosa, M.

M. Carrascosa, J. Villarroel, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Understanding light intensity thresholds for catastrophic optical damage in LiNbO3," Opt. Express 16, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Villarroel, M. Carrascosa, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Light intensity dependence of holographic response and dark decays in α-phase PE:LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 104008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Light intensity measurements in optical wavegudies using prism couplers," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Carnicero, M. Carrascosa, A. Mendez, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Optical damage control via the Fe2+/Fe3+-ratio in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2294-2296 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Optical damage in x-cut proton exchanged LiNbO3 planar waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Rams, A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Optical damage inhibition and thresholding effects in lithium niobate above room temperature," Opt. Commun. 178, 211-216 (2000)
[CrossRef]

A. Méndez, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, "Photorefractive charge compensation in α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1412-1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, "Hydrogen in lithium niobate," Adv. Phys. 45, 349-392 (1996)
[CrossRef]

F. Luedtke, J. Villaroel, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, H. Steigerwald, and K. Buse "Mach-Zehnder technique for investigation of optical damage in planar LiNbO3 waveguides," Ferroelectrics, in press

Dhar, A.

A. Mansingh and A. Dhar, "The AC conductivity and dielectric constant of lithium niobate single crystals," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 18, 2059-2071 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Diéguez, E.

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, "Hydrogen in lithium niobate," Adv. Phys. 45, 349-392 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Falk, M.

I.  Breunig, M.  Falk, B.  Knabe, R.  Sowade, K.  Buse, P.  Rabiei, and D. H.  Jundt, "Second harmonic generation of 2.6 W green light with thermoelectrically oxidized undoped congruent lithium niobate crystals below 100 °C," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221110 (2007)
[CrossRef]

M. Falk, Th. Woike, and K. Buse, "Reduction of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals by thermo-electric oxidization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Falk and K. Buse, "Thermo-electric method for nearly complete oxidization of highly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals," Appl. Phys. B 81, 853-855 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, R. Srivastava, X. Cao, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Comparison of photorefractive index change in proton-exchanged and Ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 18, 346-348 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fujiwara, X. Cao, R. Srivastava, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Photorefractive effect in annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743-745 (1992).
[CrossRef]

García-Cabañes, A.

M. Carrascosa, J. Villarroel, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Understanding light intensity thresholds for catastrophic optical damage in LiNbO3," Opt. Express 16, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Villarroel, M. Carrascosa, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Light intensity dependence of holographic response and dark decays in α-phase PE:LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 104008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Light intensity measurements in optical wavegudies using prism couplers," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Carnicero, M. Carrascosa, A. Mendez, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Optical damage control via the Fe2+/Fe3+-ratio in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2294-2296 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Optical damage in x-cut proton exchanged LiNbO3 planar waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Méndez, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, "Photorefractive charge compensation in α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1412-1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Luedtke, J. Villaroel, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, H. Steigerwald, and K. Buse "Mach-Zehnder technique for investigation of optical damage in planar LiNbO3 waveguides," Ferroelectrics, in press

Glavas, E.

E. Glavas, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, "A comparison of optical damage in different types of LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 22, 611-616 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jermann, F.

Jundt, D. H.

I.  Breunig, M.  Falk, B.  Knabe, R.  Sowade, K.  Buse, P.  Rabiei, and D. H.  Jundt, "Second harmonic generation of 2.6 W green light with thermoelectrically oxidized undoped congruent lithium niobate crystals below 100 °C," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221110 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Knabe, B.

I.  Breunig, M.  Falk, B.  Knabe, R.  Sowade, K.  Buse, P.  Rabiei, and D. H.  Jundt, "Second harmonic generation of 2.6 W green light with thermoelectrically oxidized undoped congruent lithium niobate crystals below 100 °C," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221110 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Krätzig, E.

O. Althoff and E. Krätzig, 'Strong light-induced refractive index changes in LiNbO3,' Nonlinear Optical Materials III, SPIE 1273, 12-19 (1990).

Luedtke, F.

F. Luedtke, J. Villaroel, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, H. Steigerwald, and K. Buse "Mach-Zehnder technique for investigation of optical damage in planar LiNbO3 waveguides," Ferroelectrics, in press

Mansingh, A.

A. Mansingh and A. Dhar, "The AC conductivity and dielectric constant of lithium niobate single crystals," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 18, 2059-2071 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, A.

Méndez, A.

Müller, R.

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, "Hydrogen in lithium niobate," Adv. Phys. 45, 349-392 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, "Hydrogen in lithium niobate," Adv. Phys. 45, 349-392 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Otten, J.

Rabiei, P.

I.  Breunig, M.  Falk, B.  Knabe, R.  Sowade, K.  Buse, P.  Rabiei, and D. H.  Jundt, "Second harmonic generation of 2.6 W green light with thermoelectrically oxidized undoped congruent lithium niobate crystals below 100 °C," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221110 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

Ramaswamy, R.V.

T. Fujiwara, X. Cao, R. Srivastava, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Photorefractive effect in annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743-745 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rams, J.

J. Rams, A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Optical damage inhibition and thresholding effects in lithium niobate above room temperature," Opt. Commun. 178, 211-216 (2000)
[CrossRef]

A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Light-induced damage mechanisms in α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 68, 989-993 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, "Hydrogen in lithium niobate," Adv. Phys. 45, 349-392 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Sowade, R.

I.  Breunig, M.  Falk, B.  Knabe, R.  Sowade, K.  Buse, P.  Rabiei, and D. H.  Jundt, "Second harmonic generation of 2.6 W green light with thermoelectrically oxidized undoped congruent lithium niobate crystals below 100 °C," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221110 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

T. Fujiwara, R. Srivastava, X. Cao, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Comparison of photorefractive index change in proton-exchanged and Ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 18, 346-348 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fujiwara, X. Cao, R. Srivastava, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Photorefractive effect in annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743-745 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, H.

F. Luedtke, J. Villaroel, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, H. Steigerwald, and K. Buse "Mach-Zehnder technique for investigation of optical damage in planar LiNbO3 waveguides," Ferroelectrics, in press

Townsend, P. D.

E. Glavas, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, "A comparison of optical damage in different types of LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 22, 611-616 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Villaroel, J.

F. Luedtke, J. Villaroel, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, H. Steigerwald, and K. Buse "Mach-Zehnder technique for investigation of optical damage in planar LiNbO3 waveguides," Ferroelectrics, in press

Villarroel, J.

J. Villarroel, M. Carrascosa, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Light intensity dependence of holographic response and dark decays in α-phase PE:LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 104008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Carrascosa, J. Villarroel, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Understanding light intensity thresholds for catastrophic optical damage in LiNbO3," Opt. Express 16, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woike, Th.

M. Falk, Th. Woike, and K. Buse, "Reduction of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals by thermo-electric oxidization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, "Hydrogen in lithium niobate," Adv. Phys. 45, 349-392 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Falk and K. Buse, "Thermo-electric method for nearly complete oxidization of highly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals," Appl. Phys. B 81, 853-855 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Light-induced damage mechanisms in α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 68, 989-993 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Fujiwara, X. Cao, R. Srivastava, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "Photorefractive effect in annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743-745 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I.  Breunig, M.  Falk, B.  Knabe, R.  Sowade, K.  Buse, P.  Rabiei, and D. H.  Jundt, "Second harmonic generation of 2.6 W green light with thermoelectrically oxidized undoped congruent lithium niobate crystals below 100 °C," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221110 (2007)
[CrossRef]

M. Falk, Th. Woike, and K. Buse, "Reduction of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals by thermo-electric oxidization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

F. Luedtke, J. Villaroel, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, H. Steigerwald, and K. Buse "Mach-Zehnder technique for investigation of optical damage in planar LiNbO3 waveguides," Ferroelectrics, in press

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Optical damage in x-cut proton exchanged LiNbO3 planar waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero-Calero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, "Light intensity measurements in optical wavegudies using prism couplers," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Villarroel, M. Carrascosa, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, "Light intensity dependence of holographic response and dark decays in α-phase PE:LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 104008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (2)

E. Glavas, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, "A comparison of optical damage in different types of LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 22, 611-616 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Mansingh and A. Dhar, "The AC conductivity and dielectric constant of lithium niobate single crystals," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 18, 2059-2071 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Optical Materials III, SPIE (1)

O. Althoff and E. Krätzig, 'Strong light-induced refractive index changes in LiNbO3,' Nonlinear Optical Materials III, SPIE 1273, 12-19 (1990).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Rams, A. Alcázar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, "Optical damage inhibition and thresholding effects in lithium niobate above room temperature," Opt. Commun. 178, 211-216 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

F. Agulló-López, G.F. Calvo, and M. Carrascosa, Photorefractive Materials and their Applications 1 - Basic Effects, P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, ed. (Springer, 2005), Chap. 3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic sketch of the single-beam setup that is used for the determination of optical damage thresholds via the detection of significant beam distortion.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for the interferometric measurement of photorefractive index changes in planar waveguides. The dashed and the dotted lines on the lower left-hand side represent the two arms of the interferometer. These two lines are separated in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the paper.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Results of the measurements with the single-beam setup: outcoupled intensity Iout versus incoupled intensity Iin

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Typical measurement results obtained with the Mach-Zehnder interferometer for the build-up (a) and dark-decay (b) of optical damage. The solid lines correspond to exponential fits of Eq. (1) and Eq. (2), respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Saturation values of the refractive index changes Δneff,sat for all three types of waveguides versus incident light intensity Iin . Solid and dashed lines are just guides to the eye, in analogy to presentations in [6, 17, 18].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Intensity thresholds for the different types of waveguides

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δneff(t)=Δneff,sat (1et/τ) ,
Δneff(t)=Δneff (t=0) et/τd ,
τd=εε0σd.

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