Abstract

A monolithic coupling scheme for mid-infrared quantum cascade laser arrays is investigated with respect to brightness enhancement. The tree-shaped resonator enables parallel coupling of six laser elements into a single element by means of several Y-junctions. Phase-locking is observed on the basis of far field analysis, and leads to in-phase emission on both sides of the device. The experimental results match calculated far field profiles and demonstrate a high level of modal control when driven far above threshold. Whereas optical power measurements confirm negligible coupling losses, the slope efficiency is below the theoretically expected value, which is attributed to modal competition. Additional evaluation of near fields and spectral characteristics provides background on the modal dynamics of the sophisticated cavity and reveals limitations to coherent beam combining. The findings pave the way to improved coupling efficiency and brightness scaling of a single facet emitting compact quantum cascade laser array.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Devenson, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, "InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 2.75-2.97 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, "Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620-2622 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers for broad-gain applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 36-40 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lončar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Spagnolo, A. Lops, G. Scamarcio,M. S. Vitiello, and C. Di Franco, "Improved thermal management of mid-IR quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Mujagič, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Carras, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, O. Parillaud, A. De Rossi, and S. Bansropun, "Top grating index-coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, P. Sung, J. Nguyen, A. Evans,W. Zhang, andM. Razeghi, "Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141123 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power cw quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Wienold, M. P. Semtsiv, I. Bayrakli, W. T. Masselink, M. Ziegler, K. Kennedy, and R. Hogg, "Optical and thermal characteristics of narrow-ridge quantum-cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083113 (2008).
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  14. A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 90, 339-343 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, M. Froidevaux, and H. van den Bergh, "Open-path ozone detection by quantumcascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 82, 501-506 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Martini and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade laser-based free space optical communications," J. Opt. Fiber. Commun. Rep. 2, 279-292 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. C. Phillips and N. Hô, "Infrared hyperspectral imaging using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and microbolometer focal plane array," Opt. Express 16, 1836-1845 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. Guo, Y. Wang, C. Peng, H. L. Zhang, G. P. Luo, H. Q. Le, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser-based mid-infrared reflectance imaging of biological tissues," Opt. Express 12, 208-219 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Y. Fan, "Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 567-577 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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  22. F. Causa and D. Masanotti, "Observation and analysis of phase-locking in parabolic bow-tie laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1016-1022 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. C. Elarde, K. E. Tobin, R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, and J. J. Coleman, "Curved waveguide array diode lasers for high-brightness applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1085-1087 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. E. A. Whiteaway, D. J. Moule, and S. J. Clements, "Tree array lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 779-781 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. K. Hoffmann, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Monolithic Mach-Zehnder-type quantum cascade laser," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. W. Smith, "Mode selection in lasers," Proc. IEEE 60, 422-440 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperatur," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, "Mode-dependent radiation loss in Y-junctions and directional couplers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1200-1208 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (13)

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers for broad-gain applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 36-40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, A. Lops, G. Scamarcio,M. S. Vitiello, and C. Di Franco, "Improved thermal management of mid-IR quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagič, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Carras, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, O. Parillaud, A. De Rossi, and S. Bansropun, "Top grating index-coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wienold, M. P. Semtsiv, I. Bayrakli, W. T. Masselink, M. Ziegler, K. Kennedy, and R. Hogg, "Optical and thermal characteristics of narrow-ridge quantum-cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 90, 339-343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Elarde, K. E. Tobin, R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, and J. J. Coleman, "Curved waveguide array diode lasers for high-brightness applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1085-1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Monolithic Mach-Zehnder-type quantum cascade laser," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Phillips and N. Hô, "Infrared hyperspectral imaging using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and microbolometer focal plane array," Opt. Express 16, 1836-1845 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Devenson, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, "InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 2.75-2.97 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, P. Sung, J. Nguyen, A. Evans,W. Zhang, andM. Razeghi, "Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lončar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, M. Froidevaux, and H. van den Bergh, "Open-path ozone detection by quantumcascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 82, 501-506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Causa and D. Masanotti, "Observation and analysis of phase-locking in parabolic bow-tie laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1016-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

R. Martini and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade laser-based free space optical communications," J. Opt. Fiber. Commun. Rep. 2, 279-292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, "Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 567-577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power cw quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Guo, Y. Wang, C. Peng, H. L. Zhang, G. P. Luo, H. Q. Le, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser-based mid-infrared reflectance imaging of biological tissues," Opt. Express 12, 208-219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperatur," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, "Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620-2622 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. Botez, "High-power monolithic phase-locked arrays of antiguided semiconductor diode lasers," IEE Proc. 139, 14-23 (1992).

1989 (2)

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, "Mode-dependent radiation loss in Y-junctions and directional couplers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1200-1208 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. E. A. Whiteaway, D. J. Moule, and S. J. Clements, "Tree array lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 779-781 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. W. Smith, "Mode selection in lasers," Proc. IEEE 60, 422-440 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aellen, T.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperatur," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, A. M.

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Monolithic Mach-Zehnder-type quantum cascade laser," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Austerer, M.

L. K. Hoffmann, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Monolithic Mach-Zehnder-type quantum cascade laser," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, P. Sung, J. Nguyen, A. Evans,W. Zhang, andM. Razeghi, "Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bansropun, S.

M. Carras, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, O. Parillaud, A. De Rossi, and S. Bansropun, "Top grating index-coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baranov, A. N.

J. Devenson, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, "InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 2.75-2.97 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bayrakli, I.

M. Wienold, M. P. Semtsiv, I. Bayrakli, W. T. Masselink, M. Ziegler, K. Kennedy, and R. Hogg, "Optical and thermal characteristics of narrow-ridge quantum-cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperatur," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benz, A.

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bewley, W. W.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power cw quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Botez, D.

D. Botez, "High-power monolithic phase-locked arrays of antiguided semiconductor diode lasers," IEE Proc. 139, 14-23 (1992).

Bour, D.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lončar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lončar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, "Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620-2622 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carras, M.

M. Carras, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, O. Parillaud, A. De Rossi, and S. Bansropun, "Top grating index-coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cathabard, O.

J. Devenson, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, "InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 2.75-2.97 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Causa, F.

F. Causa and D. Masanotti, "Observation and analysis of phase-locking in parabolic bow-tie laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1016-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

B. Guo, Y. Wang, C. Peng, H. L. Zhang, G. P. Luo, H. Q. Le, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser-based mid-infrared reflectance imaging of biological tissues," Opt. Express 12, 208-219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
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Coleman, J. J.

V. C. Elarde, K. E. Tobin, R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, and J. J. Coleman, "Curved waveguide array diode lasers for high-brightness applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1085-1087 (2008).
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R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, "Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620-2622 (2001).
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G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
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L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lončar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
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Cullis, A. G.

R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
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Curl, R. F.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
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Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021103 (2008).
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Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, P. Sung, J. Nguyen, A. Evans,W. Zhang, andM. Razeghi, "Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141123 (2007).
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De Rossi, A.

M. Carras, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, O. Parillaud, A. De Rossi, and S. Bansropun, "Top grating index-coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011109 (2008).
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J. Devenson, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, "InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 2.75-2.97 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251102 (2007).
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Di Franco, C.

V. Spagnolo, A. Lops, G. Scamarcio,M. S. Vitiello, and C. Di Franco, "Improved thermal management of mid-IR quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lončar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elarde, V. C.

V. C. Elarde, K. E. Tobin, R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, and J. J. Coleman, "Curved waveguide array diode lasers for high-brightness applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1085-1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Evans, A.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, P. Sung, J. Nguyen, A. Evans,W. Zhang, andM. Razeghi, "Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans, A. J.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power cw quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers for broad-gain applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 36-40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperatur," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, J. Y.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
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Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, "Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 567-577 (2005).
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Froidevaux, M.

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, M. Froidevaux, and H. van den Bergh, "Open-path ozone detection by quantumcascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 82, 501-506 (2006).
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Garcia, M.

M. Carras, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, O. Parillaud, A. De Rossi, and S. Bansropun, "Top grating index-coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers for broad-gain applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 36-40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperatur," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giovannini, M.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers for broad-gain applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 36-40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

B. Guo, Y. Wang, C. Peng, H. L. Zhang, G. P. Luo, H. Q. Le, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser-based mid-infrared reflectance imaging of biological tissues," Opt. Express 12, 208-219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, "Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620-2622 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Go, R.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. P.

R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gresch, T.

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers for broad-gain applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 36-40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, B.

Hardy, A.

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, "Mode-dependent radiation loss in Y-junctions and directional couplers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1200-1208 (1989).
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Hô, N.

Hoffmann, L. K.

L. K. Hoffmann, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Monolithic Mach-Zehnder-type quantum cascade laser," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagič, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hofler, G.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Höfler, G.

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lončar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperatur," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogg, R.

M. Wienold, M. P. Semtsiv, I. Bayrakli, W. T. Masselink, M. Ziegler, K. Kennedy, and R. Hogg, "Optical and thermal characteristics of narrow-ridge quantum-cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoyler, N.

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers for broad-gain applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 36-40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hurni, C. A.

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, "Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620-2622 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hvozdara, L.

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers for broad-gain applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 36-40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ilegems, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperatur," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jäger, W.

A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 90, 339-343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, K.

M. Wienold, M. P. Semtsiv, I. Bayrakli, W. T. Masselink, M. Ziegler, K. Kennedy, and R. Hogg, "Optical and thermal characteristics of narrow-ridge quantum-cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power cw quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klang, P.

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Monolithic Mach-Zehnder-type quantum cascade laser," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krysa, A. B.

R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lau, B.

A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 90, 339-343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Le, H. Q.

Lewicki, R.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, A.

A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 90, 339-343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lindle, J. R.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power cw quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lončar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lops, A.

V. Spagnolo, A. Lops, G. Scamarcio,M. S. Vitiello, and C. Di Franco, "Improved thermal management of mid-IR quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, G. P.

Lyakh, A.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lytkine, A.

A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 90, 339-343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marcadet, X.

M. Carras, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, O. Parillaud, A. De Rossi, and S. Bansropun, "Top grating index-coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martini, R.

R. Martini and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade laser-based free space optical communications," J. Opt. Fiber. Commun. Rep. 2, 279-292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Masanotti, D.

F. Causa and D. Masanotti, "Observation and analysis of phase-locking in parabolic bow-tie laser arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1016-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masselink, W. T.

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagič, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wienold, M. P. Semtsiv, I. Bayrakli, W. T. Masselink, M. Ziegler, K. Kennedy, and R. Hogg, "Optical and thermal characteristics of narrow-ridge quantum-cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maulini, R.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperatur," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
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Meyer, J. R.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power cw quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).
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J. E. A. Whiteaway, D. J. Moule, and S. J. Clements, "Tree array lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 779-781 (1989).
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L. K. Hoffmann, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Monolithic Mach-Zehnder-type quantum cascade laser," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagič, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, J.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, P. Sung, J. Nguyen, A. Evans,W. Zhang, andM. Razeghi, "Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nobile, M.

E. Mujagič, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperatur," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
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M. Carras, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, O. Parillaud, A. De Rossi, and S. Bansropun, "Top grating index-coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011109 (2008).
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A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peabody, M. L.

Peng, C.

Pflügl, C.

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
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R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
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Price, R. K.

V. C. Elarde, K. E. Tobin, R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, and J. J. Coleman, "Curved waveguide array diode lasers for high-brightness applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1085-1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power cw quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).
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R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. S.

R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

V. Spagnolo, A. Lops, G. Scamarcio,M. S. Vitiello, and C. Di Franco, "Improved thermal management of mid-IR quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schartner, S.

E. Mujagič, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schrenk, W.

L. K. Hoffmann, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Monolithic Mach-Zehnder-type quantum cascade laser," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagič, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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E. Mujagič, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
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M. Wienold, M. P. Semtsiv, I. Bayrakli, W. T. Masselink, M. Ziegler, K. Kennedy, and R. Hogg, "Optical and thermal characteristics of narrow-ridge quantum-cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083113 (2008).
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R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, "Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620-2622 (2001).
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Simeonov, V.

M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, M. Froidevaux, and H. van den Bergh, "Open-path ozone detection by quantumcascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 82, 501-506 (2006).
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Sivco, D. L.

B. Guo, Y. Wang, C. Peng, H. L. Zhang, G. P. Luo, H. Q. Le, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser-based mid-infrared reflectance imaging of biological tissues," Opt. Express 12, 208-219 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, P. Sung, J. Nguyen, A. Evans,W. Zhang, andM. Razeghi, "Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power cw quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).
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V. Spagnolo, A. Lops, G. Scamarcio,M. S. Vitiello, and C. Di Franco, "Improved thermal management of mid-IR quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

E. Mujagič, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Monolithic Mach-Zehnder-type quantum cascade laser," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
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Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, P. Sung, J. Nguyen, A. Evans,W. Zhang, andM. Razeghi, "Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141123 (2007).
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A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, M. Froidevaux, and H. van den Bergh, "Open-path ozone detection by quantumcascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 82, 501-506 (2006).
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R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
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G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
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V. C. Elarde, K. E. Tobin, R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, and J. J. Coleman, "Curved waveguide array diode lasers for high-brightness applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1085-1087 (2008).
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R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, "Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620-2622 (2001).
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G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
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L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lončar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
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A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
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M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, M. Froidevaux, and H. van den Bergh, "Open-path ozone detection by quantumcascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 82, 501-506 (2006).
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V. C. Elarde, K. E. Tobin, R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, and J. J. Coleman, "Curved waveguide array diode lasers for high-brightness applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1085-1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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V. Spagnolo, A. Lops, G. Scamarcio,M. S. Vitiello, and C. Di Franco, "Improved thermal management of mid-IR quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power cw quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).
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A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
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A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
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R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, "Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620-2622 (2001).
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E. Mujagič, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161101 (2008).
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M. Wienold, M. P. Semtsiv, I. Bayrakli, W. T. Masselink, M. Ziegler, K. Kennedy, and R. Hogg, "Optical and thermal characteristics of narrow-ridge quantum-cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083113 (2008).
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R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
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A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers for broad-gain applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 36-40 (2008).
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G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
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W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power cw quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).
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Zhang, H. L.

Zhang, W.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, S. Slivken, P. Sung, J. Nguyen, A. Evans,W. Zhang, andM. Razeghi, "Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141123 (2007).
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Zhu, J.

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lončar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
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Zibik, E. A.

R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, M.

M. Wienold, M. P. Semtsiv, I. Bayrakli, W. T. Masselink, M. Ziegler, K. Kennedy, and R. Hogg, "Optical and thermal characteristics of narrow-ridge quantum-cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso,M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing," Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
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A. Lytkine, B. Lau, A. Lim, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 90, 339-343 (2008).
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M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, M. Froidevaux, and H. van den Bergh, "Open-path ozone detection by quantumcascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 82, 501-506 (2006).
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J. Devenson, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, "InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 2.75-2.97 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251102 (2007).
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R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, "Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 μm and 24 μm wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620-2622 (2001).
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Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, X. J. Wang, J. Y. Fan, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, "1.6 W high wall plug efficiency, continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.6 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lončar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagič, L. K. Hoffmann, S. Schartner, M. Nobile, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Low divergence single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 161101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Carras, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, O. Parillaud, A. De Rossi, and S. Bansropun, "Top grating index-coupled distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011109 (2008).
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L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, and G. Strasser, "Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161106 (2007).
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L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, E. Mujagić, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, M. P. Semtsiv, W. T. Masselink, and G. Strasser, "Wavelength dependent phase locking in quantum cascade laser Y-junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061110 (2008).
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R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Tilted SEM image of the fabricated devices with corresponding dimensions: The FP QCL emits light from a single facet (a). The TA QCL shows emission from the stem facet (b) and the branch facet (c). Near field images taken with a micro-bolometer camera illustrate the intensity distribution at high current density (J ≈ 4 × Jth ) at the three different facets. The image of the stem facet (b) is defocused to display its concentric beam profile.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of normalized two-dimensional angular far field intensity profiles (interpolated) between the single facet of a FP laser (a) and the branch facet of a TA laser (b). The lasers were operated in pulse-mode (100 ns, 250 Hz) at 293 K, at current densities of 11 kA/cm2 (TA) and 13 kA/cm2 (FP), respectively. The data were recorded in a 8 cm distance with an MCT detector and a resolution of 0.45°. Cross-sectional data plots at central vertical far field angle θV = 0° illustrate the lateral far field distribution of the single facet (c) and the branch facet (d). The measured intensity values (full circles) correspond to calculated far field profiles of phase-locked emission (solid lines), centered at θL = -1°.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Peak optical power vs current density curves of the single facet of a FP laser (dashed line) and the stem facet of a TA laser (solid line). The data were recorded in pulse-mode operation (100 ns, 5 kHz) with a calibrated DTGS detector at 78K. Near field images of the branch facet illustrate the distribution of light among the branches at different points of operation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison between normalized spectra of a FP laser (a) and a TA laser (b) at varying pulse current density. The data were recorded in pulse-mode operation (100 ns, 5 kHz) at 78K with 0.2 cm-1 resolution. All points of operation correspond to the peak power vs current density curves of Fig. 3.

Equations (2)

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(Jth)TA(Jth)FP and
(dPdI)TAAFPATA×(dPdI)FP for J<7kA/cm2.

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