Abstract

Skin autofluorescence (AF) is becoming an accepted clinical method for assessing the risk of chronic complications in diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, the role of the excitation wavelength in the recognition of increased risk of diabetes-related chronic complications was investigated. An Excitation Emission Matrix Scanner (EEMS) was used to perform non-invasive measurements in four age-matched groups of patients with type 1 and type 2 DM, with and without chronic complications, as well as in a control group (N=97 in total). AF was calculated for excitation wavelengths in the range 355 – 405 nm. Mean spectra were assessed per group.

AF values in both type 1 and type 2 DM patients with complications were increased compared to the control subjects (p < 0.01); this ratio remained practically constant, independent of the excitation wavelength. No emission peaks were distinctive for specific patient groups.

We conclude that in these groups, no characteristic fluorophores dictate the use of a specific wavelength or set of wavelengths. The results show the validity of applying a broad excitation wavelength range for risk assessment of chronic complications in diabetes.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

D. J. Mulder, P. L. van Haelst, S. Gross, K. de Leeuw, J. Bijzet, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with serum levels of neopterin and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products," Atherosclerosis 197, 217-223 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.027.
[CrossRef]

E. G. Gerrits, H. L. Lutgers, N. Kleefstra, R. Graaff, K. H. Groenier, A. J. Smit, R. O. Gans, and H. J. Bilo, "Skin autofluorescence: a tool to identify type 2 diabetic patients at risk for developing microvascular complications," Diabetes Care 31, 517-521 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc07-1755.
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, T. P. Links, R. Graaff, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is a strong predictor of cardiac mortality in diabetes," Diabetes Care 30, 107-112 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc06-1391.
[CrossRef]

K. de Leeuw, R. Graaff, R. de Vries, R. P. Dullaart, A. J. Smit, C. G. Kallenberg, and M. Bijl, "Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus," Rheumatology (Oxford) 46, 1551-1556 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kem215.
[CrossRef]

N. den Hollander, D. Mulder, R. Graaff, S. Thorpe, J. Baynes, G. Smit, and A. Smit, "Advanced Glycation end products and the absence of premature atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease Ia," J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30, 916-923 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-007-0507-0.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, K. M. Vrotsos, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of a physical model and principal component analysis for the diagnosis of epithelial neoplasias in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 15, 7863-7875 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.007863.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. Blaauw, A. J. Smit, M. G. van Pampus, J. J. van Doormaal, J. G. Aarnoudse, G. Rakhorst, and R. Graaff, "Skin autofluorescence, a marker of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress, is increased in recently preeclamptic women," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 195, 717-722 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.086.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Mulder, T. V. D. Water, H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts: an overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 8, 523-535 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2006.8.523.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, T. P. Links, L. J. Ubink-Veltmaat, H. J. Bilo, R. O. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence as a noninvasive marker of vascular damage in patients with type 2 diabetes," Diabetes Care 29, 2654-2659 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc05-2173.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

R. Meerwaldt, J. W. L. Hartog, R. Graaff, R. J. Huisman, T. P. Links, N. C. den Hollander, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, G. Navis, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients," J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 3687-3693 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005020144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, R. Baptist, E. D. de Jong, J. Zijp, T. P. Links, A. J. Smit, and G. Rakhorst, "Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in the human skin," Proc. SPIE 5692, 111-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology," Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20122.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ramasamy, S. J. Vannucci, S. S. D. Yan, K. Herold, S. F. Yan, and A. M. Schmidt, "Advanced glycation end products and RAGE: a common thread in aging, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and inflammation," Glycobiology 15(7), 16R-28R (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwi053.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. D. Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology," Oral Oncol. 41, 117-131 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2004.07.007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Genuth, W. Sun, P. Cleary, D. R. Sell, W. Dahms, J. Malone, W. Sivitz, V. M. Monnier, and D. C. C. T. S. C. A. S. Group, "Glycation and carboxymethyllysine levels in skin collagen predict the risk of future 10-year progression of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in the diabetes control and complications trial and epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications participants with type 1 diabetes," Diabetes 54, 3103-3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

A. J. Smit and H. L. Lutgers, "The clinical relevance of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) and recent developments in pharmaceutics to reduce AGE accumulation," Curr. Med. Chem. 11, 2767-2784 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. Sandby-Møller, E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, "Skin autofluorescence as a biological UVR dosimeter," Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 20, 33-40 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hammer, E. Nagel, D. Schweitzer, S. Richter, F. Schweitzer, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, "Spectral separation in ocular fundus autofluorescence images in patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmologe 101, 1189-1193 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-004-1019-z.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Meerwaldt, R. Graaff, P. H. N. Oomen, T. P. Links, J. J. Jager, N. L. Alderson, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation," Diabetologia 47, 1324-1330 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-004-1451-2.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hull, M. Ediger, A. Unione, E. Deemer, M. Stroman, and J. Baynes, "Noninvasive, optical detection of diabetes: model studies with porcine skin," Opt. Express 12, 4496-4510 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
[PubMed]

D. Goujon, M. Zellweger, A. Radu, P. Grosjean, B.-C. Weber, H. van den Bergh, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnières, "In vivo autofluorescence imaging of early cancers in the human tracheobronchial tree with a spectrally optimized system," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 17-25 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528594.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

H. Chang, J. Qu, P. Yuen, J. Sham, D. Kwong, and W. Wei, "Light-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vivo," Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 1361-1367 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Kollias, G. Zonios, and G. Stamatas, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of skin," Vib. Spectrosc. 28, 17-23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart and R. D. JiJi, "Light emitting diode excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy," Analyst 127, 1693-1699 (2002). http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b207660h.
[CrossRef]

N. Ahmed, P. J. Thornalley, "Chromatographic assay of glycation adducts in human serum albumin glycated in vitro by derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-carbamate and intrinsic fluorescence," Biochem. J. 364, 15-24 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (5)

R. Na, I. M. Stender, and H. C. Wulf, "Can autofluorescence demarcate basal cell carcinoma from normal skin? A comparison with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence," Acta Derm. Venereol. 81, 246-249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Miyata, A. Saito, K. Kurokawa, and C. van Ypersele de Strihou, "Advanced glycation and lipoxidation end products: reactive carbonyl compounds-related uraemic toxicity," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 16Suppl 4, 8-11 (2001).

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Na, I. M. Stender, M. Henriksen, and H. C. Wulf, "Autofluorescence of human skin is age-related after correction for skin pigmentation and redness," J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 536-540 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2001.01285.x.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Vo, P. Anikijenko, W. J. McLaren, P. M. Delaney, D. H. Barkla, and R. G. King, "Autofluorescence of skin burns detected by fiber-optic confocal imaging: evidence that cool water treatment limits progressive thermal damage in anesthetized hairless mice," J. Trauma 51, 98-104 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

J. W. Baynes and S. R. Thorpe, "Glycoxidation and lipoxidation in atherogenesis," Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28, 1708-1716 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gillies, G. Zonios, R. R. Anderson, and N. Kollias, "Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy provides information about human skin in vivo," J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 704-707 (2000). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00091.x.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Na, I.-M. Stender, L. Ma, and H. C. Wulf, "Autofluorescence spectrum of skin: component bands and body site variations," Skin Res. Technol. 6, 112-117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

V. M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D. R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Dahms, P. A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, "Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes: relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA1c as markers of diabetic complications. DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial," Diabetes 48, 870-880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida, "Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361-366 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/exer.1998.0615.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

A. R. Young, "Chromophores in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 789-802 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Jager, P. H. N. Oomen, W. J. Sluiter, W. D. Reitsma, A. J. Smit, "Improved reproducibility of the ’largewindow’ method of assessing transcapillary and interstitial fluorescein diffusion in the skin in healthy subjects and in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 17, 150-158 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Brownlee, "Advanced protein glycosylation in diabetes and aging," Annu. Rev. Med. 46, 223-234 (1995). http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.med.46.1.223.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

K. König and H. Schneckenburger, "Laser-induced autofluorescence for medical diagnoses," J. Fluorescence 4, 17-40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1986 (1)

V. M. Monnier, V. Vishwanath, K. E. Frank, C. A. Elmets, P. Dauchot, and R. R. Kohn, "Relation between complications of type I diabetes mellitus and collagen-linked fluorescence," N. Engl. J. Med. 314, 403-408 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

J. Blaauw, A. J. Smit, M. G. van Pampus, J. J. van Doormaal, J. G. Aarnoudse, G. Rakhorst, and R. Graaff, "Skin autofluorescence, a marker of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress, is increased in recently preeclamptic women," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 195, 717-722 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.086.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abiko, A.

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida, "Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361-366 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/exer.1998.0615.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abiko, T.

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida, "Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361-366 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/exer.1998.0615.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

N. Ahmed, P. J. Thornalley, "Chromatographic assay of glycation adducts in human serum albumin glycated in vitro by derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-carbamate and intrinsic fluorescence," Biochem. J. 364, 15-24 (2002).
[PubMed]

Alderson, N. L.

R. Meerwaldt, R. Graaff, P. H. N. Oomen, T. P. Links, J. J. Jager, N. L. Alderson, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation," Diabetologia 47, 1324-1330 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-004-1451-2.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

R. Gillies, G. Zonios, R. R. Anderson, and N. Kollias, "Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy provides information about human skin in vivo," J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 704-707 (2000). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00091.x.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anikijenko, P.

L. T. Vo, P. Anikijenko, W. J. McLaren, P. M. Delaney, D. H. Barkla, and R. G. King, "Autofluorescence of skin burns detected by fiber-optic confocal imaging: evidence that cool water treatment limits progressive thermal damage in anesthetized hairless mice," J. Trauma 51, 98-104 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baptist, R.

R. Graaff, R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, R. Baptist, E. D. de Jong, J. Zijp, T. P. Links, A. J. Smit, and G. Rakhorst, "Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in the human skin," Proc. SPIE 5692, 111-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barkla, D. H.

L. T. Vo, P. Anikijenko, W. J. McLaren, P. M. Delaney, D. H. Barkla, and R. G. King, "Autofluorescence of skin burns detected by fiber-optic confocal imaging: evidence that cool water treatment limits progressive thermal damage in anesthetized hairless mice," J. Trauma 51, 98-104 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bautista, O.

V. M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D. R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Dahms, P. A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, "Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes: relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA1c as markers of diabetic complications. DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial," Diabetes 48, 870-880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baynes, J.

N. den Hollander, D. Mulder, R. Graaff, S. Thorpe, J. Baynes, G. Smit, and A. Smit, "Advanced Glycation end products and the absence of premature atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease Ia," J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30, 916-923 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-007-0507-0.
[CrossRef]

E. Hull, M. Ediger, A. Unione, E. Deemer, M. Stroman, and J. Baynes, "Noninvasive, optical detection of diabetes: model studies with porcine skin," Opt. Express 12, 4496-4510 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baynes, J. W.

R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, T. P. Links, R. Graaff, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is a strong predictor of cardiac mortality in diabetes," Diabetes Care 30, 107-112 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc06-1391.
[CrossRef]

R. Meerwaldt, J. W. L. Hartog, R. Graaff, R. J. Huisman, T. P. Links, N. C. den Hollander, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, G. Navis, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients," J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 3687-3693 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005020144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Meerwaldt, R. Graaff, P. H. N. Oomen, T. P. Links, J. J. Jager, N. L. Alderson, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation," Diabetologia 47, 1324-1330 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-004-1451-2.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Baynes and S. R. Thorpe, "Glycoxidation and lipoxidation in atherogenesis," Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28, 1708-1716 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bijl, M.

K. de Leeuw, R. Graaff, R. de Vries, R. P. Dullaart, A. J. Smit, C. G. Kallenberg, and M. Bijl, "Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus," Rheumatology (Oxford) 46, 1551-1556 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kem215.
[CrossRef]

Bijzet, J.

D. J. Mulder, P. L. van Haelst, S. Gross, K. de Leeuw, J. Bijzet, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with serum levels of neopterin and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products," Atherosclerosis 197, 217-223 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.027.
[CrossRef]

Bilo, H. J.

E. G. Gerrits, H. L. Lutgers, N. Kleefstra, R. Graaff, K. H. Groenier, A. J. Smit, R. O. Gans, and H. J. Bilo, "Skin autofluorescence: a tool to identify type 2 diabetic patients at risk for developing microvascular complications," Diabetes Care 31, 517-521 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc07-1755.
[CrossRef]

H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, T. P. Links, L. J. Ubink-Veltmaat, H. J. Bilo, R. O. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence as a noninvasive marker of vascular damage in patients with type 2 diabetes," Diabetes Care 29, 2654-2659 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc05-2173.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaauw, J.

J. Blaauw, A. J. Smit, M. G. van Pampus, J. J. van Doormaal, J. G. Aarnoudse, G. Rakhorst, and R. Graaff, "Skin autofluorescence, a marker of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress, is increased in recently preeclamptic women," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 195, 717-722 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.086.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brancaleon, L.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brownlee, M.

M. Brownlee, "Advanced protein glycosylation in diabetes and aging," Annu. Rev. Med. 46, 223-234 (1995). http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.med.46.1.223.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H.

Cleary, P.

S. Genuth, W. Sun, P. Cleary, D. R. Sell, W. Dahms, J. Malone, W. Sivitz, V. M. Monnier, and D. C. C. T. S. C. A. S. Group, "Glycation and carboxymethyllysine levels in skin collagen predict the risk of future 10-year progression of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in the diabetes control and complications trial and epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications participants with type 1 diabetes," Diabetes 54, 3103-3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cleary, P. A.

V. M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D. R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Dahms, P. A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, "Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes: relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA1c as markers of diabetic complications. DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial," Diabetes 48, 870-880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahms, W.

S. Genuth, W. Sun, P. Cleary, D. R. Sell, W. Dahms, J. Malone, W. Sivitz, V. M. Monnier, and D. C. C. T. S. C. A. S. Group, "Glycation and carboxymethyllysine levels in skin collagen predict the risk of future 10-year progression of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in the diabetes control and complications trial and epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications participants with type 1 diabetes," Diabetes 54, 3103-3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D. R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Dahms, P. A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, "Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes: relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA1c as markers of diabetic complications. DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial," Diabetes 48, 870-880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
[PubMed]

Dauchot, P.

V. M. Monnier, V. Vishwanath, K. E. Frank, C. A. Elmets, P. Dauchot, and R. R. Kohn, "Relation between complications of type I diabetes mellitus and collagen-linked fluorescence," N. Engl. J. Med. 314, 403-408 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jong, E. D.

R. Graaff, R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, R. Baptist, E. D. de Jong, J. Zijp, T. P. Links, A. J. Smit, and G. Rakhorst, "Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in the human skin," Proc. SPIE 5692, 111-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Leeuw, K.

D. J. Mulder, P. L. van Haelst, S. Gross, K. de Leeuw, J. Bijzet, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with serum levels of neopterin and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products," Atherosclerosis 197, 217-223 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.027.
[CrossRef]

K. de Leeuw, R. Graaff, R. de Vries, R. P. Dullaart, A. J. Smit, C. G. Kallenberg, and M. Bijl, "Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus," Rheumatology (Oxford) 46, 1551-1556 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kem215.
[CrossRef]

de Veld, D. C. G.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology," Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20122.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, R.

K. de Leeuw, R. Graaff, R. de Vries, R. P. Dullaart, A. J. Smit, C. G. Kallenberg, and M. Bijl, "Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus," Rheumatology (Oxford) 46, 1551-1556 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kem215.
[CrossRef]

Deemer, E.

Delaney, P. M.

L. T. Vo, P. Anikijenko, W. J. McLaren, P. M. Delaney, D. H. Barkla, and R. G. King, "Autofluorescence of skin burns detected by fiber-optic confocal imaging: evidence that cool water treatment limits progressive thermal damage in anesthetized hairless mice," J. Trauma 51, 98-104 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

den Hollander, N.

N. den Hollander, D. Mulder, R. Graaff, S. Thorpe, J. Baynes, G. Smit, and A. Smit, "Advanced Glycation end products and the absence of premature atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease Ia," J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30, 916-923 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-007-0507-0.
[CrossRef]

den Hollander, N. C.

R. Meerwaldt, J. W. L. Hartog, R. Graaff, R. J. Huisman, T. P. Links, N. C. den Hollander, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, G. Navis, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients," J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 3687-3693 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005020144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
[PubMed]

Destrampe, K. A.

Duin, R. P. W.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology," Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20122.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dullaart, R. P.

K. de Leeuw, R. Graaff, R. de Vries, R. P. Dullaart, A. J. Smit, C. G. Kallenberg, and M. Bijl, "Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus," Rheumatology (Oxford) 46, 1551-1556 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kem215.
[CrossRef]

Durkin, A. J.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M.

Elmets, C. A.

V. M. Monnier, V. Vishwanath, K. E. Frank, C. A. Elmets, P. Dauchot, and R. R. Kohn, "Relation between complications of type I diabetes mellitus and collagen-linked fluorescence," N. Engl. J. Med. 314, 403-408 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallon, J. D.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
[PubMed]

Fogarty, J.

V. M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D. R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Dahms, P. A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, "Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes: relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA1c as markers of diabetic complications. DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial," Diabetes 48, 870-880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, K. E.

V. M. Monnier, V. Vishwanath, K. E. Frank, C. A. Elmets, P. Dauchot, and R. R. Kohn, "Relation between complications of type I diabetes mellitus and collagen-linked fluorescence," N. Engl. J. Med. 314, 403-408 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galindo, L.

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
[PubMed]

Gans, R. O.

E. G. Gerrits, H. L. Lutgers, N. Kleefstra, R. Graaff, K. H. Groenier, A. J. Smit, R. O. Gans, and H. J. Bilo, "Skin autofluorescence: a tool to identify type 2 diabetic patients at risk for developing microvascular complications," Diabetes Care 31, 517-521 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc07-1755.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Mulder, P. L. van Haelst, S. Gross, K. de Leeuw, J. Bijzet, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with serum levels of neopterin and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products," Atherosclerosis 197, 217-223 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.027.
[CrossRef]

H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, T. P. Links, L. J. Ubink-Veltmaat, H. J. Bilo, R. O. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence as a noninvasive marker of vascular damage in patients with type 2 diabetes," Diabetes Care 29, 2654-2659 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc05-2173.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Mulder, T. V. D. Water, H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts: an overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 8, 523-535 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2006.8.523.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gans, R. O. B.

R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, T. P. Links, R. Graaff, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is a strong predictor of cardiac mortality in diabetes," Diabetes Care 30, 107-112 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc06-1391.
[CrossRef]

R. Meerwaldt, J. W. L. Hartog, R. Graaff, R. J. Huisman, T. P. Links, N. C. den Hollander, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, G. Navis, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients," J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 3687-3693 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005020144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Meerwaldt, R. Graaff, P. H. N. Oomen, T. P. Links, J. J. Jager, N. L. Alderson, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation," Diabetologia 47, 1324-1330 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-004-1451-2.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.

Genuth, S.

S. Genuth, W. Sun, P. Cleary, D. R. Sell, W. Dahms, J. Malone, W. Sivitz, V. M. Monnier, and D. C. C. T. S. C. A. S. Group, "Glycation and carboxymethyllysine levels in skin collagen predict the risk of future 10-year progression of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in the diabetes control and complications trial and epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications participants with type 1 diabetes," Diabetes 54, 3103-3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D. R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Dahms, P. A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, "Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes: relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA1c as markers of diabetic complications. DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial," Diabetes 48, 870-880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
[PubMed]

Gerrits, E. G.

E. G. Gerrits, H. L. Lutgers, N. Kleefstra, R. Graaff, K. H. Groenier, A. J. Smit, R. O. Gans, and H. J. Bilo, "Skin autofluorescence: a tool to identify type 2 diabetic patients at risk for developing microvascular complications," Diabetes Care 31, 517-521 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc07-1755.
[CrossRef]

Gillies, R.

R. Gillies, G. Zonios, R. R. Anderson, and N. Kollias, "Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy provides information about human skin in vivo," J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 704-707 (2000). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00091.x.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goujon, D.

D. Goujon, M. Zellweger, A. Radu, P. Grosjean, B.-C. Weber, H. van den Bergh, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnières, "In vivo autofluorescence imaging of early cancers in the human tracheobronchial tree with a spectrally optimized system," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 17-25 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528594.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graaff, R.

E. G. Gerrits, H. L. Lutgers, N. Kleefstra, R. Graaff, K. H. Groenier, A. J. Smit, R. O. Gans, and H. J. Bilo, "Skin autofluorescence: a tool to identify type 2 diabetic patients at risk for developing microvascular complications," Diabetes Care 31, 517-521 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc07-1755.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Mulder, P. L. van Haelst, S. Gross, K. de Leeuw, J. Bijzet, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with serum levels of neopterin and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products," Atherosclerosis 197, 217-223 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.027.
[CrossRef]

K. de Leeuw, R. Graaff, R. de Vries, R. P. Dullaart, A. J. Smit, C. G. Kallenberg, and M. Bijl, "Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus," Rheumatology (Oxford) 46, 1551-1556 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kem215.
[CrossRef]

N. den Hollander, D. Mulder, R. Graaff, S. Thorpe, J. Baynes, G. Smit, and A. Smit, "Advanced Glycation end products and the absence of premature atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease Ia," J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30, 916-923 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-007-0507-0.
[CrossRef]

R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, T. P. Links, R. Graaff, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is a strong predictor of cardiac mortality in diabetes," Diabetes Care 30, 107-112 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc06-1391.
[CrossRef]

J. Blaauw, A. J. Smit, M. G. van Pampus, J. J. van Doormaal, J. G. Aarnoudse, G. Rakhorst, and R. Graaff, "Skin autofluorescence, a marker of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress, is increased in recently preeclamptic women," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 195, 717-722 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.086.
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D. J. Mulder, T. V. D. Water, H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts: an overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 8, 523-535 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2006.8.523.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, T. P. Links, L. J. Ubink-Veltmaat, H. J. Bilo, R. O. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence as a noninvasive marker of vascular damage in patients with type 2 diabetes," Diabetes Care 29, 2654-2659 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc05-2173.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Meerwaldt, J. W. L. Hartog, R. Graaff, R. J. Huisman, T. P. Links, N. C. den Hollander, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, G. Navis, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients," J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 3687-3693 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005020144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, R. Baptist, E. D. de Jong, J. Zijp, T. P. Links, A. J. Smit, and G. Rakhorst, "Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in the human skin," Proc. SPIE 5692, 111-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerwaldt, R. Graaff, P. H. N. Oomen, T. P. Links, J. J. Jager, N. L. Alderson, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation," Diabetologia 47, 1324-1330 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-004-1451-2.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groenier, K. H.

E. G. Gerrits, H. L. Lutgers, N. Kleefstra, R. Graaff, K. H. Groenier, A. J. Smit, R. O. Gans, and H. J. Bilo, "Skin autofluorescence: a tool to identify type 2 diabetic patients at risk for developing microvascular complications," Diabetes Care 31, 517-521 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc07-1755.
[CrossRef]

Grosjean, P.

D. Goujon, M. Zellweger, A. Radu, P. Grosjean, B.-C. Weber, H. van den Bergh, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnières, "In vivo autofluorescence imaging of early cancers in the human tracheobronchial tree with a spectrally optimized system," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 17-25 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528594.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, S.

D. J. Mulder, P. L. van Haelst, S. Gross, K. de Leeuw, J. Bijzet, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with serum levels of neopterin and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products," Atherosclerosis 197, 217-223 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.027.
[CrossRef]

Group, D. C. C. T. S. C. A. S.

S. Genuth, W. Sun, P. Cleary, D. R. Sell, W. Dahms, J. Malone, W. Sivitz, V. M. Monnier, and D. C. C. T. S. C. A. S. Group, "Glycation and carboxymethyllysine levels in skin collagen predict the risk of future 10-year progression of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in the diabetes control and complications trial and epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications participants with type 1 diabetes," Diabetes 54, 3103-3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, M.

M. Hammer, E. Nagel, D. Schweitzer, S. Richter, F. Schweitzer, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, "Spectral separation in ocular fundus autofluorescence images in patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmologe 101, 1189-1193 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-004-1019-z.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, S. J.

S. J. Hart and R. D. JiJi, "Light emitting diode excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy," Analyst 127, 1693-1699 (2002). http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b207660h.
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Hartog, J. W. L.

R. Meerwaldt, J. W. L. Hartog, R. Graaff, R. J. Huisman, T. P. Links, N. C. den Hollander, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, G. Navis, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients," J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 3687-3693 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005020144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henriksen, M.

R. Na, I. M. Stender, M. Henriksen, and H. C. Wulf, "Autofluorescence of human skin is age-related after correction for skin pigmentation and redness," J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 536-540 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2001.01285.x.
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Herold, K.

R. Ramasamy, S. J. Vannucci, S. S. D. Yan, K. Herold, S. F. Yan, and A. M. Schmidt, "Advanced glycation end products and RAGE: a common thread in aging, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and inflammation," Glycobiology 15(7), 16R-28R (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwi053.
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Heydenreich, J.

J. Sandby-Møller, E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, "Skin autofluorescence as a biological UVR dosimeter," Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 20, 33-40 (2004).
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Hieftje, G. M.

Horiuchi, S.

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida, "Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361-366 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/exer.1998.0615.
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Huisman, R. J.

R. Meerwaldt, J. W. L. Hartog, R. Graaff, R. J. Huisman, T. P. Links, N. C. den Hollander, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, G. Navis, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients," J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 3687-3693 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005020144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hull, E.

Ishiko, S.

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida, "Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361-366 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/exer.1998.0615.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jager, J. J.

R. Meerwaldt, R. Graaff, P. H. N. Oomen, T. P. Links, J. J. Jager, N. L. Alderson, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation," Diabetologia 47, 1324-1330 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-004-1451-2.
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J. J. Jager, P. H. N. Oomen, W. J. Sluiter, W. D. Reitsma, A. J. Smit, "Improved reproducibility of the ’largewindow’ method of assessing transcapillary and interstitial fluorescein diffusion in the skin in healthy subjects and in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 17, 150-158 (1997).
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JiJi, R. D.

S. J. Hart and R. D. JiJi, "Light emitting diode excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy," Analyst 127, 1693-1699 (2002). http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b207660h.
[CrossRef]

Kallenberg, C. G.

K. de Leeuw, R. Graaff, R. de Vries, R. P. Dullaart, A. J. Smit, C. G. Kallenberg, and M. Bijl, "Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus," Rheumatology (Oxford) 46, 1551-1556 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kem215.
[CrossRef]

Kenny, D.

V. M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D. R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Dahms, P. A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, "Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes: relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA1c as markers of diabetic complications. DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial," Diabetes 48, 870-880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, R. G.

L. T. Vo, P. Anikijenko, W. J. McLaren, P. M. Delaney, D. H. Barkla, and R. G. King, "Autofluorescence of skin burns detected by fiber-optic confocal imaging: evidence that cool water treatment limits progressive thermal damage in anesthetized hairless mice," J. Trauma 51, 98-104 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleefstra, N.

E. G. Gerrits, H. L. Lutgers, N. Kleefstra, R. Graaff, K. H. Groenier, A. J. Smit, R. O. Gans, and H. J. Bilo, "Skin autofluorescence: a tool to identify type 2 diabetic patients at risk for developing microvascular complications," Diabetes Care 31, 517-521 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc07-1755.
[CrossRef]

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V. M. Monnier, V. Vishwanath, K. E. Frank, C. A. Elmets, P. Dauchot, and R. R. Kohn, "Relation between complications of type I diabetes mellitus and collagen-linked fluorescence," N. Engl. J. Med. 314, 403-408 (1986).
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Kollias, N.

N. Kollias, G. Zonios, and G. Stamatas, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of skin," Vib. Spectrosc. 28, 17-23 (2002).
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L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gillies, G. Zonios, R. R. Anderson, and N. Kollias, "Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy provides information about human skin in vivo," J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 704-707 (2000). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00091.x.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, K.

K. König and H. Schneckenburger, "Laser-induced autofluorescence for medical diagnoses," J. Fluorescence 4, 17-40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Königsdörffer, E.

M. Hammer, E. Nagel, D. Schweitzer, S. Richter, F. Schweitzer, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, "Spectral separation in ocular fundus autofluorescence images in patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmologe 101, 1189-1193 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-004-1019-z.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurokawa, K.

T. Miyata, A. Saito, K. Kurokawa, and C. van Ypersele de Strihou, "Advanced glycation and lipoxidation end products: reactive carbonyl compounds-related uraemic toxicity," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 16Suppl 4, 8-11 (2001).

Kwong, D.

Lachin, J.

V. M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D. R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Dahms, P. A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, "Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes: relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA1c as markers of diabetic complications. DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial," Diabetes 48, 870-880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Links, T. P.

R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, T. P. Links, R. Graaff, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is a strong predictor of cardiac mortality in diabetes," Diabetes Care 30, 107-112 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc06-1391.
[CrossRef]

H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, T. P. Links, L. J. Ubink-Veltmaat, H. J. Bilo, R. O. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence as a noninvasive marker of vascular damage in patients with type 2 diabetes," Diabetes Care 29, 2654-2659 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc05-2173.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Meerwaldt, J. W. L. Hartog, R. Graaff, R. J. Huisman, T. P. Links, N. C. den Hollander, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, G. Navis, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients," J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 3687-3693 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005020144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, R. Baptist, E. D. de Jong, J. Zijp, T. P. Links, A. J. Smit, and G. Rakhorst, "Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in the human skin," Proc. SPIE 5692, 111-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerwaldt, R. Graaff, P. H. N. Oomen, T. P. Links, J. J. Jager, N. L. Alderson, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation," Diabetologia 47, 1324-1330 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-004-1451-2.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutgers, H. L.

E. G. Gerrits, H. L. Lutgers, N. Kleefstra, R. Graaff, K. H. Groenier, A. J. Smit, R. O. Gans, and H. J. Bilo, "Skin autofluorescence: a tool to identify type 2 diabetic patients at risk for developing microvascular complications," Diabetes Care 31, 517-521 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc07-1755.
[CrossRef]

R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, T. P. Links, R. Graaff, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is a strong predictor of cardiac mortality in diabetes," Diabetes Care 30, 107-112 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc06-1391.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Mulder, T. V. D. Water, H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts: an overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 8, 523-535 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2006.8.523.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, T. P. Links, L. J. Ubink-Veltmaat, H. J. Bilo, R. O. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence as a noninvasive marker of vascular damage in patients with type 2 diabetes," Diabetes Care 29, 2654-2659 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc05-2173.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, R. Baptist, E. D. de Jong, J. Zijp, T. P. Links, A. J. Smit, and G. Rakhorst, "Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in the human skin," Proc. SPIE 5692, 111-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Smit and H. L. Lutgers, "The clinical relevance of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) and recent developments in pharmaceutics to reduce AGE accumulation," Curr. Med. Chem. 11, 2767-2784 (2004).
[PubMed]

M¨uller, M. G.

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
[PubMed]

Ma, L.

R. Na, I.-M. Stender, L. Ma, and H. C. Wulf, "Autofluorescence spectrum of skin: component bands and body site variations," Skin Res. Technol. 6, 112-117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Malone, J.

S. Genuth, W. Sun, P. Cleary, D. R. Sell, W. Dahms, J. Malone, W. Sivitz, V. M. Monnier, and D. C. C. T. S. C. A. S. Group, "Glycation and carboxymethyllysine levels in skin collagen predict the risk of future 10-year progression of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in the diabetes control and complications trial and epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications participants with type 1 diabetes," Diabetes 54, 3103-3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGee, S. A.

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
[PubMed]

McLaren, W. J.

L. T. Vo, P. Anikijenko, W. J. McLaren, P. M. Delaney, D. H. Barkla, and R. G. King, "Autofluorescence of skin burns detected by fiber-optic confocal imaging: evidence that cool water treatment limits progressive thermal damage in anesthetized hairless mice," J. Trauma 51, 98-104 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meerwaldt, R.

R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, T. P. Links, R. Graaff, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is a strong predictor of cardiac mortality in diabetes," Diabetes Care 30, 107-112 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc06-1391.
[CrossRef]

R. Graaff, R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, R. Baptist, E. D. de Jong, J. Zijp, T. P. Links, A. J. Smit, and G. Rakhorst, "Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in the human skin," Proc. SPIE 5692, 111-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerwaldt, J. W. L. Hartog, R. Graaff, R. J. Huisman, T. P. Links, N. C. den Hollander, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, G. Navis, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients," J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 3687-3693 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005020144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Meerwaldt, R. Graaff, P. H. N. Oomen, T. P. Links, J. J. Jager, N. L. Alderson, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation," Diabetologia 47, 1324-1330 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-004-1451-2.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menaker, G.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).
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Mirkovic, J.

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
[PubMed]

Miyata, T.

T. Miyata, A. Saito, K. Kurokawa, and C. van Ypersele de Strihou, "Advanced glycation and lipoxidation end products: reactive carbonyl compounds-related uraemic toxicity," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 16Suppl 4, 8-11 (2001).

Monnier, P.

D. Goujon, M. Zellweger, A. Radu, P. Grosjean, B.-C. Weber, H. van den Bergh, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnières, "In vivo autofluorescence imaging of early cancers in the human tracheobronchial tree with a spectrally optimized system," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 17-25 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528594.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monnier, V. M.

S. Genuth, W. Sun, P. Cleary, D. R. Sell, W. Dahms, J. Malone, W. Sivitz, V. M. Monnier, and D. C. C. T. S. C. A. S. Group, "Glycation and carboxymethyllysine levels in skin collagen predict the risk of future 10-year progression of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in the diabetes control and complications trial and epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications participants with type 1 diabetes," Diabetes 54, 3103-3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D. R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Dahms, P. A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, "Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes: relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA1c as markers of diabetic complications. DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial," Diabetes 48, 870-880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Monnier, V. Vishwanath, K. E. Frank, C. A. Elmets, P. Dauchot, and R. R. Kohn, "Relation between complications of type I diabetes mellitus and collagen-linked fluorescence," N. Engl. J. Med. 314, 403-408 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulder, D.

N. den Hollander, D. Mulder, R. Graaff, S. Thorpe, J. Baynes, G. Smit, and A. Smit, "Advanced Glycation end products and the absence of premature atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease Ia," J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30, 916-923 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-007-0507-0.
[CrossRef]

Mulder, D. J.

D. J. Mulder, P. L. van Haelst, S. Gross, K. de Leeuw, J. Bijzet, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with serum levels of neopterin and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products," Atherosclerosis 197, 217-223 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.027.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Mulder, T. V. D. Water, H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts: an overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 8, 523-535 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2006.8.523.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, R.

R. Na, I. M. Stender, and H. C. Wulf, "Can autofluorescence demarcate basal cell carcinoma from normal skin? A comparison with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence," Acta Derm. Venereol. 81, 246-249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Na, I. M. Stender, M. Henriksen, and H. C. Wulf, "Autofluorescence of human skin is age-related after correction for skin pigmentation and redness," J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 536-540 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2001.01285.x.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Na, I.-M. Stender, L. Ma, and H. C. Wulf, "Autofluorescence spectrum of skin: component bands and body site variations," Skin Res. Technol. 6, 112-117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, E.

M. Hammer, E. Nagel, D. Schweitzer, S. Richter, F. Schweitzer, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, "Spectral separation in ocular fundus autofluorescence images in patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmologe 101, 1189-1193 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-004-1019-z.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navis, G.

R. Meerwaldt, J. W. L. Hartog, R. Graaff, R. J. Huisman, T. P. Links, N. C. den Hollander, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, G. Navis, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients," J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 3687-3693 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005020144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazemi, J.

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
[PubMed]

Nguyen, F. T.

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
[PubMed]

Oomen, P. H. N.

R. Meerwaldt, R. Graaff, P. H. N. Oomen, T. P. Links, J. J. Jager, N. L. Alderson, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation," Diabetologia 47, 1324-1330 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-004-1451-2.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Jager, P. H. N. Oomen, W. J. Sluiter, W. D. Reitsma, A. J. Smit, "Improved reproducibility of the ’largewindow’ method of assessing transcapillary and interstitial fluorescein diffusion in the skin in healthy subjects and in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 17, 150-158 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

Philipsen, P. A.

J. Sandby-Møller, E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, "Skin autofluorescence as a biological UVR dosimeter," Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 20, 33-40 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, J.

Radu, A.

D. Goujon, M. Zellweger, A. Radu, P. Grosjean, B.-C. Weber, H. van den Bergh, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnières, "In vivo autofluorescence imaging of early cancers in the human tracheobronchial tree with a spectrally optimized system," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 17-25 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528594.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakhorst, G.

J. Blaauw, A. J. Smit, M. G. van Pampus, J. J. van Doormaal, J. G. Aarnoudse, G. Rakhorst, and R. Graaff, "Skin autofluorescence, a marker of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress, is increased in recently preeclamptic women," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 195, 717-722 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.086.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, R. Baptist, E. D. de Jong, J. Zijp, T. P. Links, A. J. Smit, and G. Rakhorst, "Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in the human skin," Proc. SPIE 5692, 111-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

Ramasamy, R.

R. Ramasamy, S. J. Vannucci, S. S. D. Yan, K. Herold, S. F. Yan, and A. M. Schmidt, "Advanced glycation end products and RAGE: a common thread in aging, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and inflammation," Glycobiology 15(7), 16R-28R (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwi053.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitsma, W. D.

J. J. Jager, P. H. N. Oomen, W. J. Sluiter, W. D. Reitsma, A. J. Smit, "Improved reproducibility of the ’largewindow’ method of assessing transcapillary and interstitial fluorescein diffusion in the skin in healthy subjects and in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 17, 150-158 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, S.

M. Hammer, E. Nagel, D. Schweitzer, S. Richter, F. Schweitzer, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, "Spectral separation in ocular fundus autofluorescence images in patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmologe 101, 1189-1193 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-004-1019-z.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roodenburg, J. L. N.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology," Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20122.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. D. Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology," Oral Oncol. 41, 117-131 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2004.07.007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, A.

T. Miyata, A. Saito, K. Kurokawa, and C. van Ypersele de Strihou, "Advanced glycation and lipoxidation end products: reactive carbonyl compounds-related uraemic toxicity," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 16Suppl 4, 8-11 (2001).

Sandby-Møller, J.

J. Sandby-Møller, E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, "Skin autofluorescence as a biological UVR dosimeter," Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 20, 33-40 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, A. M.

R. Ramasamy, S. J. Vannucci, S. S. D. Yan, K. Herold, S. F. Yan, and A. M. Schmidt, "Advanced glycation end products and RAGE: a common thread in aging, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and inflammation," Glycobiology 15(7), 16R-28R (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwi053.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneckenburger, H.

K. König and H. Schneckenburger, "Laser-induced autofluorescence for medical diagnoses," J. Fluorescence 4, 17-40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, D.

M. Hammer, E. Nagel, D. Schweitzer, S. Richter, F. Schweitzer, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, "Spectral separation in ocular fundus autofluorescence images in patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmologe 101, 1189-1193 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-004-1019-z.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweitzer, F.

M. Hammer, E. Nagel, D. Schweitzer, S. Richter, F. Schweitzer, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, "Spectral separation in ocular fundus autofluorescence images in patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmologe 101, 1189-1193 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-004-1019-z.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sell, D. R.

S. Genuth, W. Sun, P. Cleary, D. R. Sell, W. Dahms, J. Malone, W. Sivitz, V. M. Monnier, and D. C. C. T. S. C. A. S. Group, "Glycation and carboxymethyllysine levels in skin collagen predict the risk of future 10-year progression of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in the diabetes control and complications trial and epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications participants with type 1 diabetes," Diabetes 54, 3103-3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D. R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Dahms, P. A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, "Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes: relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA1c as markers of diabetic complications. DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial," Diabetes 48, 870-880 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sham, J.

Sivitz, W.

S. Genuth, W. Sun, P. Cleary, D. R. Sell, W. Dahms, J. Malone, W. Sivitz, V. M. Monnier, and D. C. C. T. S. C. A. S. Group, "Glycation and carboxymethyllysine levels in skin collagen predict the risk of future 10-year progression of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in the diabetes control and complications trial and epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications participants with type 1 diabetes," Diabetes 54, 3103-3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skala, M. C.

Skurichina, M.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology," Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20122.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sluiter, W. J.

J. J. Jager, P. H. N. Oomen, W. J. Sluiter, W. D. Reitsma, A. J. Smit, "Improved reproducibility of the ’largewindow’ method of assessing transcapillary and interstitial fluorescein diffusion in the skin in healthy subjects and in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 17, 150-158 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smit, A.

N. den Hollander, D. Mulder, R. Graaff, S. Thorpe, J. Baynes, G. Smit, and A. Smit, "Advanced Glycation end products and the absence of premature atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease Ia," J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30, 916-923 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-007-0507-0.
[CrossRef]

Smit, A. J.

E. G. Gerrits, H. L. Lutgers, N. Kleefstra, R. Graaff, K. H. Groenier, A. J. Smit, R. O. Gans, and H. J. Bilo, "Skin autofluorescence: a tool to identify type 2 diabetic patients at risk for developing microvascular complications," Diabetes Care 31, 517-521 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc07-1755.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Mulder, P. L. van Haelst, S. Gross, K. de Leeuw, J. Bijzet, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with serum levels of neopterin and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products," Atherosclerosis 197, 217-223 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.027.
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K. de Leeuw, R. Graaff, R. de Vries, R. P. Dullaart, A. J. Smit, C. G. Kallenberg, and M. Bijl, "Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus," Rheumatology (Oxford) 46, 1551-1556 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kem215.
[CrossRef]

R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, T. P. Links, R. Graaff, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is a strong predictor of cardiac mortality in diabetes," Diabetes Care 30, 107-112 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc06-1391.
[CrossRef]

J. Blaauw, A. J. Smit, M. G. van Pampus, J. J. van Doormaal, J. G. Aarnoudse, G. Rakhorst, and R. Graaff, "Skin autofluorescence, a marker of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress, is increased in recently preeclamptic women," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 195, 717-722 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.086.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, T. P. Links, L. J. Ubink-Veltmaat, H. J. Bilo, R. O. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence as a noninvasive marker of vascular damage in patients with type 2 diabetes," Diabetes Care 29, 2654-2659 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc05-2173.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Mulder, T. V. D. Water, H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts: an overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 8, 523-535 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2006.8.523.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Meerwaldt, J. W. L. Hartog, R. Graaff, R. J. Huisman, T. P. Links, N. C. den Hollander, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, G. Navis, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients," J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 3687-3693 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005020144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, R. Baptist, E. D. de Jong, J. Zijp, T. P. Links, A. J. Smit, and G. Rakhorst, "Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in the human skin," Proc. SPIE 5692, 111-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerwaldt, R. Graaff, P. H. N. Oomen, T. P. Links, J. J. Jager, N. L. Alderson, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation," Diabetologia 47, 1324-1330 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-004-1451-2.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Smit and H. L. Lutgers, "The clinical relevance of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) and recent developments in pharmaceutics to reduce AGE accumulation," Curr. Med. Chem. 11, 2767-2784 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. J. Jager, P. H. N. Oomen, W. J. Sluiter, W. D. Reitsma, A. J. Smit, "Improved reproducibility of the ’largewindow’ method of assessing transcapillary and interstitial fluorescein diffusion in the skin in healthy subjects and in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 17, 150-158 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smit, G.

N. den Hollander, D. Mulder, R. Graaff, S. Thorpe, J. Baynes, G. Smit, and A. Smit, "Advanced Glycation end products and the absence of premature atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease Ia," J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30, 916-923 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-007-0507-0.
[CrossRef]

Stamatas, G.

N. Kollias, G. Zonios, and G. Stamatas, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of skin," Vib. Spectrosc. 28, 17-23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stender, I. M.

R. Na, I. M. Stender, and H. C. Wulf, "Can autofluorescence demarcate basal cell carcinoma from normal skin? A comparison with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence," Acta Derm. Venereol. 81, 246-249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Na, I. M. Stender, M. Henriksen, and H. C. Wulf, "Autofluorescence of human skin is age-related after correction for skin pigmentation and redness," J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 536-540 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2001.01285.x.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stender, I.-M.

R. Na, I.-M. Stender, L. Ma, and H. C. Wulf, "Autofluorescence spectrum of skin: component bands and body site variations," Skin Res. Technol. 6, 112-117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

D. C. G. D. Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology," Oral Oncol. 41, 117-131 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2004.07.007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology," Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20122.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strobel, J.

M. Hammer, E. Nagel, D. Schweitzer, S. Richter, F. Schweitzer, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, "Spectral separation in ocular fundus autofluorescence images in patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmologe 101, 1189-1193 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-004-1019-z.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroman, M.

Sun, W.

S. Genuth, W. Sun, P. Cleary, D. R. Sell, W. Dahms, J. Malone, W. Sivitz, V. M. Monnier, and D. C. C. T. S. C. A. S. Group, "Glycation and carboxymethyllysine levels in skin collagen predict the risk of future 10-year progression of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in the diabetes control and complications trial and epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications participants with type 1 diabetes," Diabetes 54, 3103-3111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, M.

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida, "Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361-366 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/exer.1998.0615.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thieden, E.

J. Sandby-Møller, E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, "Skin autofluorescence as a biological UVR dosimeter," Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 20, 33-40 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thornalley, P. J.

N. Ahmed, P. J. Thornalley, "Chromatographic assay of glycation adducts in human serum albumin glycated in vitro by derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-carbamate and intrinsic fluorescence," Biochem. J. 364, 15-24 (2002).
[PubMed]

Thorpe, S.

N. den Hollander, D. Mulder, R. Graaff, S. Thorpe, J. Baynes, G. Smit, and A. Smit, "Advanced Glycation end products and the absence of premature atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease Ia," J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30, 916-923 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-007-0507-0.
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, S. R.

R. Meerwaldt, J. W. L. Hartog, R. Graaff, R. J. Huisman, T. P. Links, N. C. den Hollander, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, G. Navis, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients," J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16, 3687-3693 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005020144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Meerwaldt, R. Graaff, P. H. N. Oomen, T. P. Links, J. J. Jager, N. L. Alderson, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation," Diabetologia 47, 1324-1330 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-004-1451-2.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Baynes and S. R. Thorpe, "Glycoxidation and lipoxidation in atherogenesis," Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28, 1708-1716 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, J. H.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).
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J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
[PubMed]

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H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, T. P. Links, L. J. Ubink-Veltmaat, H. J. Bilo, R. O. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence as a noninvasive marker of vascular damage in patients with type 2 diabetes," Diabetes Care 29, 2654-2659 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc05-2173.
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Unione, A.

van den Bergh, H.

D. Goujon, M. Zellweger, A. Radu, P. Grosjean, B.-C. Weber, H. van den Bergh, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnières, "In vivo autofluorescence imaging of early cancers in the human tracheobronchial tree with a spectrally optimized system," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 17-25 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528594.
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van Doormaal, J. J.

J. Blaauw, A. J. Smit, M. G. van Pampus, J. J. van Doormaal, J. G. Aarnoudse, G. Rakhorst, and R. Graaff, "Skin autofluorescence, a marker of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress, is increased in recently preeclamptic women," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 195, 717-722 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.086.
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D. J. Mulder, P. L. van Haelst, S. Gross, K. de Leeuw, J. Bijzet, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with serum levels of neopterin and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products," Atherosclerosis 197, 217-223 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.027.
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van Pampus, M. G.

J. Blaauw, A. J. Smit, M. G. van Pampus, J. J. van Doormaal, J. G. Aarnoudse, G. Rakhorst, and R. Graaff, "Skin autofluorescence, a marker of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress, is increased in recently preeclamptic women," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 195, 717-722 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.086.
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T. Miyata, A. Saito, K. Kurokawa, and C. van Ypersele de Strihou, "Advanced glycation and lipoxidation end products: reactive carbonyl compounds-related uraemic toxicity," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 16Suppl 4, 8-11 (2001).

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R. Ramasamy, S. J. Vannucci, S. S. D. Yan, K. Herold, S. F. Yan, and A. M. Schmidt, "Advanced glycation end products and RAGE: a common thread in aging, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and inflammation," Glycobiology 15(7), 16R-28R (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwi053.
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D. C. G. D. Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology," Oral Oncol. 41, 117-131 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2004.07.007.
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V. M. Monnier, V. Vishwanath, K. E. Frank, C. A. Elmets, P. Dauchot, and R. R. Kohn, "Relation between complications of type I diabetes mellitus and collagen-linked fluorescence," N. Engl. J. Med. 314, 403-408 (1986).
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Vo, L. T.

L. T. Vo, P. Anikijenko, W. J. McLaren, P. M. Delaney, D. H. Barkla, and R. G. King, "Autofluorescence of skin burns detected by fiber-optic confocal imaging: evidence that cool water treatment limits progressive thermal damage in anesthetized hairless mice," J. Trauma 51, 98-104 (2001).
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Vrotsos, K. M.

Wagnières, G.

D. Goujon, M. Zellweger, A. Radu, P. Grosjean, B.-C. Weber, H. van den Bergh, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnières, "In vivo autofluorescence imaging of early cancers in the human tracheobronchial tree with a spectrally optimized system," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 17-25 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528594.
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Water, T. V. D.

D. J. Mulder, T. V. D. Water, H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts: an overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 8, 523-535 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2006.8.523.
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Wax, A.

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
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Weber, B.-C.

D. Goujon, M. Zellweger, A. Radu, P. Grosjean, B.-C. Weber, H. van den Bergh, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnières, "In vivo autofluorescence imaging of early cancers in the human tracheobronchial tree with a spectrally optimized system," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 17-25 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528594.
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Witjes, M. J. H.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology," Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20122.
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D. C. G. D. Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology," Oral Oncol. 41, 117-131 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2004.07.007.
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Wulf, H. C.

J. Sandby-Møller, E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, "Skin autofluorescence as a biological UVR dosimeter," Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 20, 33-40 (2004).
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R. Na, I. M. Stender, and H. C. Wulf, "Can autofluorescence demarcate basal cell carcinoma from normal skin? A comparison with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence," Acta Derm. Venereol. 81, 246-249 (2001).
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R. Ramasamy, S. J. Vannucci, S. S. D. Yan, K. Herold, S. F. Yan, and A. M. Schmidt, "Advanced glycation end products and RAGE: a common thread in aging, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and inflammation," Glycobiology 15(7), 16R-28R (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwi053.
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Yan, S. S. D.

R. Ramasamy, S. J. Vannucci, S. S. D. Yan, K. Herold, S. F. Yan, and A. M. Schmidt, "Advanced glycation end products and RAGE: a common thread in aging, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and inflammation," Glycobiology 15(7), 16R-28R (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwi053.
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Yoshida, A.

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida, "Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361-366 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/exer.1998.0615.
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A. R. Young, "Chromophores in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 789-802 (1997).
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Zellweger, M.

D. Goujon, M. Zellweger, A. Radu, P. Grosjean, B.-C. Weber, H. van den Bergh, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnières, "In vivo autofluorescence imaging of early cancers in the human tracheobronchial tree with a spectrally optimized system," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 17-25 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528594.
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Zhang, Q.

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
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D. J. Mulder, P. L. van Haelst, S. Gross, K. de Leeuw, J. Bijzet, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence is elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with serum levels of neopterin and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products," Atherosclerosis 197, 217-223 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.027.
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D. J. Mulder, T. V. D. Water, H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts: an overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 8, 523-535 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2006.8.523.
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R. Graaff, R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, R. Baptist, E. D. de Jong, J. Zijp, T. P. Links, A. J. Smit, and G. Rakhorst, "Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in the human skin," Proc. SPIE 5692, 111-118 (2005).
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Acta Derm. Venereol. (1)

R. Na, I. M. Stender, and H. C. Wulf, "Can autofluorescence demarcate basal cell carcinoma from normal skin? A comparison with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence," Acta Derm. Venereol. 81, 246-249 (2001).
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Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

J. Blaauw, A. J. Smit, M. G. van Pampus, J. J. van Doormaal, J. G. Aarnoudse, G. Rakhorst, and R. Graaff, "Skin autofluorescence, a marker of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress, is increased in recently preeclamptic women," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 195, 717-722 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.086.
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N. Ahmed, P. J. Thornalley, "Chromatographic assay of glycation adducts in human serum albumin glycated in vitro by derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-carbamate and intrinsic fluorescence," Biochem. J. 364, 15-24 (2002).
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A. J. Smit and H. L. Lutgers, "The clinical relevance of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) and recent developments in pharmaceutics to reduce AGE accumulation," Curr. Med. Chem. 11, 2767-2784 (2004).
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V. M. Monnier, O. Bautista, D. Kenny, D. R. Sell, J. Fogarty, W. Dahms, P. A. Cleary, J. Lachin, and S. Genuth, "Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes: relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA1c as markers of diabetic complications. DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial," Diabetes 48, 870-880 (1999).
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E. G. Gerrits, H. L. Lutgers, N. Kleefstra, R. Graaff, K. H. Groenier, A. J. Smit, R. O. Gans, and H. J. Bilo, "Skin autofluorescence: a tool to identify type 2 diabetic patients at risk for developing microvascular complications," Diabetes Care 31, 517-521 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc07-1755.
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H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, T. P. Links, L. J. Ubink-Veltmaat, H. J. Bilo, R. O. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence as a noninvasive marker of vascular damage in patients with type 2 diabetes," Diabetes Care 29, 2654-2659 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc05-2173.
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Diabetes Technol. Ther. (1)

D. J. Mulder, T. V. D. Water, H. L. Lutgers, R. Graaff, R. O. Gans, F. Zijlstra, and A. J. Smit, "Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts: an overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations," Diabetes Technol. Ther. 8, 523-535 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2006.8.523.
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Diabetologia (1)

R. Meerwaldt, R. Graaff, P. H. N. Oomen, T. P. Links, J. J. Jager, N. L. Alderson, S. R. Thorpe, J. W. Baynes, R. O. B. Gans, and A. J. Smit, "Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation," Diabetologia 47, 1324-1330 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-004-1451-2.
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Exp. Eye Res. (1)

T. Abiko, A. Abiko, S. Ishiko, M. Takeda, S. Horiuchi, and A. Yoshida, "Relationship between autofluorescence and advanced glycation end products in diabetic lenses," Exp. Eye Res. 68, 361-366 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/exer.1998.0615.
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Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1)

J. W. Baynes and S. R. Thorpe, "Glycoxidation and lipoxidation in atherogenesis," Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28, 1708-1716 (2000).
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Glycobiology (1)

R. Ramasamy, S. J. Vannucci, S. S. D. Yan, K. Herold, S. F. Yan, and A. M. Schmidt, "Advanced glycation end products and RAGE: a common thread in aging, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and inflammation," Glycobiology 15(7), 16R-28R (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwi053.
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J. J. Jager, P. H. N. Oomen, W. J. Sluiter, W. D. Reitsma, A. J. Smit, "Improved reproducibility of the ’largewindow’ method of assessing transcapillary and interstitial fluorescein diffusion in the skin in healthy subjects and in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 17, 150-158 (1997).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. Goujon, M. Zellweger, A. Radu, P. Grosjean, B.-C. Weber, H. van den Bergh, P. Monnier, and G. Wagnières, "In vivo autofluorescence imaging of early cancers in the human tracheobronchial tree with a spectrally optimized system," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 17-25 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528594.
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N. den Hollander, D. Mulder, R. Graaff, S. Thorpe, J. Baynes, G. Smit, and A. Smit, "Advanced Glycation end products and the absence of premature atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease Ia," J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30, 916-923 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-007-0507-0.
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J. Invest. Dermatol. (2)

R. Na, I. M. Stender, M. Henriksen, and H. C. Wulf, "Autofluorescence of human skin is age-related after correction for skin pigmentation and redness," J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 536-540 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2001.01285.x.
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R. Gillies, G. Zonios, R. R. Anderson, and N. Kollias, "Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy provides information about human skin in vivo," J. Invest. Dermatol. 115, 704-707 (2000). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00091.x.
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J. Trauma (1)

L. T. Vo, P. Anikijenko, W. J. McLaren, P. M. Delaney, D. H. Barkla, and R. G. King, "Autofluorescence of skin burns detected by fiber-optic confocal imaging: evidence that cool water treatment limits progressive thermal damage in anesthetized hairless mice," J. Trauma 51, 98-104 (2001).
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Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology," Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20122.
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V. M. Monnier, V. Vishwanath, K. E. Frank, C. A. Elmets, P. Dauchot, and R. R. Kohn, "Relation between complications of type I diabetes mellitus and collagen-linked fluorescence," N. Engl. J. Med. 314, 403-408 (1986).
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Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1)

T. Miyata, A. Saito, K. Kurokawa, and C. van Ypersele de Strihou, "Advanced glycation and lipoxidation end products: reactive carbonyl compounds-related uraemic toxicity," Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 16Suppl 4, 8-11 (2001).

Ophthalmologe (1)

M. Hammer, E. Nagel, D. Schweitzer, S. Richter, F. Schweitzer, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, "Spectral separation in ocular fundus autofluorescence images in patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmologe 101, 1189-1193 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-004-1019-z.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Oral Oncol. (1)

D. C. G. D. Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology," Oral Oncol. 41, 117-131 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2004.07.007.
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Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon, and N. Kollias, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of nonmelanoma skin cancer," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 178-183 (2001).
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Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. (1)

J. Sandby-Møller, E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, "Skin autofluorescence as a biological UVR dosimeter," Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 20, 33-40 (2004).
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Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. R. Young, "Chromophores in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 789-802 (1997).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Graaff, R. Meerwaldt, H. L. Lutgers, R. Baptist, E. D. de Jong, J. Zijp, T. P. Links, A. J. Smit, and G. Rakhorst, "Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in the human skin," Proc. SPIE 5692, 111-118 (2005).
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Rheumatology (Oxford) (1)

K. de Leeuw, R. Graaff, R. de Vries, R. P. Dullaart, A. J. Smit, C. G. Kallenberg, and M. Bijl, "Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus," Rheumatology (Oxford) 46, 1551-1556 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kem215.
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Skin Res. Technol. (1)

R. Na, I.-M. Stender, L. Ma, and H. C. Wulf, "Autofluorescence spectrum of skin: component bands and body site variations," Skin Res. Technol. 6, 112-117 (2000).
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Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

J.W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. M¨uller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-5142003.
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Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

N. Kollias, G. Zonios, and G. Stamatas, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of skin," Vib. Spectrosc. 28, 17-23 (2002).
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Other (1)

N. Ramanujam, Fluorescence spectroscopy in vivo, vol. Biomedical Spectroscopy of Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, 2000) pp. 20-56.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Instrument schematic of the EEMS. UV excitation light from the monochromator is directed to the skin via a mirror. The emission and reflection light from the skin is guided to a spectrometer via an optical fiber, pointing at the measuring site at an angle of 45 degrees.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectrum of the UV-A light source as used in the AFR and the AGE Reader (continuous line) and a fit using a weighted summation of EEMS responses of separate excitation peaks (dotted line). The small peaks at 366 nm and at 405 nm are caused by mercury emission within the lamp.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Mean relative autofluorescence values for the separate excitation peaks (AFE,rel (λexc )) and the broad excitation peak from the blacklight (BL) as used in the AGE Reader. (b) Statistical significance (Mann-Whitney U-test) of the differences between AFE values of subjects in the respective subject groups and the control group. The dotted line in (b) represents a value of p=0.05.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Emission peaks from the average spectra of the control group for increasing excitation wavelength. The spectra are normalized for emission.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Emission peaks from the average spectra of the five groups for λexc = 375nm (a) and λexc = 400nm (b). In (b), the spectrum starts at 443 nm as below that wavelength, the excitation peak is still present.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Characteristics of the five groups. Where applicable, values are mean ± 1 s.d.

Equations (3)

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AFE(λexc,s)=100Iem(λexc,s)Iexc(λexc,s),
AFE,rel(λexc,s)=AFE(λexc,s)AFE(λexc,control)
AFBL=ΣwiAFiΣwi,

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