Abstract

We report on the experimental observation of dissipative vector solitons (DVSs) in a dispersion-managed cavity fiber laser with large net positive cavity group velocity dispersion (GVD). Both the frequency-locked and phase-locked DVSs were observed. In addition, formation of multiple DVSs and DVS harmonic mode-locking were also experimentally revealed. Numerical simulations are in agreement of the experimental observations on the DVS formation in the fiber lasers.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, and J. Wu, "Gain-guided soliton in a positive group dispersion fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 1788-1790 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, and C. Lu, "Gain-guided solitons in dispersion-managed fiber lasers with large net cavity dispersion," Opt. Lett. 31, 2957-2959 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. A. Bélanger, "Stable operation of mode-locked fiber lasers:similariton regime," Opt. Express 15, 11033-11040 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. G. Okhotnikov, T. Jouhti, J. Konttinen, S. Karirnne, and M. Pessa, "1.5-µm monolithic GaInNAs semiconductor saturable-absorber mode locking of an erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 28,364-366 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Jiang, G. Sucha, M. E. Fermann, J. Jimenez, D. Harter, M. Dagenais, S. Fox, and Y. Hu, "Nonlinearly limited saturable-absorber mode-locking of an erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 24,1074-1076 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 112, 278-282 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, "Induced solitons formed by cross polarization coupling in a birefringent cavity fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 33, 2317-2319 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, M. J. Lederer, and B. Luther-Davies, "Ultrashort pulses generated by mode-locked lasers with either a slow or a fast saturable-absorber response," Opt. Lett. 23, 280-282 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, "Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers," Opt. Express 16, 12618-12623 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  12. J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

2005

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

1999

M. Jiang, G. Sucha, M. E. Fermann, J. Jimenez, D. Harter, M. Dagenais, S. Fox, and Y. Hu, "Nonlinearly limited saturable-absorber mode-locking of an erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 24,1074-1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1994

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 112, 278-282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 112, 278-282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N. N.

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, M. J. Lederer, and B. Luther-Davies, "Ultrashort pulses generated by mode-locked lasers with either a slow or a fast saturable-absorber response," Opt. Lett. 23, 280-282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

Bélanger, P. A.

Bergman, K.

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buryak, A.

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 112, 278-282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. H.

Collings, B. C.

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

Fermann, M. E.

Fox, S.

Harter, D.

Hu, Y.

Jiang, M.

Jimenez, J.

Jouhti, T.

Karirnne, S.

Knox, W. H.

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Konttinen, J.

Lederer, M. J.

Liu, A. Q.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Luther-Davies, B.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Pessa, M.

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 112, 278-282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sucha, G.

Tam, H. Y.

Tang, D. Y.

Wu, J.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, and J. Wu, "Gain-guided soliton in a positive group dispersion fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 1788-1790 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, N.

Zhang, H.

Zhao, B.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

Opt. Commun.

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 112, 278-282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, "Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in an Optical Fiber, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the fiber laser. SESAM: semiconductor saturable absorber mirror; PC: polarization controller; WDM: wavelength-division multiplexer; EDF: erbium-doped fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Spectrum and corresponding autocorrelation trace of a polarization rotating DVS emission state of the laser; (b) Oscilloscope trace of (a) after passing through a polarizer; (c) Polarization resolved optical spectra of a phase locked DVS emission state of the laser; (d) Oscilloscope trace of (c) after passing through a polarizer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Oscilloscope trace of a harmonically mode-locked gain-guided vector soliton state. Lc: cavity roundtrip time. 8 DVS coexist in cavity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Combined pulse intensity evolution; (b) corresponding optical spectra numerically calculated.

Equations (3)

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{uz=iβuδutik22ut2+ik63ut3+iγ(u2+23v2)u+iγ3v2u*+g2u+g2Ωg22ut2vz=iβuδvtik22vt2+ik63vt3+iγ(v2+23u2)v+iγ3u2v*+g2v+g2Ωg22vt2
g=Gexp[(u2+v2)dtPsat]
lst=lsl0Trecu2+v2Esatls

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