Abstract

We describe a 5.5W 589nm source based on a passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser and a multi-stage Lithium Triborate optical parametric amplifier seeded by a tuneable semiconductor laser. We show this system can produce rapidly tuneable, transform-limited pulses in near diffraction-limited beams at 589nm, useful for Na guide star applications. The attraction of this scheme is that it can be assembled from commercially available hardware and is readily scalable to high average powers.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.  65, 229–236 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  2. N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).
  3. A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. H. Jeys, A. A. Brailove, and A. Mooradian, “Sum frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation,” Appl. Opt.  28, 2588–2591 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. N. Saito, K. Akagawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Synchronization of 1064 and 1319 nm pulses emitted from actively mode-locked Nd : YAG lasers and its application to 589 nm sum-frequency generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  44, L1484–L1487 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, “20 W CW 589 nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope applications,” Opt. Mater.  26, 507–513 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Bienfang, et al., “20W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 2219–2221 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  11. C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. H. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Generation of 10.5 W, 1178 nm laser based on phosphosilicate Raman fibre laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  42, L1439–L1441 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. B. Rulkov, A. A. Ferin, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, I. Rozdobreev, L. Bigot, and G. Bouwmans, “Narrow-line, 1178nm CW bismuth-doped fibre laser with 6.4W output for direct frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 15, 5473–5476 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. Georgiev, V. P. Gapontsev, A. G. Dronov, M. Y. Vyatkin, A. B. Rulkov, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Watts-level frequency doubling of a narrow line linearly polarized Raman fiber laser to 589 nm,” Opt. Express 13, 6772–6776 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. T. P. Rutten, P. J. Veitch, C. d’Orgeville, and J. Munch, “Injection mode-locked guide star laser concept and design verification experiments,” Opt. Express 15, 2369–2374 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka, and S. Nakai, “Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  65, 1480–1482 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  17. V. Z. Kolev, M. W. Duering, and B. Luther-Davies “Compact high-power optical source for resonant infrared pulsed laser ablation and deposition of polymer materials,” Opt. Express 14, 12302–12309 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. http://www.tbwp.com/Sites/S_Products/PicosecondProducts_HP/Fuego.htm
  19. http://www.ilt.fraunhofer.de/eng/100994.html
  20. B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, “Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation,” Appl. Phys.-A Materials Science and Processing 79, 1051–1059 (2004).
  21. http://www.as-photonics.com/SNLO

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

D. Georgiev, V. P. Gapontsev, A. G. Dronov, M. Y. Vyatkin, A. B. Rulkov, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Watts-level frequency doubling of a narrow line linearly polarized Raman fiber laser to 589 nm,” Opt. Express 13, 6772–6776 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Synchronization of 1064 and 1319 nm pulses emitted from actively mode-locked Nd : YAG lasers and its application to 589 nm sum-frequency generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  44, L1484–L1487 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, “20 W CW 589 nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope applications,” Opt. Mater.  26, 507–513 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, “Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation,” Appl. Phys.-A Materials Science and Processing 79, 1051–1059 (2004).

2003 (2)

S. H. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Generation of 10.5 W, 1178 nm laser based on phosphosilicate Raman fibre laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  42, L1439–L1441 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Bienfang, et al., “20W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 2219–2221 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka, and S. Nakai, “Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  65, 1480–1482 (1994).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

T. H. Jeys, A. A. Brailove, and A. Mooradian, “Sum frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation,” Appl. Opt.  28, 2588–2591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.  65, 229–236 (1953).
[Crossref]

Ageorges, N.

N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

Akagawa, K.

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Synchronization of 1064 and 1319 nm pulses emitted from actively mode-locked Nd : YAG lasers and its application to 589 nm sum-frequency generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  44, L1484–L1487 (2005).
[Crossref]

Avicola, K.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Babcock, H. W.

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.  65, 229–236 (1953).
[Crossref]

Bienfang, J.

J. Bienfang, et al., “20W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 2219–2221 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigot, L.

Bissinger, H. D.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bouwmans, G.

Brailove, A. A.

T. H. Jeys, A. A. Brailove, and A. Mooradian, “Sum frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation,” Appl. Opt.  28, 2588–2591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brase, J. M.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

d’Orgeville, C.

T. P. Rutten, P. J. Veitch, C. d’Orgeville, and J. Munch, “Injection mode-locked guide star laser concept and design verification experiments,” Opt. Express 15, 2369–2374 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dainty, C.

N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

Denman, C. A.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, “20 W CW 589 nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope applications,” Opt. Mater.  26, 507–513 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dronov, A. G.

Drummond, J. D.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, “20 W CW 589 nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope applications,” Opt. Mater.  26, 507–513 (2004).
[Crossref]

Du, K. M.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, “Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation,” Appl. Phys.-A Materials Science and Processing 79, 1051–1059 (2004).

Duering, M.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, “Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation,” Appl. Phys.-A Materials Science and Processing 79, 1051–1059 (2004).

Duering, M. W.

Duff, J.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

S. H. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Generation of 10.5 W, 1178 nm laser based on phosphosilicate Raman fibre laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  42, L1439–L1441 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ferin, A. A.

Friedman, H. W.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fugate, R. Q.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujita, H.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka, and S. Nakai, “Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  65, 1480–1482 (1994).
[Crossref]

Furukawa, Y.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka, and S. Nakai, “Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  65, 1480–1482 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gapontsev, V. P.

Gavel, D. T.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Georgiev, D.

Giesekus, J.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, “Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation,” Appl. Phys.-A Materials Science and Processing 79, 1051–1059 (2004).

Groff, K.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hankla, A.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hayano, Y.

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Synchronization of 1064 and 1319 nm pulses emitted from actively mode-locked Nd : YAG lasers and its application to 589 nm sum-frequency generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  44, L1484–L1487 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hillman, P. D.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, “20 W CW 589 nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope applications,” Opt. Mater.  26, 507–513 (2004).
[Crossref]

Horton, J. A.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. H.

S. H. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Generation of 10.5 W, 1178 nm laser based on phosphosilicate Raman fibre laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  42, L1439–L1441 (2003).
[Crossref]

Iye, M.

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Synchronization of 1064 and 1319 nm pulses emitted from actively mode-locked Nd : YAG lasers and its application to 589 nm sum-frequency generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  44, L1484–L1487 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jeys, T. H.

T. H. Jeys, A. A. Brailove, and A. Mooradian, “Sum frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation,” Appl. Opt.  28, 2588–2591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiefer, R.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kolev, V. Z.

V. Z. Kolev, M. W. Duering, and B. Luther-Davies “Compact high-power optical source for resonant infrared pulsed laser ablation and deposition of polymer materials,” Opt. Express 14, 12302–12309 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, “Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation,” Appl. Phys.-A Materials Science and Processing 79, 1051–1059 (2004).

Lederer, M. J.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, “Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation,” Appl. Phys.-A Materials Science and Processing 79, 1051–1059 (2004).

Lopez, C.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

V. Z. Kolev, M. W. Duering, and B. Luther-Davies “Compact high-power optical source for resonant infrared pulsed laser ablation and deposition of polymer materials,” Opt. Express 14, 12302–12309 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, “Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation,” Appl. Phys.-A Materials Science and Processing 79, 1051–1059 (2004).

Madsen, N. R.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, “Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation,” Appl. Phys.-A Materials Science and Processing 79, 1051–1059 (2004).

Markgraf, S. A.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka, and S. Nakai, “Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  65, 1480–1482 (1994).
[Crossref]

Max, C. E.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

McKinnie, I.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mooradian, A.

T. H. Jeys, A. A. Brailove, and A. Mooradian, “Sum frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation,” Appl. Opt.  28, 2588–2591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, G. T.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, “20 W CW 589 nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope applications,” Opt. Mater.  26, 507–513 (2004).
[Crossref]

Morris, J. R.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Munch, J.

Nakai, S.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka, and S. Nakai, “Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  65, 1480–1482 (1994).
[Crossref]

Olivier, S. S.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Popov, S. V.

Presta, R. W.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Preston, J. E.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rapp, D. A.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rode, A. V.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, “Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation,” Appl. Phys.-A Materials Science and Processing 79, 1051–1059 (2004).

Rogers, N.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rozdobreev, I.

Rulkov, A. B.

Rutten, T. P.

Sadighi, D.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Saito, N.

N. Saito, et al., “Sodium D2 resonance radiation in single-pass sum-frequency generation with actively mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett.  32, 1965–1967 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Synchronization of 1064 and 1319 nm pulses emitted from actively mode-locked Nd : YAG lasers and its application to 589 nm sum-frequency generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  44, L1484–L1487 (2005).
[Crossref]

Saito, Y.

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Synchronization of 1064 and 1319 nm pulses emitted from actively mode-locked Nd : YAG lasers and its application to 589 nm sum-frequency generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  44, L1484–L1487 (2005).
[Crossref]

Salmon, J. T.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, T.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka, and S. Nakai, “Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  65, 1480–1482 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sato, M.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka, and S. Nakai, “Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  65, 1480–1482 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shirakawa, A.

S. H. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Generation of 10.5 W, 1178 nm laser based on phosphosilicate Raman fibre laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  42, L1439–L1441 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takami, H.

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Synchronization of 1064 and 1319 nm pulses emitted from actively mode-locked Nd : YAG lasers and its application to 589 nm sum-frequency generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  44, L1484–L1487 (2005).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. R.

Telle, J. M.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, “20 W CW 589 nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope applications,” Opt. Mater.  26, 507–513 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tracy, A.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tuffli, A. L.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, “20 W CW 589 nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope applications,” Opt. Mater.  26, 507–513 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.

S. H. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Generation of 10.5 W, 1178 nm laser based on phosphosilicate Raman fibre laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  42, L1439–L1441 (2003).
[Crossref]

Veitch, P. J.

Vyatkin, M. Y.

Wada, S.

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Synchronization of 1064 and 1319 nm pulses emitted from actively mode-locked Nd : YAG lasers and its application to 589 nm sum-frequency generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  44, L1484–L1487 (2005).
[Crossref]

Waltjen, K. E.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yamanaka, T.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka, and S. Nakai, “Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  65, 1480–1482 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, H.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka, and S. Nakai, “Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  65, 1480–1482 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt (1)

T. H. Jeys, A. A. Brailove, and A. Mooradian, “Sum frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation,” Appl. Opt.  28, 2588–2591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka, and S. Nakai, “Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  65, 1480–1482 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys.-A Materials Science and Processing (1)

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, “Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation,” Appl. Phys.-A Materials Science and Processing 79, 1051–1059 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am (1)

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.  11, 813–824 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys (2)

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Synchronization of 1064 and 1319 nm pulses emitted from actively mode-locked Nd : YAG lasers and its application to 589 nm sum-frequency generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  44, L1484–L1487 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. H. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Generation of 10.5 W, 1178 nm laser based on phosphosilicate Raman fibre laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  42, L1439–L1441 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett (2)

J. Bienfang, et al., “20W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 2219–2221 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Saito, et al., “Sodium D2 resonance radiation in single-pass sum-frequency generation with actively mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett.  32, 1965–1967 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater (1)

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. D. Drummond, and A. L. Tuffli, “20 W CW 589 nm sodium beacon excitation source for adaptive optical telescope applications,” Opt. Mater.  26, 507–513 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (3)

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005).
[Crossref]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac (1)

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.  65, 229–236 (1953).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

http://www.tbwp.com/Sites/S_Products/PicosecondProducts_HP/Fuego.htm

http://www.ilt.fraunhofer.de/eng/100994.html

http://www.as-photonics.com/SNLO

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the system used to generate 589nm light using a two stage OPA pumped by 1064nm mode-locked Nd:YVO4 MOPA laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). (LHS): Calculated (line) and measured (squares) pump depletion as a function of input intensity for the pre-amplifier stage; Fig. 2(b), (RHS): Calculated pulse shortening (output pulse duration at seed wavelength/pump pulse duration) as a function of pump depletion.

Fig. 3. (a).
Fig. 3. (a).

(LHS): Pump depletion achievable in the power amplifier stage as a function of pump intensity for different seed intensities (GW/cm2). In these calculations the ratio of the seed beam to pump beam diameter was set at 1.8 and τip was assumed to be 0.55 (from Fig. 2(b)). Experimental data obtained using a seed intensity of 0.05GW/cm2 is plotted for comparison with the results of simulations. Figure 3(b), (RHS): Pump depletion is plotted as a function of the ratio of the pump power to seed power in the power amplifier stage for four different values of the ratio dseed/dp.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variation of maximum achievable conversion efficiency to the idler for 2, 3, and 4 OPA stages using the fraction of the total pump power used in the final stage as a parameter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Beam radius as a function of axial distance around focus compared with calculated values of M2. LHS: horizontal plane; RHS: vertical plane.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

LHS: image of fluorescence from a Na vapour cell (streak in the upper right) and scattered light from a mirror at the cell output (lower left) with the laser tuned to the Na D2 resonance; Centre: laser tuned off resonance; RHS: difference between first two images demonstrating discrimination against scattered light.

Equations (1)

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G=1+Sinh2(GL)whereG=4πdeffI2εonpnsnicλsλi

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