Abstract

We report the implementation of a one-dimensional random laser based on an Er/Ge co-doped single-mode fiber with randomly spaced Bragg gratings. The random grating array forms a complex cavity with high quality factor resonances in the range of gain wavelengths centered around 1535.5nm. The reflection spectra of the grating array and the emission spectra of the laser are investigated for different numbers of gratings. The experimental results are compared qualitatively with numerical simulations of the light propagation in one-dimensional Bragg grating arrays based on a transfer matrix method. The system is pumped at 980 nm and the experimentally observed output radiation presents a typical laser threshold behavior as a function of the pump power. We find that the laser output contains several competing spectral modes.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers (Springer, Berlin, 2005).
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  4. P. Sheng, Introduction to Wave Scattering, Localization and Mesoscopic Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 2006).
  5. X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theory and simulations of random lasers," in Photonic Crystals and Light Localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, ed. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 417-446.
  6. A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser in one dimension," Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 093904(1-4) (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Milner and A. Genack, "Photon localization laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073901(4) (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. U. Frisch, C. Froeschle, J. -P. Scheidecker, and P. -L. Sulem, "Stochastic Resonance in One-Dimensional Random Media," Phys. Rev. A 8, 1416-1422 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. R. McGurn, K. T. Christensen, F. M. Mueller, and A. A. Maradudin, "Anderson localization in one-dimensional randomly disordered optical systems that are periodic on average," Phys. Rev. B 27, 13120-13125 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Sebbah, B. Hu, J. M. Klosner, and A. Z. Genack, "Extended quasimodes within nominally localized random waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 183902(4) (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. S. Pissadakis, A. Ikiades, P. Hua, A. Sheridan, and J. Wilkinson, "Photosensitivity of ion-exchanged Er-doped phosphate glass using 248 nm excimer laser radiation," Opt. Express 12, 3131-3136 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. H. Loh and R. I. Laming, "1.55μm phase-shifted distributed feedback fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1440-1442 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Sejka, P. Varming, J. Hübner, and M. Kristensen, "Distributed feedback Er3+-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1445-1446 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez- Gámez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Random fiber laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,153903(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

P. Sebbah, B. Hu, J. M. Klosner, and A. Z. Genack, "Extended quasimodes within nominally localized random waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 183902(4) (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

O. Shapira and B. Fischer, "Localization of light in a random-grating array in a single-mode fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2542-2552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, "Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback," J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38, 10497-10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Milner and A. Genack, "Photon localization laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073901(4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yu. Bliokh, Yu. P. Bliokh, V. Freilikher, A. Z. Genack, B. Hu, and P. Sebbah, "Localized Modes in Open One-Dimensional Dissipative Random Systems", Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243904(4) (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

H. Cao, "Lasing in random media," Waves in Random Media 13, R1-R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser in one dimension," Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 093904(1-4) (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. V. Berry and S. Klein, "Transparent mirrors: rays, waves and localization," Eur. J. Phys. 18, 222-228 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

W. H. Loh and R. I. Laming, "1.55μm phase-shifted distributed feedback fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1440-1442 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Sejka, P. Varming, J. Hübner, and M. Kristensen, "Distributed feedback Er3+-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1445-1446 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. B. Pendry, "Symmetry and transport of waves in one-dimensional disordered system," Adv. Phys. 43, 461-542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

S.V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, and R. Kashyap, "Coupled-cavity erbium fiber lasers incorporating fiber grating reflectors," Opt.Lett. 18, 2023-2025 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. McGurn, K. T. Christensen, F. M. Mueller, and A. A. Maradudin, "Anderson localization in one-dimensional randomly disordered optical systems that are periodic on average," Phys. Rev. B 27, 13120-13125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. A. Ball, W.W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, "Standing-wave monomode erbium fiber laser," IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 3, 613-615 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

U. Frisch, C. Froeschle, J. -P. Scheidecker, and P. -L. Sulem, "Stochastic Resonance in One-Dimensional Random Media," Phys. Rev. A 8, 1416-1422 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ball, G. A.

G. A. Ball, W.W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, "Standing-wave monomode erbium fiber laser," IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 3, 613-615 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry and S. Klein, "Transparent mirrors: rays, waves and localization," Eur. J. Phys. 18, 222-228 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bliokh, K. Yu.

K. Yu. Bliokh, Yu. P. Bliokh, V. Freilikher, A. Z. Genack, B. Hu, and P. Sebbah, "Localized Modes in Open One-Dimensional Dissipative Random Systems", Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243904(4) (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yu. Bliokh, Yu. P Bliokh, and V. D. Freilikher, "Resonances in 1D disordered systems: localization of energy and resonant transmission, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 113-120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bliokh, Yu. P

Bliokh, Yu. P.

K. Yu. Bliokh, Yu. P. Bliokh, V. Freilikher, A. Z. Genack, B. Hu, and P. Sebbah, "Localized Modes in Open One-Dimensional Dissipative Random Systems", Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243904(4) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brito-Silva, A. M.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez- Gámez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Random fiber laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,153903(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burin, A. L.

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser in one dimension," Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 093904(1-4) (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, "Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback," J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38, 10497-10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, "Lasing in random media," Waves in Random Media 13, R1-R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser in one dimension," Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 093904(1-4) (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. P. H.

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser in one dimension," Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 093904(1-4) (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chernikov, S.V.

S.V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, and R. Kashyap, "Coupled-cavity erbium fiber lasers incorporating fiber grating reflectors," Opt.Lett. 18, 2023-2025 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christensen, K. T.

A. R. McGurn, K. T. Christensen, F. M. Mueller, and A. A. Maradudin, "Anderson localization in one-dimensional randomly disordered optical systems that are periodic on average," Phys. Rev. B 27, 13120-13125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez- Gámez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Random fiber laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,153903(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Matos, C. J. S.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez- Gámez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Random fiber laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,153903(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de S. Menezes, L.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez- Gámez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Random fiber laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,153903(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

Freilikher, V.

K. Yu. Bliokh, Yu. P. Bliokh, V. Freilikher, A. Z. Genack, B. Hu, and P. Sebbah, "Localized Modes in Open One-Dimensional Dissipative Random Systems", Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243904(4) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freilikher, V. D.

Frisch, U.

U. Frisch, C. Froeschle, J. -P. Scheidecker, and P. -L. Sulem, "Stochastic Resonance in One-Dimensional Random Media," Phys. Rev. A 8, 1416-1422 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Froeschle, C.

U. Frisch, C. Froeschle, J. -P. Scheidecker, and P. -L. Sulem, "Stochastic Resonance in One-Dimensional Random Media," Phys. Rev. A 8, 1416-1422 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A.

V. Milner and A. Genack, "Photon localization laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073901(4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genack, A. Z.

P. Sebbah, B. Hu, J. M. Klosner, and A. Z. Genack, "Extended quasimodes within nominally localized random waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 183902(4) (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yu. Bliokh, Yu. P. Bliokh, V. Freilikher, A. Z. Genack, B. Hu, and P. Sebbah, "Localized Modes in Open One-Dimensional Dissipative Random Systems", Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243904(4) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

G. A. Ball, W.W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, "Standing-wave monomode erbium fiber laser," IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 3, 613-615 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, L.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez- Gámez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Random fiber laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,153903(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, B.

P. Sebbah, B. Hu, J. M. Klosner, and A. Z. Genack, "Extended quasimodes within nominally localized random waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 183902(4) (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yu. Bliokh, Yu. P. Bliokh, V. Freilikher, A. Z. Genack, B. Hu, and P. Sebbah, "Localized Modes in Open One-Dimensional Dissipative Random Systems", Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243904(4) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hua, P.

Hübner, J.

M. Sejka, P. Varming, J. Hübner, and M. Kristensen, "Distributed feedback Er3+-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1445-1446 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ikiades, A.

Kashyap, R.

S.V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, and R. Kashyap, "Coupled-cavity erbium fiber lasers incorporating fiber grating reflectors," Opt.Lett. 18, 2023-2025 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, S.

M. V. Berry and S. Klein, "Transparent mirrors: rays, waves and localization," Eur. J. Phys. 18, 222-228 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klosner, J. M.

P. Sebbah, B. Hu, J. M. Klosner, and A. Z. Genack, "Extended quasimodes within nominally localized random waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 183902(4) (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, M.

M. Sejka, P. Varming, J. Hübner, and M. Kristensen, "Distributed feedback Er3+-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1445-1446 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

W. H. Loh and R. I. Laming, "1.55μm phase-shifted distributed feedback fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1440-1442 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

W. H. Loh and R. I. Laming, "1.55μm phase-shifted distributed feedback fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1440-1442 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

A. R. McGurn, K. T. Christensen, F. M. Mueller, and A. A. Maradudin, "Anderson localization in one-dimensional randomly disordered optical systems that are periodic on average," Phys. Rev. B 27, 13120-13125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Martinez- Gámez, M. A.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez- Gámez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Random fiber laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,153903(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGurn, A. R.

A. R. McGurn, K. T. Christensen, F. M. Mueller, and A. A. Maradudin, "Anderson localization in one-dimensional randomly disordered optical systems that are periodic on average," Phys. Rev. B 27, 13120-13125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Milner, V.

V. Milner and A. Genack, "Photon localization laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073901(4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morey, W.W.

G. A. Ball, W.W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, "Standing-wave monomode erbium fiber laser," IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 3, 613-615 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, F. M.

A. R. McGurn, K. T. Christensen, F. M. Mueller, and A. A. Maradudin, "Anderson localization in one-dimensional randomly disordered optical systems that are periodic on average," Phys. Rev. B 27, 13120-13125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, "Symmetry and transport of waves in one-dimensional disordered system," Adv. Phys. 43, 461-542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pissadakis, S.

Ratner, M. A.

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser in one dimension," Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 093904(1-4) (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheidecker, J. -P.

U. Frisch, C. Froeschle, J. -P. Scheidecker, and P. -L. Sulem, "Stochastic Resonance in One-Dimensional Random Media," Phys. Rev. A 8, 1416-1422 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sebbah, P.

P. Sebbah, B. Hu, J. M. Klosner, and A. Z. Genack, "Extended quasimodes within nominally localized random waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 183902(4) (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yu. Bliokh, Yu. P. Bliokh, V. Freilikher, A. Z. Genack, B. Hu, and P. Sebbah, "Localized Modes in Open One-Dimensional Dissipative Random Systems", Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243904(4) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sejka, M.

M. Sejka, P. Varming, J. Hübner, and M. Kristensen, "Distributed feedback Er3+-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1445-1446 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shapira, O.

Sheridan, A.

Sulem, P. -L.

U. Frisch, C. Froeschle, J. -P. Scheidecker, and P. -L. Sulem, "Stochastic Resonance in One-Dimensional Random Media," Phys. Rev. A 8, 1416-1422 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

S.V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, and R. Kashyap, "Coupled-cavity erbium fiber lasers incorporating fiber grating reflectors," Opt.Lett. 18, 2023-2025 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varming, P.

M. Sejka, P. Varming, J. Hübner, and M. Kristensen, "Distributed feedback Er3+-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1445-1446 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J.

Adv. Phys. (1)

J. B. Pendry, "Symmetry and transport of waves in one-dimensional disordered system," Adv. Phys. 43, 461-542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

W. H. Loh and R. I. Laming, "1.55μm phase-shifted distributed feedback fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1440-1442 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Sejka, P. Varming, J. Hübner, and M. Kristensen, "Distributed feedback Er3+-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1445-1446 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Phys. (1)

M. V. Berry and S. Klein, "Transparent mirrors: rays, waves and localization," Eur. J. Phys. 18, 222-228 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. A. Ball, W.W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, "Standing-wave monomode erbium fiber laser," IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 3, 613-615 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. (1)

H. Cao, "Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback," J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38, 10497-10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt.Lett. (1)

S.V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, and R. Kashyap, "Coupled-cavity erbium fiber lasers incorporating fiber grating reflectors," Opt.Lett. 18, 2023-2025 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

U. Frisch, C. Froeschle, J. -P. Scheidecker, and P. -L. Sulem, "Stochastic Resonance in One-Dimensional Random Media," Phys. Rev. A 8, 1416-1422 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. R. McGurn, K. T. Christensen, F. M. Mueller, and A. A. Maradudin, "Anderson localization in one-dimensional randomly disordered optical systems that are periodic on average," Phys. Rev. B 27, 13120-13125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser in one dimension," Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 093904(1-4) (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

V. Milner and A. Genack, "Photon localization laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073901(4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Sebbah, B. Hu, J. M. Klosner, and A. Z. Genack, "Extended quasimodes within nominally localized random waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 183902(4) (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez- Gámez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Random fiber laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,153903(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yu. Bliokh, Yu. P. Bliokh, V. Freilikher, A. Z. Genack, B. Hu, and P. Sebbah, "Localized Modes in Open One-Dimensional Dissipative Random Systems", Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243904(4) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waves in Random Media (1)

H. Cao, "Lasing in random media," Waves in Random Media 13, R1-R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

M. A. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers (Springer, Berlin, 2005).

P. Sheng, Introduction to Wave Scattering, Localization and Mesoscopic Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 2006).

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theory and simulations of random lasers," in Photonic Crystals and Light Localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, ed. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 417-446.

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (4008 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflection spectra of arrays of (a) seven, (b) fourteen, (c) twenty, and (d) thirty one gratings. For clarity, the plots have been shifted vertically.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Emission spectra of RL with 7 gratings measured at different pump levels: below (black and red curves) and above (blue curve) threshold.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output spectra of the random lasers with 7, 14, 20 , and 31 of gratings, for two values of the pump power well above the lasing threshold; the red curve is for a pump of 20mW, and the blue one for 40mW . The vertical lines mark the spectral positions of the emission lines. The inset shows the total emitted power as a function of the pump power for the laser with 31 gratings.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

An example of the temporal evolution of the output spectrum of the RL with 31 gratings (Media 1). The pump power is 40 mW. The instant spectral position of the strongest peak is shown in the bottom left corner.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Color-level plot of the light intensity in a random array of N = 31 gratings, as a function of the wavelength and position along the array.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) The spatial distribution of the intensity of the light inside the grating array for four different wavelengths marked in Fig.6. The two plots for the wavelength λ 2 correspond to the arrays with 31 (upper curve) and 27 gratings (lower curve). (b) The maximum intensity of the field in the effective cavity as a function of the number of gratings sequentially added to the rear side of the cavity. The data corresponds to the resonant modes that occur at the wavelengths λ 1 (blue), λ 2 (black), and λ 3 (green).

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