Abstract

We report experimental investigations of optical nonlinearities and nonlinear dynamics in acetone solution of 2,4,5-Trimethoxy-4′-nitrochalcone. By performing Z-scans with femtosecond laser pulses at low excitation intensity, two-photon absorption (2PA) and third-order nonlinear refraction are measured. As laser excitation intensity exceeds a critical value, however, the interplay between third- and fifth-order nonlinearities is observed. It is also confirmed that fifth-order processes mainly originate from 2PA-induced excited-state nonlinearities by conducting femtosecond time-resolved degenerate pump-probe measurements. All the nonlinear parameters are determined unambiguously in the near infrared region of the 2PA cross-section, second-order hyperpolarizability, excited-state absorption cross-section, excited-state refraction cross-section, lifetime of excited states induced by 2PA, and critical population of the excited states in 2,4,5-Trimethoxy-4′-nitrochalcone molecule.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. A. Ganeev, V. I. Redkorechev, T. Usmanov, G. Priebe, and K. Fostiropoulos, "Competition of third- and fifth-order non-linear optical processes in C60 thin film," Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. 13, 131-140 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. L. Falcão-Filho, CidB. de Araújo, and J. J. Rodrigues, Jr. "High-order nonlinearities of aqueous colloids containing silver nanoparticles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2948-2956 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. S. Bindra and A. K. Kar, "Role of femtosecond pulses in distinguishing third- and fifth-order nonlinearity for semiconductor-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3761-3763 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Delysse, P. Filloux, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Multiphoton absorption in organic dye solutions," Opt. Mater. 9, 347-351 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Zhan, D. Zhang, D. Zhu, D. Wang, Y. Li, D. Li, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, and Y. Nie, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in a new stilbazolium derivative," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 369-375 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. I. Elim, S. H. Jeon, S. Verma, W. Ji, L. S. Tan, A. Urbas, and L. Y. Chiang, "Nonlinear optical transmission properties of C60 dyads consisting of a light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9561-9564 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Gu, Y. Sun, and W. Ji, "Two-photon-induced excited-state nonlinearities," Opt. Express 16, 17745-17751 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. V. Shettigar, P. S. Patil, S. Naveen, S. M. Dharmaprakash, M. A. Sridhar, and J. S. Prasad, "Crystal growth and characterization of new nonlinear optical chalcone derivative: 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one," J. Cryst. Growth 295, 44-49 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. S. Patil and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Crystal growth of 2,4,5-Trimethoxy-4_-chlorochalcone and its characterization," Mater. Lett. 62, 451-453 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. J. Kiran, A. Mithun, B. S. Holla, H. D. Shashikala, G. Umesh, and K. Chandrasekharan, "Nonlinear optical studies of 1-3-diaryl-propenones containing 4-methylthiophenyl moieties," Opt. Commun. 269, 235-240 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. M. Rosli, P. S. Patil, H. K. Fun, I. A. Razak, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "1-(4-Nitrophenyl)-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 62, o4228-o4230 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. Gu, W. Ji, and X. Q. Huang, "Analytical expression for femtosecond-pulsed z scans on instantaneous nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1187-1192 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, "Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications," Chem. Rev. 108, 1245-1330 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. He, Y. Qu, H. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals," Opt. Express 13, 9235-9247 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. C. H. Kwak, Y. L. Lee, and S. G. Kim, "Analysis of asymmetric Z-scan measurment for large optical nonlinearities in an amorphous As2S3 thin film," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 600-604 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, "A systematic study of polarizability and microscopic third-order optical nonlinearity in thiophene oligomers," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5535-5541 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. L. Davies, Z. Bao, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, "Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 817-825 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. L. Sutherland with contributions by D. G. McLean and S. Kikpatrick, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, second ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003), pg. 581.

2008 (7)

H. I. Elim, S. H. Jeon, S. Verma, W. Ji, L. S. Tan, A. Urbas, and L. Y. Chiang, "Nonlinear optical transmission properties of C60 dyads consisting of a light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9561-9564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, Y. Sun, and W. Ji, "Two-photon-induced excited-state nonlinearities," Opt. Express 16, 17745-17751 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Patil and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Crystal growth of 2,4,5-Trimethoxy-4_-chlorochalcone and its characterization," Mater. Lett. 62, 451-453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, and X. Q. Huang, "Analytical expression for femtosecond-pulsed z scans on instantaneous nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1187-1192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, "Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications," Chem. Rev. 108, 1245-1330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

A. J. Kiran, A. Mithun, B. S. Holla, H. D. Shashikala, G. Umesh, and K. Chandrasekharan, "Nonlinear optical studies of 1-3-diaryl-propenones containing 4-methylthiophenyl moieties," Opt. Commun. 269, 235-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, CidB. de Araújo, and J. J. Rodrigues, Jr. "High-order nonlinearities of aqueous colloids containing silver nanoparticles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2948-2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, CidB. de Araújo, and J. J. Rodrigues, Jr. "High-order nonlinearities of aqueous colloids containing silver nanoparticles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2948-2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

V. Shettigar, P. S. Patil, S. Naveen, S. M. Dharmaprakash, M. A. Sridhar, and J. S. Prasad, "Crystal growth and characterization of new nonlinear optical chalcone derivative: 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one," J. Cryst. Growth 295, 44-49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Rosli, P. S. Patil, H. K. Fun, I. A. Razak, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "1-(4-Nitrophenyl)-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 62, o4228-o4230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. He, Y. Qu, H. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals," Opt. Express 13, 9235-9247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. A. Ganeev, V. I. Redkorechev, T. Usmanov, G. Priebe, and K. Fostiropoulos, "Competition of third- and fifth-order non-linear optical processes in C60 thin film," Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. 13, 131-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Bindra and A. K. Kar, "Role of femtosecond pulses in distinguishing third- and fifth-order nonlinearity for semiconductor-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3761-3763 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, "A systematic study of polarizability and microscopic third-order optical nonlinearity in thiophene oligomers," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5535-5541 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anija, M.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baba, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z.

Bindra, K. S.

K. S. Bindra and A. K. Kar, "Role of femtosecond pulses in distinguishing third- and fifth-order nonlinearity for semiconductor-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3761-3763 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brant, M. C.

Chandrasekharan, K.

A. J. Kiran, A. Mithun, B. S. Holla, H. D. Shashikala, G. Umesh, and K. Chandrasekharan, "Nonlinear optical studies of 1-3-diaryl-propenones containing 4-methylthiophenyl moieties," Opt. Commun. 269, 235-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, L. Y.

H. I. Elim, S. H. Jeon, S. Verma, W. Ji, L. S. Tan, A. Urbas, and L. Y. Chiang, "Nonlinear optical transmission properties of C60 dyads consisting of a light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9561-9564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cid, E. L.

Cyriac, J.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davies, B. L.

Delysse, S.

S. Delysse, P. Filloux, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Multiphoton absorption in organic dye solutions," Opt. Mater. 9, 347-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dharmaprakash, S. M.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Patil and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Crystal growth of 2,4,5-Trimethoxy-4_-chlorochalcone and its characterization," Mater. Lett. 62, 451-453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Rosli, P. S. Patil, H. K. Fun, I. A. Razak, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "1-(4-Nitrophenyl)-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 62, o4228-o4230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Shettigar, P. S. Patil, S. Naveen, S. M. Dharmaprakash, M. A. Sridhar, and J. S. Prasad, "Crystal growth and characterization of new nonlinear optical chalcone derivative: 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one," J. Cryst. Growth 295, 44-49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dillard, A. G.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dumarcher, V.

S. Delysse, P. Filloux, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Multiphoton absorption in organic dye solutions," Opt. Mater. 9, 347-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elim, H. I.

H. I. Elim, S. H. Jeon, S. Verma, W. Ji, L. S. Tan, A. Urbas, and L. Y. Chiang, "Nonlinear optical transmission properties of C60 dyads consisting of a light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9561-9564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fakis, M.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Falcão-Filho, E. L.

Fang, H.

X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Filloux, P.

S. Delysse, P. Filloux, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Multiphoton absorption in organic dye solutions," Opt. Mater. 9, 347-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

S. Delysse, P. Filloux, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Multiphoton absorption in organic dye solutions," Opt. Mater. 9, 347-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fleitz, P. A.

Fostiropoulos, K.

A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. A. Ganeev, V. I. Redkorechev, T. Usmanov, G. Priebe, and K. Fostiropoulos, "Competition of third- and fifth-order non-linear optical processes in C60 thin film," Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. 13, 131-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fun, H. K.

M. M. Rosli, P. S. Patil, H. K. Fun, I. A. Razak, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "1-(4-Nitrophenyl)-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 62, o4228-o4230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R. A.

A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. A. Ganeev, V. I. Redkorechev, T. Usmanov, G. Priebe, and K. Fostiropoulos, "Competition of third- and fifth-order non-linear optical processes in C60 thin film," Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. 13, 131-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giannetas, V.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, Y. Sun, and W. Ji, "Two-photon-induced excited-state nonlinearities," Opt. Express 16, 17745-17751 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, and X. Q. Huang, "Analytical expression for femtosecond-pulsed z scans on instantaneous nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1187-1192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, "Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications," Chem. Rev. 108, 1245-1330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, J.

Heinrichs, J.

Holla, B. S.

A. J. Kiran, A. Mithun, B. S. Holla, H. D. Shashikala, G. Umesh, and K. Chandrasekharan, "Nonlinear optical studies of 1-3-diaryl-propenones containing 4-methylthiophenyl moieties," Opt. Commun. 269, 235-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, B.

Huang, X. Q.

Jeon, S. H.

H. I. Elim, S. H. Jeon, S. Verma, W. Ji, L. S. Tan, A. Urbas, and L. Y. Chiang, "Nonlinear optical transmission properties of C60 dyads consisting of a light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9561-9564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ji, W.

B. Gu, W. Ji, and X. Q. Huang, "Analytical expression for femtosecond-pulsed z scans on instantaneous nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1187-1192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, Y. Sun, and W. Ji, "Two-photon-induced excited-state nonlinearities," Opt. Express 16, 17745-17751 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. I. Elim, S. H. Jeon, S. Verma, W. Ji, L. S. Tan, A. Urbas, and L. Y. Chiang, "Nonlinear optical transmission properties of C60 dyads consisting of a light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9561-9564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. He, Y. Qu, H. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, "Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals," Opt. Express 13, 9235-9247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

K. S. Bindra and A. K. Kar, "Role of femtosecond pulses in distinguishing third- and fifth-order nonlinearity for semiconductor-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3761-3763 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. G.

Kiran, A. J.

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kiran, A. Mithun, B. S. Holla, H. D. Shashikala, G. Umesh, and K. Chandrasekharan, "Nonlinear optical studies of 1-3-diaryl-propenones containing 4-methylthiophenyl moieties," Opt. Commun. 269, 235-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiran, P. P.

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G. R.

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, C. H.

Lee, Y. L.

Li, D.

C. Zhan, D. Zhang, D. Zhu, D. Wang, Y. Li, D. Li, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, and Y. Nie, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in a new stilbazolium derivative," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 369-375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, Y.

C. Zhan, D. Zhang, D. Zhu, D. Wang, Y. Li, D. Li, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, and Y. Nie, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in a new stilbazolium derivative," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 369-375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

C. Zhan, D. Zhang, D. Zhu, D. Wang, Y. Li, D. Li, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, and Y. Nie, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in a new stilbazolium derivative," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 369-375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maiya, B. G.

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McLean, D. G.

Mi, J.

Mikroyannidis, J.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mithun, A.

A. J. Kiran, A. Mithun, B. S. Holla, H. D. Shashikala, G. Umesh, and K. Chandrasekharan, "Nonlinear optical studies of 1-3-diaryl-propenones containing 4-methylthiophenyl moieties," Opt. Commun. 269, 235-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morita, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Naveen, S.

V. Shettigar, P. S. Patil, S. Naveen, S. M. Dharmaprakash, M. A. Sridhar, and J. S. Prasad, "Crystal growth and characterization of new nonlinear optical chalcone derivative: 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one," J. Cryst. Growth 295, 44-49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nie, Y.

C. Zhan, D. Zhang, D. Zhu, D. Wang, Y. Li, D. Li, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, and Y. Nie, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in a new stilbazolium derivative," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 369-375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J. M.

S. Delysse, P. Filloux, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Multiphoton absorption in organic dye solutions," Opt. Mater. 9, 347-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Patil, P. S.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Patil and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Crystal growth of 2,4,5-Trimethoxy-4_-chlorochalcone and its characterization," Mater. Lett. 62, 451-453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Rosli, P. S. Patil, H. K. Fun, I. A. Razak, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "1-(4-Nitrophenyl)-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 62, o4228-o4230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Shettigar, P. S. Patil, S. Naveen, S. M. Dharmaprakash, M. A. Sridhar, and J. S. Prasad, "Crystal growth and characterization of new nonlinear optical chalcone derivative: 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one," J. Cryst. Growth 295, 44-49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Persphonis, P.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Philip, R.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polyzos, I.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pradeep, T.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, J. S.

V. Shettigar, P. S. Patil, S. Naveen, S. M. Dharmaprakash, M. A. Sridhar, and J. S. Prasad, "Crystal growth and characterization of new nonlinear optical chalcone derivative: 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one," J. Cryst. Growth 295, 44-49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, "Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications," Chem. Rev. 108, 1245-1330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, "A systematic study of polarizability and microscopic third-order optical nonlinearity in thiophene oligomers," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5535-5541 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Priebe, G.

A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. A. Ganeev, V. I. Redkorechev, T. Usmanov, G. Priebe, and K. Fostiropoulos, "Competition of third- and fifth-order non-linear optical processes in C60 thin film," Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. 13, 131-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qu, Y.

Rao, D. N.

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ravindra, H. J.

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Razak, I. A.

M. M. Rosli, P. S. Patil, H. K. Fun, I. A. Razak, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "1-(4-Nitrophenyl)-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 62, o4228-o4230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, D. R.

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Redkorechev, V. I.

A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. A. Ganeev, V. I. Redkorechev, T. Usmanov, G. Priebe, and K. Fostiropoulos, "Competition of third- and fifth-order non-linear optical processes in C60 thin film," Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. 13, 131-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roderer, P.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rosli, M. M.

M. M. Rosli, P. S. Patil, H. K. Fun, I. A. Razak, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "1-(4-Nitrophenyl)-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 62, o4228-o4230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyansky, A. I.

A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. A. Ganeev, V. I. Redkorechev, T. Usmanov, G. Priebe, and K. Fostiropoulos, "Competition of third- and fifth-order non-linear optical processes in C60 thin film," Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. 13, 131-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, A.

Samoc, M.

Scherf, U.

Shashikala, H. D.

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kiran, A. Mithun, B. S. Holla, H. D. Shashikala, G. Umesh, and K. Chandrasekharan, "Nonlinear optical studies of 1-3-diaryl-propenones containing 4-methylthiophenyl moieties," Opt. Commun. 269, 235-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shettigar, V.

V. Shettigar, P. S. Patil, S. Naveen, S. M. Dharmaprakash, M. A. Sridhar, and J. S. Prasad, "Crystal growth and characterization of new nonlinear optical chalcone derivative: 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one," J. Cryst. Growth 295, 44-49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B. P.

M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, "A systematic study of polarizability and microscopic third-order optical nonlinearity in thiophene oligomers," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5535-5541 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Slagle, J. E.

Spiliopoulos, I.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sridhar, M. A.

V. Shettigar, P. S. Patil, S. Naveen, S. M. Dharmaprakash, M. A. Sridhar, and J. S. Prasad, "Crystal growth and characterization of new nonlinear optical chalcone derivative: 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one," J. Cryst. Growth 295, 44-49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Sutherland, R. L.

Suzuki, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L. S.

H. I. Elim, S. H. Jeon, S. Verma, W. Ji, L. S. Tan, A. Urbas, and L. Y. Chiang, "Nonlinear optical transmission properties of C60 dyads consisting of a light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9561-9564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, "Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications," Chem. Rev. 108, 1245-1330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S.

X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsigaridas, G.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Turu, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Umesh, G.

A. J. Kiran, A. Mithun, B. S. Holla, H. D. Shashikala, G. Umesh, and K. Chandrasekharan, "Nonlinear optical studies of 1-3-diaryl-propenones containing 4-methylthiophenyl moieties," Opt. Commun. 269, 235-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Urbas, A.

H. I. Elim, S. H. Jeon, S. Verma, W. Ji, L. S. Tan, A. Urbas, and L. Y. Chiang, "Nonlinear optical transmission properties of C60 dyads consisting of a light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9561-9564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usmanov, T.

A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. A. Ganeev, V. I. Redkorechev, T. Usmanov, G. Priebe, and K. Fostiropoulos, "Competition of third- and fifth-order non-linear optical processes in C60 thin film," Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. 13, 131-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E.W.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Verma, S.

H. I. Elim, S. H. Jeon, S. Verma, W. Ji, L. S. Tan, A. Urbas, and L. Y. Chiang, "Nonlinear optical transmission properties of C60 dyads consisting of a light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9561-9564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wamsley, C.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

C. Zhan, D. Zhang, D. Zhu, D. Wang, Y. Li, D. Li, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, and Y. Nie, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in a new stilbazolium derivative," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 369-375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wei, T. H.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

Yu, L.

Zhan, C.

C. Zhan, D. Zhang, D. Zhu, D. Wang, Y. Li, D. Li, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, and Y. Nie, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in a new stilbazolium derivative," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 369-375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

C. Zhan, D. Zhang, D. Zhu, D. Wang, Y. Li, D. Li, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, and Y. Nie, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in a new stilbazolium derivative," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 369-375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

C. Zhan, D. Zhang, D. Zhu, D. Wang, Y. Li, D. Li, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, and Y. Nie, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in a new stilbazolium derivative," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 369-375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, M. T.

M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, "A systematic study of polarizability and microscopic third-order optical nonlinearity in thiophene oligomers," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5535-5541 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Q.

G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, "Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications," Chem. Rev. 108, 1245-1330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, D.

C. Zhan, D. Zhang, D. Zhu, D. Wang, Y. Li, D. Li, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, and Y. Nie, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in a new stilbazolium derivative," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 369-375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online (1)

M. M. Rosli, P. S. Patil, H. K. Fun, I. A. Razak, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "1-(4-Nitrophenyl)-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 62, o4228-o4230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. S. Bindra and A. K. Kar, "Role of femtosecond pulses in distinguishing third- and fifth-order nonlinearity for semiconductor-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3761-3763 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhan, D. Li, D. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Xu, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "The high fifth-order nonlinearity in a new stilbazolium derivative: trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 347, 410-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, "Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications," Chem. Rev. 108, 1245-1330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. (1)

A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. A. Ganeev, V. I. Redkorechev, T. Usmanov, G. Priebe, and K. Fostiropoulos, "Competition of third- and fifth-order non-linear optical processes in C60 thin film," Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. 13, 131-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh, and P. N. Prasad, "A systematic study of polarizability and microscopic third-order optical nonlinearity in thiophene oligomers," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5535-5541 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

V. Shettigar, P. S. Patil, S. Naveen, S. M. Dharmaprakash, M. A. Sridhar, and J. S. Prasad, "Crystal growth and characterization of new nonlinear optical chalcone derivative: 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one," J. Cryst. Growth 295, 44-49 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

H. I. Elim, S. H. Jeon, S. Verma, W. Ji, L. S. Tan, A. Urbas, and L. Y. Chiang, "Nonlinear optical transmission properties of C60 dyads consisting of a light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9561-9564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Lett. (1)

P. S. Patil and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Crystal growth of 2,4,5-Trimethoxy-4_-chlorochalcone and its characterization," Mater. Lett. 62, 451-453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. J. Kiran, A. Mithun, B. S. Holla, H. D. Shashikala, G. Umesh, and K. Chandrasekharan, "Nonlinear optical studies of 1-3-diaryl-propenones containing 4-methylthiophenyl moieties," Opt. Commun. 269, 235-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Delysse, P. Filloux, V. Dumarcher, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Multiphoton absorption in organic dye solutions," Opt. Mater. 9, 347-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. L. Sutherland with contributions by D. G. McLean and S. Kikpatrick, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, second ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003), pg. 581.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Linear absorption spectra of neat acetone (dotted line) and 2,4,5TN in acetone with a concentration of 5 × 10-4 M (solid line). Inset is its molecular structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Open-aperture (filled circles) and closed-aperture (open circles) Z-scans for 2,4,5TN in acetone with a concentration of 2 × 10-2 M at I 0 = 96.5 GW/cm2. The solid lines are the theoretical curves with α 2 = 2.25 × 10-2 cm/GW and n 2 = 1.36 × 10-6 cm2/GW. Insert is Ln(1 − T) as a function of Ln(I) by converting the open-aperture Z-scan trace with the linear fit of a slope S = 1.04.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Open-aperture (filled circles) and closed-aperture (open circles) Z-scans for 2,4,5TN in acetone with a concentration of 2 × 10-2 M at the intensities of (a) 145 and (b) 160 GW/cm2, respectively. The solid lines are the theoretical curves with α 2 = 2.25 × 10-2 cm/GW, n 2 = 1.36×10-6 cm2/GW,α 3 = 1.30×10-4 cm3/GW2, and n 4 = -0.80×10-8 cm4/GW2; while the dashed lines are the theoretical curves calculated by neglecting fifth-order nonlinearities (α 3 = 0 and n 4 = 0).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Open-aperture (filled circles) and closed-aperture (open circles) Z-scans for 2,4,5TN in acetone with a concentration of 2×10-2 M at I 0 = 227 GW/cm2. The solid lines are the Z-scan traces simulated by the same parameters as Fig. 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Intensity dependence of nominal nonlinear absorption coefficient α nom (filled circles) and nominal nonlinear refraction index n nom (open circles), respectively. The error bar is 10% and it is estimated by calibration of the Z-scan measurement system with the use of carbon disulfide as standard sample. The solid lines are for guidance to the eyes.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalized transient transmission signals are obtained by dividing the experimental data for 2,4,5TN in acetone with a concentration of 2 × 10-2 M by respective data for neat acetone. The curves are shifted vertically for clear presentation. Filled circles and open circles are the experimental results at the bump-beam intensities of 138 and 215 GW/cm2, respectively; while the solid lines are the best fits using a two-exponential-component model with τ 1 ~ 200 fs and τ 2 ~ 2.5 ps. Insert shows a three-level diagram of 2PA-induced excited-state nonlinearities.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured linear absorption peak wavelength (λ abs), 2PA coefficient (α 2), fifth-order nonlinear absorption coefficient (α 3), third-order nonlinear refraction index (n 2), fifth-order nonlinear refraction index (n 4), and critical intensity (I c) for 2,4,5TN in acetone solution with a concentration of 2 × 10-2 M at 780 nm (experimental uncertainty: ±10%).

Tables Icon

Table 2. Molecular intrinsic 2PA cross-section (σ 2 PA), second-order hyperpolarizability (γ R), ESA cross-section (σ a), ESR cross-section (σ r), 2PA-induced excited-state lifetime (σ e), and critical population of the excited states (N c) for 2,4,5TN at 780 nm (experimental uncertainty: ±10%).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α3=σaα22ħω3πτ +exp(t2τ2){texp(2t2τ2)exp(ttτe)dt}dt ,
n4=σrα22ħω3πτ +exp(t2τ2){texp(2t2τ2)exp(ttτe)dt}dt .

Metrics