Abstract

Asymmetric Split Ring Resonators are known to exhibit resonant modes where the optical electric field is strongest near the ends of the arms, thereby increasing the sensitivity of spectral techniques such as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). By producing asymmetry in the structures, the two arms of the ring produce distinct plasmonic resonances related to their lengths – but are also affected by the presence of the other arm. This combination leads to a steepening of the slope of the reflection spectrum between the resonances that increases the sensitivity of the resonant behavior to the addition of different molecular species. We describe experimental results, supported by simulation, on the resonances of a series of circular split ring resonators with different gap and section lengths – at wavelengths in the mid-infra red regions of the spectrum - and their utilization for highly sensitive detection of organic compounds. We have used thin films of PMMA with different thicknesses, resulting in characteristic shifts from the original resonance. We also demonstrate matching of asymmetric split ring resonators to a molecular resonance of PMMA.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, "Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett.  91, 184102-1 - 184102-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, "Terahertz biosensors based on double split ring arrays," Proc. SPIE. 6987, 6987(OU-1-8) (2008).
  3. V. A. Fedetov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, "Sharp Trapped-Mode Resonances in Planar Metamaterials with a Broken Structural Symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401-1-4 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G.V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, " Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition," Nat. Maters. 7, 543 - 546 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, " Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 -4051 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Aizpurua, T. Taubner, F. J. Garcia de Abjo, M. Brehm, and R. Hillenbrand," Substrate-enhanced infrared near-field spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16, 1529-1545 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T.W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. Garcia-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, "Resonant Plasmonic and Vibrational Coupling in a Tailored Nanoantenna for Infrared Detection," Phys. Rev. Lett.  101, 157403-1-4 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-280 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Nagel and H. Kurz, "Corrugated waveguide based genomic biochip for marker-free THz read-out," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 517-529 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, and K. Kawase, "Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh," Appl. Phys. Lett.  91, 253901-1-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Nagel, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Modular parallel-plate THz components for cost-efficient biosensing systems," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S281-S285 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing Characteristics of NIR Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances in Gold Nanorings for Application as Ultrasensitive Biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256-1263 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. H. Williams and I. Fleming, Spectroscopic methods in Organic Chemistry (McGraw Hill Publications, 2nd Edition, 1973), Chap. 2.
  14. A. Balamurugan, S. Kannan, V. Selvaraj, and S. Rajeswari, "Development and Spectral Characterization of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) /Hydroxyapatite Composite for Biomedical Applications," Trends Biomater., Artif. Organs 18, 41-45 (2004).

2008 (2)

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G.V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, " Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition," Nat. Maters. 7, 543 - 546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, T. Taubner, F. J. Garcia de Abjo, M. Brehm, and R. Hillenbrand," Substrate-enhanced infrared near-field spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16, 1529-1545 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing Characteristics of NIR Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances in Gold Nanorings for Application as Ultrasensitive Biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256-1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Nagel and H. Kurz, "Corrugated waveguide based genomic biochip for marker-free THz read-out," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 517-529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Nagel, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Modular parallel-plate THz components for cost-efficient biosensing systems," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S281-S285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Balamurugan, S. Kannan, V. Selvaraj, and S. Rajeswari, "Development and Spectral Characterization of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) /Hydroxyapatite Composite for Biomedical Applications," Trends Biomater., Artif. Organs 18, 41-45 (2004).

2000 (1)

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, " Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 -4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

Alegret, J.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing Characteristics of NIR Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances in Gold Nanorings for Application as Ultrasensitive Biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256-1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balamurugan, A.

A. Balamurugan, S. Kannan, V. Selvaraj, and S. Rajeswari, "Development and Spectral Characterization of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) /Hydroxyapatite Composite for Biomedical Applications," Trends Biomater., Artif. Organs 18, 41-45 (2004).

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P.

M. Nagel, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Modular parallel-plate THz components for cost-efficient biosensing systems," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S281-S285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, " Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 -4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bosserhoff, A.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, " Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 -4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, M.

Brucherseifer, M.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, " Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 -4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Büttner, R.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, " Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 -4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freymann, G.V.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G.V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, " Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition," Nat. Maters. 7, 543 - 546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia de Abjo, F. J.

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kä, M.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing Characteristics of NIR Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances in Gold Nanorings for Application as Ultrasensitive Biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256-1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kannan, S.

A. Balamurugan, S. Kannan, V. Selvaraj, and S. Rajeswari, "Development and Spectral Characterization of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) /Hydroxyapatite Composite for Biomedical Applications," Trends Biomater., Artif. Organs 18, 41-45 (2004).

Kurz, H.

M. Nagel and H. Kurz, "Corrugated waveguide based genomic biochip for marker-free THz read-out," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 517-529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Modular parallel-plate THz components for cost-efficient biosensing systems," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S281-S285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, " Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 -4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, E. M.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing Characteristics of NIR Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances in Gold Nanorings for Application as Ultrasensitive Biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256-1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G.V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, " Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition," Nat. Maters. 7, 543 - 546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagel, M.

M. Nagel and H. Kurz, "Corrugated waveguide based genomic biochip for marker-free THz read-out," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 517-529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Modular parallel-plate THz components for cost-efficient biosensing systems," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S281-S285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, " Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 -4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Plet, C.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G.V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, " Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition," Nat. Maters. 7, 543 - 546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeswari, S.

A. Balamurugan, S. Kannan, V. Selvaraj, and S. Rajeswari, "Development and Spectral Characterization of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) /Hydroxyapatite Composite for Biomedical Applications," Trends Biomater., Artif. Organs 18, 41-45 (2004).

Rill, M. S.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G.V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, " Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition," Nat. Maters. 7, 543 - 546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraj, V.

A. Balamurugan, S. Kannan, V. Selvaraj, and S. Rajeswari, "Development and Spectral Characterization of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) /Hydroxyapatite Composite for Biomedical Applications," Trends Biomater., Artif. Organs 18, 41-45 (2004).

Staude, I.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G.V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, " Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition," Nat. Maters. 7, 543 - 546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taubner, T.

Thiel, M.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G.V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, " Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition," Nat. Maters. 7, 543 - 546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G.V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, " Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition," Nat. Maters. 7, 543 - 546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, " Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 -4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Artif. Organs (1)

A. Balamurugan, S. Kannan, V. Selvaraj, and S. Rajeswari, "Development and Spectral Characterization of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) /Hydroxyapatite Composite for Biomedical Applications," Trends Biomater., Artif. Organs 18, 41-45 (2004).

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

M. Nagel and H. Kurz, "Corrugated waveguide based genomic biochip for marker-free THz read-out," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 517-529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing Characteristics of NIR Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances in Gold Nanorings for Application as Ultrasensitive Biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256-1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Maters. (1)

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G.V. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, " Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition," Nat. Maters. 7, 543 - 546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Modular parallel-plate THz components for cost-efficient biosensing systems," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S281-S285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D. H. Williams and I. Fleming, Spectroscopic methods in Organic Chemistry (McGraw Hill Publications, 2nd Edition, 1973), Chap. 2.

H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, and K. Kawase, "Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh," Appl. Phys. Lett.  91, 253901-1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T.W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. Garcia-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, "Resonant Plasmonic and Vibrational Coupling in a Tailored Nanoantenna for Infrared Detection," Phys. Rev. Lett.  101, 157403-1-4 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, "Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett.  91, 184102-1 - 184102-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, "Terahertz biosensors based on double split ring arrays," Proc. SPIE. 6987, 6987(OU-1-8) (2008).

V. A. Fedetov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, "Sharp Trapped-Mode Resonances in Planar Metamaterials with a Broken Structural Symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401-1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM micrograph of A-SRRs with diameter 1.2 μm and 100 nm strip width.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A single unit cell with optimized dimensions, showing the orientation of the E-field parallel to the Y axis. Measurements have been carried out at normal incidence.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Table showing the reflectance spectra of the different SRR patterns. The first column shows SEM images of the (a) S-SRR1 (θ~10°) (b) A-SRR1 (θ~15°) (c) A-SRR2 (θ°25°) (d) A-SRR3 (θ°35°) (e) A-SRR4 (θ~45°) (f) A-SRR5 (θ~55°) patterns. The second column of figures, with solid curves, shows the consequent experimental spectra – and the third column of figures, with dashed curves, show corresponding simulations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The experimental reflection spectrum of A-SRR2 plotted as a function of frequency. The trough obtained at 68 THz is similar to the trapped mode observed in the microwave frequency range in reference [3].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Electric field strength in the Y direction at different wavelengths corresponding to the peaks and troughs in the simulation of Fig. 3(c).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Table depicting the shift in the position of the resonance produced by loading the A-SRR array with a 100 nm thick layer of PMMA. The first row with solid lines depicts the experimental results. The second row, with dashed lines in the figures, depicts the corresponding simulations. The black curves show the original resonance without PMMA and the red curves show the resonance with 100nm of PMMA deposited on top.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Showing the shift in the position of the A-SRR2 longer wavelength resonance as a function of the thickness of the PMMA layer (solid line is a guide to the eye).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The increase in sensitivity of PMMA obtained by matching the resonances. The black curve shows the original resonance without the PMMA - and the red curve shows the resonance with 100nm of PMMA deposited on top.

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