Abstract

This work is devoted to present and to demonstrate a novel approach for the fabrication of micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings (MSFBGs) to be employed as technological platform for advanced opto-chemical sensors. Basically, the MSFBG consists in a localized SRI sensitization of the grating by deep cladding stripping. The introduction of a perturbation or defect along the grating leads to the formation of a defect state inside the FBG spectral response that is tunable through the surrounding medium refractive index. While its spectral features for sensing and communication applications have been widely described and commented elsewhere, here a simple fabrication procedure is presented as suitable technological assessment enabling cost effective and simple MSFBG production. It relies on a two steps technique based on arc-discharge procedure as fiber pre-treatment and mask-less wet chemical etching to locally sensitize the FBG to external refractive index. The new, simple and low-cost approach overcomes some technological drawbacks related to previous fabrication techniques adopting patterned masking procedures during the etching process. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method reporting a detailed description of single and two defects MSFBG fabrication.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  28. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).
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  30. M. Pisco, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Structured Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1613-1625 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, D. Paladino, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings: optimization of the fabrication process," Opt. Express 15, 15011-15021 (2007).
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  33. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, "Photonic band-gap engineering in UV fiber gratings by the arc discharge technique," Opt. Express 16, 15332-15342 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (6)

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, D. Paladino, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings: optimization of the fabrication process," Opt. Express 15, 15011-15021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhou, Y. Lai, X. Chen, K. Sugden, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "A refractometer based on a micro-slot in a fiber Bragg grating formed by chemically assisted femtosecond laser processing," Opt. Express 15, 15848-15853 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Shevchenko, J. Albert, "Plasmon resonances in gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 32, 211-213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yun, N. Chen, Y. Cui, "Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on etched fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1747-1749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part I: Spectral characteristics," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 281-290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, M. Dagenais, "Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 178-180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, Y. Hyunmin, W. E. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano "Microstructured fiber Bragg Gratings: analysis and fabrication," Electron. Lett. 41, 466-468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Refractive index sensor based on micro-structured fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, "Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors," J. Opt. A 7, 734-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. N. Ng, Z. Chen, K. S. Chiang, "Temperature compensation of long-period fiber grating for refractive-index sensing with bending effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 361-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fiber-bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, "A fibre Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "Fiber optical Bragg grating refractometer," Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51-62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Patrick, A. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. Wei, J. W. Y. Lit, "Phase shifted Bragg grating filters with symmetrical structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1405-1410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Uttamchandani, A. Othonos, "Phase shifted Bragg gratings formed in optical fibres by post-fabrication thermal processing," Opt. Commun. 127, 200-204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. Zengerle, O. Leminger, "Phase shifted Bragg-grating filters with improved transmission characteristics," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2354-2358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ahlfeldt, H.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "Fiber optical Bragg grating refractometer," Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51-62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Andreev, A.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, "A fibre Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Asseh, A.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "Fiber optical Bragg grating refractometer," Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51-62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Bentley, W. E.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, Y. Hyunmin, W. E. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, F.

Campopiano, S.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, "Photonic band-gap engineering in UV fiber gratings by the arc discharge technique," Opt. Express 16, 15332-15342 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pisco, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Structured Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1613-1625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, D. Paladino, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings: optimization of the fabrication process," Opt. Express 15, 15011-15021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part I: Spectral characteristics," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 281-290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano "Microstructured fiber Bragg Gratings: analysis and fabrication," Electron. Lett. 41, 466-468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Refractive index sensor based on micro-structured fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, "Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors," J. Opt. A 7, 734-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

B. Yun, N. Chen, Y. Cui, "Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on etched fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1747-1749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chen, Z.

M. N. Ng, Z. Chen, K. S. Chiang, "Temperature compensation of long-period fiber grating for refractive-index sensing with bending effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 361-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

M. N. Ng, Z. Chen, K. S. Chiang, "Temperature compensation of long-period fiber grating for refractive-index sensing with bending effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 361-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chryssis, A. N.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, M. Dagenais, "Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 178-180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, Y. Hyunmin, W. E. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Contessa, L.

Cui, Y.

B. Yun, N. Chen, Y. Cui, "Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on etched fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1747-1749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, "Photonic band-gap engineering in UV fiber gratings by the arc discharge technique," Opt. Express 16, 15332-15342 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pisco, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Structured Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1613-1625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, D. Paladino, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings: optimization of the fabrication process," Opt. Express 15, 15011-15021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part I: Spectral characteristics," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 281-290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano "Microstructured fiber Bragg Gratings: analysis and fabrication," Electron. Lett. 41, 466-468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Refractive index sensor based on micro-structured fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, "Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors," J. Opt. A 7, 734-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

M. Pisco, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Structured Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1613-1625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, "Photonic band-gap engineering in UV fiber gratings by the arc discharge technique," Opt. Express 16, 15332-15342 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, D. Paladino, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings: optimization of the fabrication process," Opt. Express 15, 15011-15021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part I: Spectral characteristics," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 281-290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Refractive index sensor based on micro-structured fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano "Microstructured fiber Bragg Gratings: analysis and fabrication," Electron. Lett. 41, 466-468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, "Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors," J. Opt. A 7, 734-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, M. Dagenais, "Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 178-180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, Y. Hyunmin, W. E. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ecke, W.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, "A fibre Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Edwall, G.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "Fiber optical Bragg grating refractometer," Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51-62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferdinand, P.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fiber-bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part I: Spectral characteristics," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 281-290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano "Microstructured fiber Bragg Gratings: analysis and fabrication," Electron. Lett. 41, 466-468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Refractive index sensor based on micro-structured fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, "Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors," J. Opt. A 7, 734-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hyunmin, Y.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, Y. Hyunmin, W. E. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

M. Pisco, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Structured Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1613-1625 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, "Photonic band-gap engineering in UV fiber gratings by the arc discharge technique," Opt. Express 16, 15332-15342 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, D. Paladino, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings: optimization of the fabrication process," Opt. Express 15, 15011-15021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part I: Spectral characteristics," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 281-290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Refractive index sensor based on micro-structured fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano "Microstructured fiber Bragg Gratings: analysis and fabrication," Electron. Lett. 41, 466-468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, "Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors," J. Opt. A 7, 734-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A.

Laffont, G.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fiber-bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

Lee, S. B.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, M. Dagenais, "Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 178-180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, Y. Hyunmin, W. E. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leminger, O.

R. Zengerle, O. Leminger, "Phase shifted Bragg-grating filters with improved transmission characteristics," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2354-2358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lit, J. W. Y.

L. Wei, J. W. Y. Lit, "Phase shifted Bragg grating filters with symmetrical structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1405-1410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, "A fibre Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M. N.

M. N. Ng, Z. Chen, K. S. Chiang, "Temperature compensation of long-period fiber grating for refractive-index sensing with bending effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 361-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

D. Uttamchandani, A. Othonos, "Phase shifted Bragg gratings formed in optical fibres by post-fabrication thermal processing," Opt. Commun. 127, 200-204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paladino, D.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, "Photonic band-gap engineering in UV fiber gratings by the arc discharge technique," Opt. Express 16, 15332-15342 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, D. Paladino, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings: optimization of the fabrication process," Opt. Express 15, 15011-15021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part I: Spectral characteristics," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 281-290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H.

Pilla, P.

Pisco, M.

Sahlgren, B.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "Fiber optical Bragg grating refractometer," Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51-62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saini, S. S.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, M. Dagenais, "Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 178-180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, Y. Hyunmin, W. E. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sandgren, S.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "Fiber optical Bragg grating refractometer," Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51-62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, K.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, "A fibre Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shevchenko, Y. Y.

Shu, X.

Stubbe, R.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "Fiber optical Bragg grating refractometer," Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51-62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sugden, K.

Uttamchandani, D.

D. Uttamchandani, A. Othonos, "Phase shifted Bragg gratings formed in optical fibres by post-fabrication thermal processing," Opt. Commun. 127, 200-204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

L. Wei, J. W. Y. Lit, "Phase shifted Bragg grating filters with symmetrical structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1405-1410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willsch, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, "A fibre Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yun, B.

B. Yun, N. Chen, Y. Cui, "Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on etched fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1747-1749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zengerle, R.

R. Zengerle, O. Leminger, "Phase shifted Bragg-grating filters with improved transmission characteristics," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2354-2358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhou, K.

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano "Microstructured fiber Bragg Gratings: analysis and fabrication," Electron. Lett. 41, 466-468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "Fiber optical Bragg grating refractometer," Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51-62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, Y. Hyunmin, W. E. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

B. Yun, N. Chen, Y. Cui, "Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on etched fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1747-1749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, M. Dagenais, "Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 178-180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Refractive index sensor based on micro-structured fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Ng, Z. Chen, K. S. Chiang, "Temperature compensation of long-period fiber grating for refractive-index sensing with bending effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 361-362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Opt. A (1)

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, "Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors," J. Opt. A 7, 734-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, "A fibre Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fiber-bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Uttamchandani, A. Othonos, "Phase shifted Bragg gratings formed in optical fibres by post-fabrication thermal processing," Opt. Commun. 127, 200-204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part I: Spectral characteristics," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 281-290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, D. Paladino, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Towards advanced photonic devices," Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 291-301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (9)

G. Meltz, S. J. Hewlett, J. D. Love, "Fiber grating evanescent-wave sensors," Proc. SPIE 2836, Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, 1996.
[CrossRef]

K. Usbeck, W. Ecke, A. Andreev, V. Hagemann, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, "Distributed optochemical sensor network using evanescent field interaction in fiber Bragg gratings," Proc. SPIE 3483, First European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, 1998.
[CrossRef]

R. Willsch, W. Ecke, G. Schwotzer, H. Bartelt, "Nanostructure-based optical fibre sensor systems and examples of their application," Proc. SPIE 6585, International Congress on Optics and Optoelectronics, 2007.
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, G. V. Persiano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, "Refractive index measurements by fiber Bragg grating sensor," Proc. IEEE Sensors Conference 1, Toronto - Canada, 2003.

L. Zhang, W. Zhang, I. Bennion, "In-fiber grating optic sensors" in Fiber Optics Sensors, (New York: Dekker, 2002) Chap. 4.

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing, (Boston, Artech House, 1999).

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, (San Diego: Academic Press, 1999).

A. Mendez, "Fiber Bragg grating sensors: a market overview," Proceedings of SPIE 6619, Third European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, 2007.
[CrossRef]

M. Pisco, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Micro-structured chirped fiber Bragg gratings: towards new spatial encoded fiber optic sensors," Proceedings of SPIE 6619, Third European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, 2007.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic diagram (not in scale) of the EAD setup; (b). Locally tapered FBG (not in scale); (c). Schematic diagram (not in scale) of the FBG arrangement for the etching procedure; (d). FBG after uniform HF based wet chemical etching (not in scale).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Optical photograph of the FBG region tapered by EAD; (b). Comparison between unperturbed and tapered FBG spectra.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

FBG spectral evolution during the etching process.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Optical photograph of the MSFBG perturbation; (b). Comparison between unperturbed FBG and MSFBG spectra in air.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

MSFBG dependence on the SRI: (a) Spectral response for different SRIs; (b) Defect state wavelength shift versus the SRI.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical photograph of the EAD-treated grating at 3 mm and 4 mm from the interrogation end.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

FBG spectral evolution during the EAD operations.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Optical photograph of the etched device. It focuses on defects at 3 mm and 4 mm from the interrogation end.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison between unperturbed FBG and multi-defect MSFBG spectra in air

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Defect states wavelength shift versus the SRI of right (a) and left (b) defect state.

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