Abstract

In this paper, we detect and characterize the carbon contamination layers that are formed during the illumination of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) multilayer mirrors. The EUV induced carbon layers were characterized ex situ using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and laser generated surface acoustic waves (LG-SAW). We show that both LG-SAW and SE are very sensitive for measuring carbon layers, even in the presence of the highly heterogeneous structure of the multilayer. SE has better overall sensitivity, with a detection limit of 0.2 nm, while LG-SAW has an estimated detection limit of 2 nm. In addition, SE reveals that the optical properties of the EUV induced carbon contamination layer are consistent with the presence of a hydrogenated, polymeric like carbon. On the other hand, LG-SAW reveals that the EUV induced carbon contamination layer has a low Young’s modulus (<100 GPa), which means that the layer is mechanically soft. We compare the limits of detection and quantification of the two techniques and discuss their prospective for monitoring carbon contamination build up on EUV optics.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. L. Windt, “IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360–370 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Kyriakou, D. J. Davis, R. B. Grant, D. J. Watson, A. Keen, M. S. Tikhov, and R. M. Lambert, “Electron impact-assisted carbon film growth on Ru(0001): Implications for next-generation EUV lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(12), 4491–4494 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  15. D. Schneider, T. Schwarz, A. S. Bradford, Q. Shan, and R. J. Dewhurst, “Controlling the quality of thin films by surface acoustic waves,” Ultrasonics 35(5), 345–356 (1997).
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  17. K. Bergmann, O. Rosier, R. Lebert, W. Neff, and R. Poprawe, “A multi-kilohertz pinch plasma radiation source for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–8, 71–77 (2001).
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  20. G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Erratum: Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2137–2137 (1996).
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  21. J. Hong, A. Goullet, and G. Turban, “Ellipsometry and Raman study on hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C: H) films deposited in a dual ECR-r.f. plasma,” Thin Solid Films 352(1-2), 41–48 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Logothetidis, M. Gioti, S. Lousinian, and S. Fotiadou, “Haemocompatibility studies on carbon-based thin films by ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 482(1-2), 126–132 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Budai and Z. Toth, “Optical phase diagram of amorphous carbon films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Status Solidi, C 5(5), 1223–1226 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Gioti and S. Logothetidis, “Dielectric function, electronic properties and optical constants of amorphous carbon and carbon nitride films,” Diamond Related Materials 12(3-7), 957–962 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Tanguy, “Optical dispersion by Wannier excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 4090–4093 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C. Tanguy, “Erratum: Optical dispersion by Wannier excitons (vol 75, pg 4090, 1995),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(4), 716–716 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. Tanguy, “Analytical expression of the complex dielectric function for the Hulthen potential,” Phys. Rev. B 60(15), 10660–10663 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Tanguy, “Refractive index of direct bandgap semiconductors near the absorption threshold: Influence of excitonic effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(10), 1746–1751 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. J. Voorma, E. Louis, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, and E. Spiller, “Characterization of multilayers by Fourier analysis of x-ray reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6112–6119 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Chen, C. J. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Related Materials 18(5-8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Budai and Z. Toth, “Optical phase diagram of amorphous carbon films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Status Solidi, C 5(5), 1223–1226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Kyriakou, D. J. Davis, R. B. Grant, D. J. Watson, A. Keen, M. S. Tikhov, and R. M. Lambert, “Electron impact-assisted carbon film growth on Ru(0001): Implications for next-generation EUV lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(12), 4491–4494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Hollenshead and L. Klebanoff, “Modeling radiation-induced carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24(1), 64–82 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Logothetidis, M. Gioti, S. Lousinian, and S. Fotiadou, “Haemocompatibility studies on carbon-based thin films by ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 482(1-2), 126–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B. Johs, “General virtual interface algorithm for in situ spectroscopic ellipsometric data analysis,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 632–638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. A. Woollam, C. L. Bungay, L. Yan, D. W. Thompson, and J. N. Hilfiker, “Application of spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterization of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 393–404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Gioti and S. Logothetidis, “Dielectric function, electronic properties and optical constants of amorphous carbon and carbon nitride films,” Diamond Related Materials 12(3-7), 957–962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. J. Blaine, H. Jeff, J. I. Natale, M. H. Craig, E. T. Thomas, and A. W. John, “Recent developments in spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-situ applications,” Proc. SPIE 4449, 41–57 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergmann, O. Rosier, R. Lebert, W. Neff, and R. Poprawe, “A multi-kilohertz pinch plasma radiation source for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–8, 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

J. A. Roth, W. S. Williamson, D. H. Chow, G. L. Olson, and B. Johs, “Closed-loop control of resonant tunneling diode barrier thickness using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1439–1442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. Tanguy, “Analytical expression of the complex dielectric function for the Hulthen potential,” Phys. Rev. B 60(15), 10660–10663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, A. Goullet, and G. Turban, “Ellipsometry and Raman study on hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C: H) films deposited in a dual ECR-r.f. plasma,” Thin Solid Films 352(1-2), 41–48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

D. Schneider and T. Schwarz, “A photoacoustic method for characterising thin films,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 91(1-2), 136–146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Schwarz, A. S. Bradford, Q. Shan, and R. J. Dewhurst, “Controlling the quality of thin films by surface acoustic waves,” Ultrasonics 35(5), 345–356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Voorma, E. Louis, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, and E. Spiller, “Characterization of multilayers by Fourier analysis of x-ray reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6112–6119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

C. Tanguy, “Erratum: Optical dispersion by Wannier excitons (vol 75, pg 4090, 1995),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(4), 716–716 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Tanguy, “Refractive index of direct bandgap semiconductors near the absorption threshold: Influence of excitonic effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(10), 1746–1751 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Erratum: Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2137–2137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. Tanguy, “Optical dispersion by Wannier excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 4090–4093 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

E. Louis, H. J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Y. Y. Platonov, G. E. Vandorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

K.-J. Boller, R.-P. Haelbich, H. Hogrefe, W. Jark, and C. Kunz, “Investigation of carbon contamination of mirror surfaces exposed to synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 208(1-3), 273–279 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Andrey, E. Y.

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

K. Bergmann, O. Rosier, R. Lebert, W. Neff, and R. Poprawe, “A multi-kilohertz pinch plasma radiation source for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–8, 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bernd, M.

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bijkerk, F.

J. Chen, C. J. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Related Materials 18(5-8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Voorma, E. Louis, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, and E. Spiller, “Characterization of multilayers by Fourier analysis of x-ray reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6112–6119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, H. J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Y. Y. Platonov, G. E. Vandorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blaine, D. J.

D. J. Blaine, H. Jeff, J. I. Natale, M. H. Craig, E. T. Thomas, and A. W. John, “Recent developments in spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-situ applications,” Proc. SPIE 4449, 41–57 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K.-J.

K.-J. Boller, R.-P. Haelbich, H. Hogrefe, W. Jark, and C. Kunz, “Investigation of carbon contamination of mirror surfaces exposed to synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 208(1-3), 273–279 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bradford, A. S.

D. Schneider, T. Schwarz, A. S. Bradford, Q. Shan, and R. J. Dewhurst, “Controlling the quality of thin films by surface acoustic waves,” Ultrasonics 35(5), 345–356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, G.

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Budai, J.

J. Budai and Z. Toth, “Optical phase diagram of amorphous carbon films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Status Solidi, C 5(5), 1223–1226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bungay, C. L.

J. A. Woollam, C. L. Bungay, L. Yan, D. W. Thompson, and J. N. Hilfiker, “Application of spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterization of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 393–404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, B.

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, C. J. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Related Materials 18(5-8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chow, D. H.

J. A. Roth, W. S. Williamson, D. H. Chow, G. L. Olson, and B. Johs, “Closed-loop control of resonant tunneling diode barrier thickness using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1439–1442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Craig, M. H.

D. J. Blaine, H. Jeff, J. I. Natale, M. H. Craig, E. T. Thomas, and A. W. John, “Recent developments in spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-situ applications,” Proc. SPIE 4449, 41–57 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. J.

G. Kyriakou, D. J. Davis, R. B. Grant, D. J. Watson, A. Keen, M. S. Tikhov, and R. M. Lambert, “Electron impact-assisted carbon film growth on Ru(0001): Implications for next-generation EUV lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(12), 4491–4494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Detlef, S.

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dewhurst, R. J.

D. Schneider, T. Schwarz, A. S. Bradford, Q. Shan, and R. J. Dewhurst, “Controlling the quality of thin films by surface acoustic waves,” Ultrasonics 35(5), 345–356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edward, L. G. M.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eric, L.

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fliegauf, R.

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fotiadou, S.

S. Logothetidis, M. Gioti, S. Lousinian, and S. Fotiadou, “Haemocompatibility studies on carbon-based thin films by ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 482(1-2), 126–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frank, S.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fred, B.

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerhard, U.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gioti, M.

S. Logothetidis, M. Gioti, S. Lousinian, and S. Fotiadou, “Haemocompatibility studies on carbon-based thin films by ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 482(1-2), 126–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Gioti and S. Logothetidis, “Dielectric function, electronic properties and optical constants of amorphous carbon and carbon nitride films,” Diamond Related Materials 12(3-7), 957–962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goerts, P. C.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gomei, Y.

S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gottwald, A.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goullet, A.

J. Hong, A. Goullet, and G. Turban, “Ellipsometry and Raman study on hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C: H) films deposited in a dual ECR-r.f. plasma,” Thin Solid Films 352(1-2), 41–48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R. B.

G. Kyriakou, D. J. Davis, R. B. Grant, D. J. Watson, A. Keen, M. S. Tikhov, and R. M. Lambert, “Electron impact-assisted carbon film growth on Ru(0001): Implications for next-generation EUV lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(12), 4491–4494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grigorovici, R.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Haelbich, R.-P.

K.-J. Boller, R.-P. Haelbich, H. Hogrefe, W. Jark, and C. Kunz, “Investigation of carbon contamination of mirror surfaces exposed to synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 208(1-3), 273–279 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hilfiker, J. N.

J. A. Woollam, C. L. Bungay, L. Yan, D. W. Thompson, and J. N. Hilfiker, “Application of spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterization of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 393–404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hogrefe, H.

K.-J. Boller, R.-P. Haelbich, H. Hogrefe, W. Jark, and C. Kunz, “Investigation of carbon contamination of mirror surfaces exposed to synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 208(1-3), 273–279 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hollenshead, J.

J. Hollenshead and L. Klebanoff, “Modeling radiation-induced carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24(1), 64–82 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

J. Hong, A. Goullet, and G. Turban, “Ellipsometry and Raman study on hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C: H) films deposited in a dual ECR-r.f. plasma,” Thin Solid Films 352(1-2), 41–48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, R.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

K.-J. Boller, R.-P. Haelbich, H. Hogrefe, W. Jark, and C. Kunz, “Investigation of carbon contamination of mirror surfaces exposed to synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 208(1-3), 273–279 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jeff, H.

D. J. Blaine, H. Jeff, J. I. Natale, M. H. Craig, E. T. Thomas, and A. W. John, “Recent developments in spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-situ applications,” Proc. SPIE 4449, 41–57 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Erratum: Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2137–2137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

John, A. W.

D. J. Blaine, H. Jeff, J. I. Natale, M. H. Craig, E. T. Thomas, and A. W. John, “Recent developments in spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-situ applications,” Proc. SPIE 4449, 41–57 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johs, B.

B. Johs, “General virtual interface algorithm for in situ spectroscopic ellipsometric data analysis,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 632–638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Roth, W. S. Williamson, D. H. Chow, G. L. Olson, and B. Johs, “Closed-loop control of resonant tunneling diode barrier thickness using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1439–1442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kakutani, Y.

S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keen, A.

G. Kyriakou, D. J. Davis, R. B. Grant, D. J. Watson, A. Keen, M. S. Tikhov, and R. M. Lambert, “Electron impact-assisted carbon film growth on Ru(0001): Implications for next-generation EUV lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(12), 4491–4494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kessels, M. J. H.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klebanoff, L.

J. Hollenshead and L. Klebanoff, “Modeling radiation-induced carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24(1), 64–82 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klein, R.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koster, N.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koster, N. B.

H. J. Voorma, E. Louis, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, and E. Spiller, “Characterization of multilayers by Fourier analysis of x-ray reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6112–6119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, H. J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Y. Y. Platonov, G. E. Vandorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, C.

K.-J. Boller, R.-P. Haelbich, H. Hogrefe, W. Jark, and C. Kunz, “Investigation of carbon contamination of mirror surfaces exposed to synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 208(1-3), 273–279 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kunze, R.

J. Chen, C. J. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Related Materials 18(5-8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kurt, R.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kyriakou, G.

G. Kyriakou, D. J. Davis, R. B. Grant, D. J. Watson, A. Keen, M. S. Tikhov, and R. M. Lambert, “Electron impact-assisted carbon film growth on Ru(0001): Implications for next-generation EUV lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(12), 4491–4494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, R. M.

G. Kyriakou, D. J. Davis, R. B. Grant, D. J. Watson, A. Keen, M. S. Tikhov, and R. M. Lambert, “Electron impact-assisted carbon film growth on Ru(0001): Implications for next-generation EUV lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(12), 4491–4494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lebert, R.

K. Bergmann, O. Rosier, R. Lebert, W. Neff, and R. Poprawe, “A multi-kilohertz pinch plasma radiation source for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–8, 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. J.

J. Chen, C. J. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Related Materials 18(5-8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Logothetidis, S.

S. Logothetidis, M. Gioti, S. Lousinian, and S. Fotiadou, “Haemocompatibility studies on carbon-based thin films by ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 482(1-2), 126–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Gioti and S. Logothetidis, “Dielectric function, electronic properties and optical constants of amorphous carbon and carbon nitride films,” Diamond Related Materials 12(3-7), 957–962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Louis, E.

J. Chen, C. J. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Related Materials 18(5-8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Voorma, E. Louis, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, and E. Spiller, “Characterization of multilayers by Fourier analysis of x-ray reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6112–6119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, H. J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Y. Y. Platonov, G. E. Vandorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lousinian, S.

S. Logothetidis, M. Gioti, S. Lousinian, and S. Fotiadou, “Haemocompatibility studies on carbon-based thin films by ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 482(1-2), 126–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Markus, H.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsunari, S.

S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meiling, H.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mertens, B.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Michael, M.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Modine, F. A.

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Erratum: Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2137–2137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moors, R.

J. Chen, C. J. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Related Materials 18(5-8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, K.

S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Natale, J. I.

D. J. Blaine, H. Jeff, J. I. Natale, M. H. Craig, E. T. Thomas, and A. W. John, “Recent developments in spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-situ applications,” Proc. SPIE 4449, 41–57 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neff, W.

K. Bergmann, O. Rosier, R. Lebert, W. Neff, and R. Poprawe, “A multi-kilohertz pinch plasma radiation source for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–8, 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Niibe, M.

S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oestreich, S.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Olson, G. L.

J. A. Roth, W. S. Williamson, D. H. Chow, G. L. Olson, and B. Johs, “Closed-loop control of resonant tunneling diode barrier thickness using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1439–1442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Padmore, H. A.

E. Louis, H. J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Y. Y. Platonov, G. E. Vandorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Platonov, Y. Y.

E. Louis, H. J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Y. Y. Platonov, G. E. Vandorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poprawe, R.

K. Bergmann, O. Rosier, R. Lebert, W. Neff, and R. Poprawe, “A multi-kilohertz pinch plasma radiation source for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–8, 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roman, K.

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosier, O.

K. Bergmann, O. Rosier, R. Lebert, W. Neff, and R. Poprawe, “A multi-kilohertz pinch plasma radiation source for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 57–8, 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rost, D.

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. A.

J. A. Roth, W. S. Williamson, D. H. Chow, G. L. Olson, and B. Johs, “Closed-loop control of resonant tunneling diode barrier thickness using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1439–1442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schlatmann, R.

E. Louis, H. J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Y. Y. Platonov, G. E. Vandorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

J. Chen, C. J. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Related Materials 18(5-8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Chen, C. J. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Related Materials 18(5-8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider and T. Schwarz, “A photoacoustic method for characterising thin films,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 91(1-2), 136–146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Schwarz, A. S. Bradford, Q. Shan, and R. J. Dewhurst, “Controlling the quality of thin films by surface acoustic waves,” Ultrasonics 35(5), 345–356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, T.

D. Schneider and T. Schwarz, “A photoacoustic method for characterising thin films,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 91(1-2), 136–146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Schwarz, A. S. Bradford, Q. Shan, and R. J. Dewhurst, “Controlling the quality of thin films by surface acoustic waves,” Ultrasonics 35(5), 345–356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sebastian, O.

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shan, Q.

D. Schneider, T. Schwarz, A. S. Bradford, Q. Shan, and R. J. Dewhurst, “Controlling the quality of thin films by surface acoustic waves,” Ultrasonics 35(5), 345–356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shmaenok, L.

E. Louis, H. J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Y. Y. Platonov, G. E. Vandorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

H. J. Voorma, E. Louis, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, and E. Spiller, “Characterization of multilayers by Fourier analysis of x-ray reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6112–6119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stefan, M.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stietz, F.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stuik, R.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takase, H.

S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, M.

S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanguy, C.

C. Tanguy, “Analytical expression of the complex dielectric function for the Hulthen potential,” Phys. Rev. B 60(15), 10660–10663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Tanguy, “Refractive index of direct bandgap semiconductors near the absorption threshold: Influence of excitonic effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(10), 1746–1751 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Tanguy, “Erratum: Optical dispersion by Wannier excitons (vol 75, pg 4090, 1995),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(4), 716–716 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Tanguy, “Optical dispersion by Wannier excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 4090–4093 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

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S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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D. J. Blaine, H. Jeff, J. I. Natale, M. H. Craig, E. T. Thomas, and A. W. John, “Recent developments in spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-situ applications,” Proc. SPIE 4449, 41–57 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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J. A. Woollam, C. L. Bungay, L. Yan, D. W. Thompson, and J. N. Hilfiker, “Application of spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterization of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 393–404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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G. Kyriakou, D. J. Davis, R. B. Grant, D. J. Watson, A. Keen, M. S. Tikhov, and R. M. Lambert, “Electron impact-assisted carbon film growth on Ru(0001): Implications for next-generation EUV lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(12), 4491–4494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. Budai and Z. Toth, “Optical phase diagram of amorphous carbon films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Status Solidi, C 5(5), 1223–1226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. Hong, A. Goullet, and G. Turban, “Ellipsometry and Raman study on hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C: H) films deposited in a dual ECR-r.f. plasma,” Thin Solid Films 352(1-2), 41–48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
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E. Louis, H. J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Y. Y. Platonov, G. E. Vandorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
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[CrossRef]

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E. Louis, H. J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Y. Y. Platonov, G. E. Vandorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
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H. J. Voorma, E. Louis, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, and E. Spiller, “Characterization of multilayers by Fourier analysis of x-ray reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6112–6119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, H. J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Y. Y. Platonov, G. E. Vandorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
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Watanabe, Y.

S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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G. Kyriakou, D. J. Davis, R. B. Grant, D. J. Watson, A. Keen, M. S. Tikhov, and R. M. Lambert, “Electron impact-assisted carbon film growth on Ru(0001): Implications for next-generation EUV lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(12), 4491–4494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
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S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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J. A. Roth, W. S. Williamson, D. H. Chow, G. L. Olson, and B. Johs, “Closed-loop control of resonant tunneling diode barrier thickness using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1439–1442 (2000).
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D. L. Windt, “IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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J. A. Woollam, C. L. Bungay, L. Yan, D. W. Thompson, and J. N. Hilfiker, “Application of spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterization of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 393–404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yakshin, A.

N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.

J. A. Woollam, C. L. Bungay, L. Yan, D. W. Thompson, and J. N. Hilfiker, “Application of spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterization of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 393–404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
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[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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J. Chen, C. J. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Related Materials 18(5-8), 768–771 (2009).
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H. J. Voorma, E. Louis, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, and E. Spiller, “Characterization of multilayers by Fourier analysis of x-ray reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 6112–6119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

G. Kyriakou, D. J. Davis, R. B. Grant, D. J. Watson, A. Keen, M. S. Tikhov, and R. M. Lambert, “Electron impact-assisted carbon film growth on Ru(0001): Implications for next-generation EUV lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(12), 4491–4494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

J. Hollenshead and L. Klebanoff, “Modeling radiation-induced carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24(1), 64–82 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Roth, W. S. Williamson, D. H. Chow, G. L. Olson, and B. Johs, “Closed-loop control of resonant tunneling diode barrier thickness using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1439–1442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (3)

E. Louis, H. J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Y. Y. Platonov, G. E. Vandorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
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N. Koster, B. Mertens, R. Jansen, A. van de Runstraat, F. Stietz, M. Wedowski, H. Meiling, R. Klein, A. Gottwald, F. Scholze, M. Visser, R. Kurt, P. Zalm, E. Louis, and A. Yakshin, “Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 65–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Phys. Status Solidi (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi, C (1)

J. Budai and Z. Toth, “Optical phase diagram of amorphous carbon films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Status Solidi, C 5(5), 1223–1226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (5)

S. Frank, B. Burkhard, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, K. Roman, M. Bernd, D. Rost, S. Detlef, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, U. Gerhard, L. Eric, E. Y. Andrey, O. Sebastian, and B. Fred, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsunari, T. Aoki, K. Murakami, Y. Gomei, S. Terashima, H. Takase, M. Tanabe, Y. Watanabe, Y. Kakutani, M. Niibe, and Y. Fukuda, “Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65172X–65178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Woollam, C. L. Bungay, L. Yan, D. W. Thompson, and J. N. Hilfiker, “Application of spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterization of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 393–404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, P. C. Goerts, S. Oestreich, R. Stuik, L. G. M. Edward, M. J. H. Kessels, B. Fred, H. Markus, M. Stefan, M. Michael, S. Detlef, S. Frank, and U. Gerhard, “Progress in Mo/Si multilayer coating technology for EUVL optics,” Proc. SPIE 3997, 406–411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Blaine, H. Jeff, J. I. Natale, M. H. Craig, E. T. Thomas, and A. W. John, “Recent developments in spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-situ applications,” Proc. SPIE 4449, 41–57 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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B. Johs, “General virtual interface algorithm for in situ spectroscopic ellipsometric data analysis,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 632–638 (2004).
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J. Hong, A. Goullet, and G. Turban, “Ellipsometry and Raman study on hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C: H) films deposited in a dual ECR-r.f. plasma,” Thin Solid Films 352(1-2), 41–48 (1999).
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S. Logothetidis, M. Gioti, S. Lousinian, and S. Fotiadou, “Haemocompatibility studies on carbon-based thin films by ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 482(1-2), 126–132 (2005).
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J. A. Woollam, “Overview of Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE), Part I: Basic Theory and Typical Applications,” Proc. the 44th SPIE meeting, (1999).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The system diagram of LG-SAW experimental setup

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The effective optical constants of a MLM

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The fitting of ellipsometric angles Ψ and Δ for the MLM deposited by 23.2 nm EUV induced carbon and 11.9 nm hot filament carbon.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The dielectric constants of hot filament carbon film (a) and EUV induced carbon contamination film (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ellipsometric angles psi and delta as a function of EUV induced carbon thickness at 4 eV and 75° with an expanded section shown in the inset figure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absolute EUV reflectance loss as a function of carbon thickness. The blue curve is hot filament carbon with two different thicknesses by evaporating 1 and 2 wires of graphite. The black curve is EUV induced carbon growth with three different amounts of EUV pulses, 0.6, 2 and 5 mega pulses.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

rprs=tan(Ψ)eiΔ
e2(E)=[AE0C(EEg)2(E2E02)2+C2E21E]  for  E>Eg
e2(E)=0  for  E<=Eg

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