Abstract

Hybrid organic-inorganic monomode waveguides of conjugated polymers on porous silicon (PS) substrates have been fabricated. Different low refractive index PS substrates, varying from 1.46 down to 1.18 have been studied. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) has been observed for all the samples and the ASE threshold has been monitored as a function of the PS refractive index. A decrease in the ASE threshold is detected when the PS refractive index decreases. These results have been analysed in the frame of a four level waveguide amplifier model and the theoretical predictions are in agreement with the experimental data.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low threshold in polymer lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

F. Laquai, A. K. Mishra, K. Müllen, and R. H. Friend, “Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Poly(ladder-type phenylene)s–The Influence of Photophysical Properties on ASE Thresholds,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3265–3275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Lahoz, N. Capuj, C. Oton, and S. Cheylan, “Optical gain in conjugated polymer hybrid structures based on porous silicon waveguides,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(4-6), 387–390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. P. Schmidtke, J. S. Kim, J. Gierschner, C. Silva, and R. H. Friend, “Optical spectroscopy of a polyfluorene copolymer at high pressure: intra- and intermolecular interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconducting lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Martini, I. M. Craig, W. C. Molenkamp, H. Miyata, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Controlling optical gain in semiconducting polymers with nanoscale chain positioning and alignment,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(10), 647–652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, S. A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polumer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Diaz-Garcia, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

E. Lorenzo, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon-based rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 44(26), 5415–5421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconducting multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Polymer lasers: recent advances,” Mater. Today 7(9), 28–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. D. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, C. Bubeck, and H. H. Horhold, “Molecular weight dependence of birefringence of thin films of the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene],” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3792–3794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple optical cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrews, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Ferrand, D. Loi, and R. Romenstain, “Photonic band-gap guidance in high-porosity luminescent porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3017–3019 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12(22), 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G.- Wegmann, B. Schweitzer, M. Hopmeier, M. Oestreich, H. Giessen, and R. F. Mahrt., “Conjugated polymer lasers: emission characteristics and gain mechanism,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(8), 1795–1800 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, “Lasers Based on Semiconducting Organic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(5), 363–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. Guptak, J. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Sradanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontanesous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, “The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 909–965 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. M. Heller, I. H. Campbell, B. K. Laurich, D. L. Smith, D. D. C. Bradley, P. L. Burn, J. P. Ferraris, and K. Müllen, “Solid-state-concentration effects on the optical absorption and emission of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-related materials,” Phys. Rev. B 54(8), 5516–5522 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, E. W. Kwock, and T. M. Miller, “Interchain excitations in conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(10), 1992–1995 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1971 (1)

Ahn, T.

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, C. Bubeck, and H. H. Horhold, “Molecular weight dependence of birefringence of thin films of the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene],” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3792–3794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

G. Heliotis, R. D. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, P.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrews, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bahtiar, A.

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, C. Bubeck, and H. H. Horhold, “Molecular weight dependence of birefringence of thin films of the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene],” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3792–3794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. Heliotis, R. D. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrews, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boj, P. G.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Diaz-Garcia, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonetti, G.

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple optical cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconducting lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, S. A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polumer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. D. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Heller, I. H. Campbell, B. K. Laurich, D. L. Smith, D. D. C. Bradley, P. L. Burn, J. P. Ferraris, and K. Müllen, “Solid-state-concentration effects on the optical absorption and emission of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-related materials,” Phys. Rev. B 54(8), 5516–5522 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bubeck, C.

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, C. Bubeck, and H. H. Horhold, “Molecular weight dependence of birefringence of thin films of the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene],” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3792–3794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burn, P. L.

C. M. Heller, I. H. Campbell, B. K. Laurich, D. L. Smith, D. D. C. Bradley, P. L. Burn, J. P. Ferraris, and K. Müllen, “Solid-state-concentration effects on the optical absorption and emission of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-related materials,” Phys. Rev. B 54(8), 5516–5522 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Calcott, P. D. J.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, “The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 909–965 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Calzado, E. M.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Diaz-Garcia, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, I. H.

C. M. Heller, I. H. Campbell, B. K. Laurich, D. L. Smith, D. D. C. Bradley, P. L. Burn, J. P. Ferraris, and K. Müllen, “Solid-state-concentration effects on the optical absorption and emission of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-related materials,” Phys. Rev. B 54(8), 5516–5522 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Canham, L. T.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, “The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 909–965 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Capuj, N.

F. Lahoz, N. Capuj, C. Oton, and S. Cheylan, “Optical gain in conjugated polymer hybrid structures based on porous silicon waveguides,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(4-6), 387–390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Capuj, N. E.

Cheylan, S.

F. Lahoz, N. Capuj, C. Oton, and S. Cheylan, “Optical gain in conjugated polymer hybrid structures based on porous silicon waveguides,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(4-6), 387–390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chilwell, J.

Choulis, S. A.

G. Heliotis, S. A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polumer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Craig, I. M.

I. B. Martini, I. M. Craig, W. C. Molenkamp, H. Miyata, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Controlling optical gain in semiconducting polymers with nanoscale chain positioning and alignment,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(10), 647–652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cullis, A. G.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, “The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 909–965 (1997).
[CrossRef]

deMello, J. C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconducting lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Garcia, M. A.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Diaz-Garcia, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontanesous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

R. Guptak, J. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Sradanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconducting multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferrand, P.

P. Ferrand, D. Loi, and R. Romenstain, “Photonic band-gap guidance in high-porosity luminescent porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3017–3019 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferraris, J. P.

C. M. Heller, I. H. Campbell, B. K. Laurich, D. L. Smith, D. D. C. Bradley, P. L. Burn, J. P. Ferraris, and K. Müllen, “Solid-state-concentration effects on the optical absorption and emission of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-related materials,” Phys. Rev. B 54(8), 5516–5522 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

F. Laquai, A. K. Mishra, K. Müllen, and R. H. Friend, “Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Poly(ladder-type phenylene)s–The Influence of Photophysical Properties on ASE Thresholds,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3265–3275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Schmidtke, J. S. Kim, J. Gierschner, C. Silva, and R. H. Friend, “Optical spectroscopy of a polyfluorene copolymer at high pressure: intra- and intermolecular interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gaburro, Z.

E. Lorenzo, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon-based rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 44(26), 5415–5421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple optical cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gärtner, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconducting lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerken, M.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconducting multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ghulinyan, M.

E. Lorenzo, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon-based rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 44(26), 5415–5421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple optical cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gierschner, J.

J. P. Schmidtke, J. S. Kim, J. Gierschner, C. Silva, and R. H. Friend, “Optical spectroscopy of a polyfluorene copolymer at high pressure: intra- and intermolecular interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

G.- Wegmann, B. Schweitzer, M. Hopmeier, M. Oestreich, H. Giessen, and R. F. Mahrt., “Conjugated polymer lasers: emission characteristics and gain mechanism,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(8), 1795–1800 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontanesous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guptak, R.

R. Guptak, J. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Sradanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gyrtner, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haug, V.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconducting lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low threshold in polymer lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12(22), 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontanesous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Guptak, J. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Sradanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heliotis, G.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconducting lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, S. A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polumer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. D. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heller, C. M.

C. M. Heller, I. H. Campbell, B. K. Laurich, D. L. Smith, D. D. C. Bradley, P. L. Burn, J. P. Ferraris, and K. Müllen, “Solid-state-concentration effects on the optical absorption and emission of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-related materials,” Phys. Rev. B 54(8), 5516–5522 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hinze, P.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, I.

Holmes, A. B.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hopmeier, M.

G.- Wegmann, B. Schweitzer, M. Hopmeier, M. Oestreich, H. Giessen, and R. F. Mahrt., “Conjugated polymer lasers: emission characteristics and gain mechanism,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(8), 1795–1800 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horhold, H. H.

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, C. Bubeck, and H. H. Horhold, “Molecular weight dependence of birefringence of thin films of the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene],” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3792–3794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Itskos, G.

G. Heliotis, S. A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polumer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, H. H.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconducting lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconducting multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

J. P. Schmidtke, J. S. Kim, J. Gierschner, C. Silva, and R. H. Friend, “Optical spectroscopy of a polyfluorene copolymer at high pressure: intra- and intermolecular interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalsky, W.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koynov, K.

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, C. Bubeck, and H. H. Horhold, “Molecular weight dependence of birefringence of thin films of the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene],” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3792–3794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kwock, E. W.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, E. W. Kwock, and T. M. Miller, “Interchain excitations in conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(10), 1992–1995 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahoz, F.

F. Lahoz, N. Capuj, C. Oton, and S. Cheylan, “Optical gain in conjugated polymer hybrid structures based on porous silicon waveguides,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(4-6), 387–390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laquai, F.

F. Laquai, A. K. Mishra, K. Müllen, and R. H. Friend, “Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Poly(ladder-type phenylene)s–The Influence of Photophysical Properties on ASE Thresholds,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3265–3275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laurich, B. K.

C. M. Heller, I. H. Campbell, B. K. Laurich, D. L. Smith, D. D. C. Bradley, P. L. Burn, J. P. Ferraris, and K. Müllen, “Solid-state-concentration effects on the optical absorption and emission of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-related materials,” Phys. Rev. B 54(8), 5516–5522 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ledochowitsch, P.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low threshold in polymer lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconducting lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconducting multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loi, D.

P. Ferrand, D. Loi, and R. Romenstain, “Photonic band-gap guidance in high-porosity luminescent porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3017–3019 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzo, E.

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mahrt, R. F.

G.- Wegmann, B. Schweitzer, M. Hopmeier, M. Oestreich, H. Giessen, and R. F. Mahrt., “Conjugated polymer lasers: emission characteristics and gain mechanism,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(8), 1795–1800 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Martini, I. B.

I. B. Martini, I. M. Craig, W. C. Molenkamp, H. Miyata, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Controlling optical gain in semiconducting polymers with nanoscale chain positioning and alignment,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(10), 647–652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12(22), 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontanesous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Guptak, J. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Sradanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mednick, S. R.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low threshold in polymer lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconducting multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E. K.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontanesous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. M.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, E. W. Kwock, and T. M. Miller, “Interchain excitations in conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(10), 1992–1995 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishra, A. K.

F. Laquai, A. K. Mishra, K. Müllen, and R. H. Friend, “Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Poly(ladder-type phenylene)s–The Influence of Photophysical Properties on ASE Thresholds,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3265–3275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, H.

I. B. Martini, I. M. Craig, W. C. Molenkamp, H. Miyata, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Controlling optical gain in semiconducting polymers with nanoscale chain positioning and alignment,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(10), 647–652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Molenkamp, W. C.

I. B. Martini, I. M. Craig, W. C. Molenkamp, H. Miyata, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Controlling optical gain in semiconducting polymers with nanoscale chain positioning and alignment,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(10), 647–652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low threshold in polymer lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

F. Laquai, A. K. Mishra, K. Müllen, and R. H. Friend, “Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Poly(ladder-type phenylene)s–The Influence of Photophysical Properties on ASE Thresholds,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3265–3275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Heller, I. H. Campbell, B. K. Laurich, D. L. Smith, D. D. C. Bradley, P. L. Burn, J. P. Ferraris, and K. Müllen, “Solid-state-concentration effects on the optical absorption and emission of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-related materials,” Phys. Rev. B 54(8), 5516–5522 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconducting multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murray, R.

G. Heliotis, S. A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polumer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Namdas, E. B.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low threshold in polymer lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Urrios, D.

Nehls, B.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nehls, B. S.

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oestreich, M.

G.- Wegmann, B. Schweitzer, M. Hopmeier, M. Oestreich, H. Giessen, and R. F. Mahrt., “Conjugated polymer lasers: emission characteristics and gain mechanism,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(8), 1795–1800 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oton, C.

F. Lahoz, N. Capuj, C. Oton, and S. Cheylan, “Optical gain in conjugated polymer hybrid structures based on porous silicon waveguides,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(4-6), 387–390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oton, C. J.

E. Lorenzo, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon-based rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 44(26), 5415–5421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple optical cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. Y.

R. Guptak, J. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Sradanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

E. Lorenzo, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon-based rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 44(26), 5415–5421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple optical cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pflumm, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconducting lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quintana, J. A.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Diaz-Garcia, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reufer, M.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconducting multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riedl, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romenstain, R.

P. Ferrand, D. Loi, and R. Romenstain, “Photonic band-gap guidance in high-porosity luminescent porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3017–3019 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, E. W. Kwock, and T. M. Miller, “Interchain excitations in conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(10), 1992–1995 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudati, P.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconducting multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruhl, A.

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconducting multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Polymer lasers: recent advances,” Mater. Today 7(9), 28–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. D. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrews, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, J. P.

J. P. Schmidtke, J. S. Kim, J. Gierschner, C. Silva, and R. H. Friend, “Optical spectroscopy of a polyfluorene copolymer at high pressure: intra- and intermolecular interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, B. J.

I. B. Martini, I. M. Craig, W. C. Molenkamp, H. Miyata, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Controlling optical gain in semiconducting polymers with nanoscale chain positioning and alignment,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(10), 647–652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, B.

G.- Wegmann, B. Schweitzer, M. Hopmeier, M. Oestreich, H. Giessen, and R. F. Mahrt., “Conjugated polymer lasers: emission characteristics and gain mechanism,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(8), 1795–1800 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Silva, C.

J. P. Schmidtke, J. S. Kim, J. Gierschner, C. Silva, and R. H. Friend, “Optical spectroscopy of a polyfluorene copolymer at high pressure: intra- and intermolecular interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. L.

C. M. Heller, I. H. Campbell, B. K. Laurich, D. L. Smith, D. D. C. Bradley, P. L. Burn, J. P. Ferraris, and K. Müllen, “Solid-state-concentration effects on the optical absorption and emission of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-related materials,” Phys. Rev. B 54(8), 5516–5522 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sradanov, V.

R. Guptak, J. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Sradanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stavrinou, P. N.

G. Heliotis, S. A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polumer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, J.

R. Guptak, J. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Sradanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, “Lasers Based on Semiconducting Organic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(5), 363–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

Tolbert, S. H.

I. B. Martini, I. M. Craig, W. C. Molenkamp, H. Miyata, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Controlling optical gain in semiconducting polymers with nanoscale chain positioning and alignment,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(10), 647–652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tong, M.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low threshold in polymer lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Polymer lasers: recent advances,” Mater. Today 7(9), 28–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. D. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrews, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veenstra, S.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontanesous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Villalvilla, J. M.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Diaz-Garcia, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

R. Guptak, J. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Sradanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconducting lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wegmann, G.-

G.- Wegmann, B. Schweitzer, M. Hopmeier, M. Oestreich, H. Giessen, and R. F. Mahrt., “Conjugated polymer lasers: emission characteristics and gain mechanism,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(8), 1795–1800 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, T.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconducting lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, R.

G. Heliotis, S. A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polumer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, R. D.

G. Heliotis, R. D. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, E. W. Kwock, and T. M. Miller, “Interchain excitations in conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(10), 1992–1995 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, J. D.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low threshold in polymer lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

F. Laquai, A. K. Mishra, K. Müllen, and R. H. Friend, “Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Poly(ladder-type phenylene)s–The Influence of Photophysical Properties on ASE Thresholds,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3265–3275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. D. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

N. Tessler, “Lasers Based on Semiconducting Organic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(5), 363–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low threshold in polymer lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12(22), 1655–1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

P. Ferrand, D. Loi, and R. Romenstain, “Photonic band-gap guidance in high-porosity luminescent porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3017–3019 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. deMello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gärtner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconducting lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Reufer, J. Feldmann, P. Rudati, A. Ruhl, D. Müller, K. Meerholz, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconducting multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrews, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, S. A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polumer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, C. Bubeck, and H. H. Horhold, “Molecular weight dependence of birefringence of thin films of the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene],” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3792–3794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Guptak, J. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Sradanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Lahoz, N. Capuj, C. Oton, and S. Cheylan, “Optical gain in conjugated polymer hybrid structures based on porous silicon waveguides,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(4-6), 387–390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple optical cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, “The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 909–965 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mater. Today (1)

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Polymer lasers: recent advances,” Mater. Today 7(9), 28–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

I. B. Martini, I. M. Craig, W. C. Molenkamp, H. Miyata, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Controlling optical gain in semiconducting polymers with nanoscale chain positioning and alignment,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(10), 647–652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (1)

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Diaz-Garcia, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

G.- Wegmann, B. Schweitzer, M. Hopmeier, M. Oestreich, H. Giessen, and R. F. Mahrt., “Conjugated polymer lasers: emission characteristics and gain mechanism,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(8), 1795–1800 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

C. M. Heller, I. H. Campbell, B. K. Laurich, D. L. Smith, D. D. C. Bradley, P. L. Burn, J. P. Ferraris, and K. Müllen, “Solid-state-concentration effects on the optical absorption and emission of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-related materials,” Phys. Rev. B 54(8), 5516–5522 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Amplified spontanesous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 7035–7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, E. W. Kwock, and T. M. Miller, “Interchain excitations in conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(10), 1992–1995 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Schmidtke, J. S. Kim, J. Gierschner, C. Silva, and R. H. Friend, “Optical spectroscopy of a polyfluorene copolymer at high pressure: intra- and intermolecular interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. J. Oton, E. Lorenzo, N. Capuj, F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Ghulinyan, F. Sbrana, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon-based Notch filters and waveguides,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5840, 434–443 (2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dark m-line spectra showing the TE reflectance through a high index prism varying the incidence angle (i.e. the effective index). Samples 3 (black), 2 (blue) and 1 (red) with different PS refractive indices are shown. The arrows indicate the PS refractive index in each case, and the isolated peaks show the effective index of the waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized emission spectra of sample 3 above and below the ASE threshold. The inset shows the optical absorption coefficient of the MEH-PPV polymer. (b) Normalized emission spectra of sample 3 at a pump power above the ASE threshold as a function of the excitation stripe length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ASE intensity at 627 nm (blue squares), and at 585 nm (green circles) as a function of the illumination length at a pump power density of about 25 kW/cm2. The fitting to the Eq. (1) is given by the red solid lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Full width at half maximum of the emission band at different excitation powers for (a) sample 1, (b) 2, and (c) 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mode profiles for a 1.55-index 250nm-thick polymer waveguide with silica cladding with index 1.46 (a) and PS cladding with index 1.18 (b). The confinement factors assuming that all the active layer is excited are respectively 33% and 80%.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main optical parameter for samples 1, 2 and 3.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IASE1g(egL1)
gΓσeN*α
Γ0ΛSdxSdx
φΛ=N*τ
φth=αΛΓσeτ

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