Abstract

Implementing the capability to perform fast ignition experiments, as well as, radiography experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) places stringent requirements on the control of each of the beam’s pointing, intra-beam phasing and overall wave-front quality. In this article experimental results are presented which were taken on an interferometric adaptive optics testbed that was designed and built to test the capabilities of such a system to control phasing, pointing and higher order beam aberrations. These measurements included quantification of the reduction in Strehl ratio incurred when using the MEMS device to correct for pointing errors in the system. The interferometric adaptive optics system achieved a Strehl ratio of 0.83 when correcting for a piston, tip/tilt error between two adjacent rectangular apertures, the geometry expected for the National ignition Facility. The interferometric adaptive optics system also achieved a Strehl ratio of 0.66 when used to correct for a phase plate aberration of similar magnitude as expected from simulations of the ARC beam line. All of these corrections included measuring both the upstream and downstream aberrations in the testbed and applying the sum of these two measurements in open-loop to the MEMS deformable mirror.

© 2009 OSA

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2008 (3)

J. Notaras and C. Paterson, “Point-diffrction interferometer for atmospheric daptive optics in strong scintillation,” Opt. Commun. 281(3), 360–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Baker and D. A. Silva, “Evaluation of Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping Algorithms for Interferometric Characterization of Liquid-Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” The Open Optics Journal 2, 48 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zou, A. M. Sautivet, J. Fils, L. Martin, K. Abdeli, C. Sauteret, and B. Wattellier, “Optimization of the dynamic wavefront control of a pulsed kilojoule/nanosecond-petawatt laser facility,” Appl. Opt. 47(5), 704–710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

K. L. Baker, E. A. Stappaerts, S. C. Wilks, D. Gavel, P. E. Young, J. Tucker, S. S. Olivier, D. A. Silva, and J. Olsen, "Performance of a phase-conjugate engine implementing a finite-bit phase correction," Opt. Lett. 29(9), 980-982 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Baker, E. A. Stappaerts, D. Gavel, S. C. Wilks, J. Tucker, D. A. Silva, J. Olsen, S. S. Olivier, P. E. Young, M. W. Kartz, L. M. Flath, P. Kruelevitch, J. Crawford, and O. Azucena, “High-speed horizontal-path atmospheric turbulence correction with a large-actuator-number microelectromechanical system spatial light modulator in an interferometric phase-conjugation engine,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1781 (2004.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

1997 (1)

R. Hartley, M. Kartz, W. Behrenclt, A. Hines, G. Pollock, E. Bliss, T. Salmon, S. Winters, B. V. Wonterghem, and R. Zacharias, “Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 294 (1997).

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

P. M. Harrington and B. M. Welsh, “Frequency-domain analysis of an adaptive optical system's temporal response,” Opt. Eng. 33(7), 2336 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: two-dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1971 (1)

R. F. Lutomirski and H. T. Yura, “Wave Structure Function and Mutual Coherence Function of an Optical Wave in a Turbulent Atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(4), 482 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abdeli, K.

Arnold, T. J.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Azucena, O.

Baker, K. L.

Beer, N. R.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Behrenclt, W.

R. Hartley, M. Kartz, W. Behrenclt, A. Hines, G. Pollock, E. Bliss, T. Salmon, S. Winters, B. V. Wonterghem, and R. Zacharias, “Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 294 (1997).

Bliss, E.

R. Hartley, M. Kartz, W. Behrenclt, A. Hines, G. Pollock, E. Bliss, T. Salmon, S. Winters, B. V. Wonterghem, and R. Zacharias, “Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 294 (1997).

Bliss, E. S.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Brummitt, P. A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burkhart, S. C.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Clarke, R. J.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, S. J.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Collier, J. L.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J.

Danson, C. N.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fell, B.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fils, J.

Flath, L. M.

Frackiewicz, A. J.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

Goldstein, R. M.

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: two-dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, D.

Hancock, S.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, P. M.

P. M. Harrington and B. M. Welsh, “Frequency-domain analysis of an adaptive optical system's temporal response,” Opt. Eng. 33(7), 2336 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hartley, R.

R. Hartley, M. Kartz, W. Behrenclt, A. Hines, G. Pollock, E. Bliss, T. Salmon, S. Winters, B. V. Wonterghem, and R. Zacharias, “Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 294 (1997).

Hawkes, S.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez-Gomez, C.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hines, A.

R. Hartley, M. Kartz, W. Behrenclt, A. Hines, G. Pollock, E. Bliss, T. Salmon, S. Winters, B. V. Wonterghem, and R. Zacharias, “Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 294 (1997).

Holligan, P.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kartz, M.

R. Hartley, M. Kartz, W. Behrenclt, A. Hines, G. Pollock, E. Bliss, T. Salmon, S. Winters, B. V. Wonterghem, and R. Zacharias, “Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 294 (1997).

Kartz, M. W.

Kidd, A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kirby, A.

Kruelevitch, P.

Latta, M. R.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Lester, W. J.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Love, G.

Lutomirski, R. F.

R. F. Lutomirski and H. T. Yura, “Wave Structure Function and Mutual Coherence Function of an Optical Wave in a Turbulent Atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(4), 482 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Martin, L.

Musgrave, I. O.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neville, D. R.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Norreys, P. A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Notaras, J.

J. Notaras and C. Paterson, “Point-diffrction interferometer for atmospheric daptive optics in strong scintillation,” Opt. Commun. 281(3), 360–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oag, T.

Olivier, S. S.

Olsen, J.

Paterson, C.

J. Notaras and C. Paterson, “Point-diffrction interferometer for atmospheric daptive optics in strong scintillation,” Opt. Commun. 281(3), 360–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pepler, D. A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pigg, D. C.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Pollock, G.

R. Hartley, M. Kartz, W. Behrenclt, A. Hines, G. Pollock, E. Bliss, T. Salmon, S. Winters, B. V. Wonterghem, and R. Zacharias, “Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 294 (1997).

Reason, C. J.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, J. T.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Salmon, T.

R. Hartley, M. Kartz, W. Behrenclt, A. Hines, G. Pollock, E. Bliss, T. Salmon, S. Winters, B. V. Wonterghem, and R. Zacharias, “Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 294 (1997).

Sauteret, C.

Sautivet, A. M.

Shaikh, W.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silva, D. A.

Stappaerts, E. A.

Stolz, C. J.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Sutton, S. B.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Tucker, J.

Valley, G. C.

Van Atta, R. L.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Wattellier, B.

Welsh, B, M.

P. M. Harrington and B. M. Welsh, “Frequency-domain analysis of an adaptive optical system's temporal response,” Opt. Eng. 33(7), 2336 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Werner, C. L.

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: two-dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wilks, S. C.

Winstone, T. B.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winters, S.

R. Hartley, M. Kartz, W. Behrenclt, A. Hines, G. Pollock, E. Bliss, T. Salmon, S. Winters, B. V. Wonterghem, and R. Zacharias, “Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 294 (1997).

Winters, S. E.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Wonterghem, B. V.

R. Hartley, M. Kartz, W. Behrenclt, A. Hines, G. Pollock, E. Bliss, T. Salmon, S. Winters, B. V. Wonterghem, and R. Zacharias, “Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 294 (1997).

Wyatt, R. W. W.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyborn, B. E.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Young, P. E.

Yura, H. T.

R. F. Lutomirski and H. T. Yura, “Wave Structure Function and Mutual Coherence Function of an Optical Wave in a Turbulent Atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(4), 482 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, R.

R. Hartley, M. Kartz, W. Behrenclt, A. Hines, G. Pollock, E. Bliss, T. Salmon, S. Winters, B. V. Wonterghem, and R. Zacharias, “Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 294 (1997).

Zacharias, R. A.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Zebker, H. A.

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: two-dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J. P.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

R. F. Lutomirski and H. T. Yura, “Wave Structure Function and Mutual Coherence Function of an Optical Wave in a Turbulent Atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(4), 482 (1971).
[CrossRef]

The Open Optics Journal (1)

K. L. Baker and D. A. Silva, “Evaluation of Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping Algorithms for Interferometric Characterization of Liquid-Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” The Open Optics Journal 2, 48 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Eng. (1)

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility Opt,” Eng. 43(12), 2873 (2004).

Nucl. Fusion (1)

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 239 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Notaras and C. Paterson, “Point-diffrction interferometer for atmospheric daptive optics in strong scintillation,” Opt. Commun. 281(3), 360–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. M. Harrington and B. M. Welsh, “Frequency-domain analysis of an adaptive optical system's temporal response,” Opt. Eng. 33(7), 2336 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Radio Sci. (1)

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: two-dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[CrossRef]

SPIE (1)

R. Hartley, M. Kartz, W. Behrenclt, A. Hines, G. Pollock, E. Bliss, T. Salmon, S. Winters, B. V. Wonterghem, and R. Zacharias, “Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 294 (1997).

Other (7)

D. M. Pennington, C. G. Brown, T. E. Cowan, S. P. Hatchett, E. Henry, S. Herman, M. Kartz, M. Key, J. Koch, A. J. Mackinnon, M. D. Perry, T. W. Phillips, M. Roth, T. C. Sangster, M. Singh, R. A. Snavely, M. Stoyer, B. C. Stuart, and S. C. Wilks, Report No. UCRL-JC-140019, 2000.

K. L. Baker, E. A. Stappaerts, D. C. Homoelle, M. A. Henesian, E. S. Bliss, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, Interferometric adaptive optics for high power laser pointing, wave-front control and phasing Journal of Micro/Nanolithography MEMS, and MOEMS (2009).

W. J. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998).

G. C. Dennis and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1998).

D. Homoelle, K. L. Baker, E. Utterback, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, presented at the Ultrafast Optics, France, 2009 (unpublished).

Private Communication from M.A. Henessian, (2008).

R. A. Sacks, M. A. Henesian, S. W. Haney, and J. B. Trenholme, Report No. UCRL-LR-105821–96, 1996.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the major components of a single National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser beam from injection to final focus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pupil layout for the advanced radiography capability on the National Ignition Facility is displayed in Fig. 2a. The pupil represents four beam pairs with each of the beam pairs containing 1.99 kJ centered around 1.053 μm in a 5 ps pulse. Figure 2b shows the far-field pattern generated from this pupil assuming that all of the beams are pistoned correctly and have a perfect Strehl ratio.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laboratory breadboard setup used to test the performance of the phase conjugate engine in a controlled laboratory environment. The abbreviations stand for the following: BS, beam splitters; M, mirrors; L, lenses; S, shutters; A, apertures; TFP, thin film polarizers; λ/2 and λ /4, half and quarter wave-plates, respectively. The dimensions primarily refer to the focal length of the lenses and mirrors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Implementation of the interferometric adaptive optics system on the National Ignition Facility. The abbreviations stand for the following: BS, beam splitters; L, lenses; λ/2 and λ /4, half and quarter wave-plates, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurements examining the effects of applying tip/tilt to the MEMS device Fig. 3a represents the far-field intensity patterns at four separate values of tilt applied to the MEMS deformable mirror. Figure 5b displays the Strehl ratio as a function of tilt amplitude applied to the MEMS deformable mirror. The squares represent the Strehl ratios derived from the measured fa-field intensity patterns, the solid black line represents the theoretical Strehl ratio as a function of tilt and the solid grey line represents a vertical displacement of the solid black line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurements examining the effects of piston errors between two adjacent rectangular apertures. The piston error was introduced by placing a microscope slide across the lower half of the MEMS device. The microscope slide introduced both a piston and tilt across one half of the MEMS device. Figure 6a represents the unwrapped phase measured with the microscope slide across the lower half of the MEMS. Figure 6b represents the far-field intensity pattern after the inverse phase was applied to the MEMS device.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measurements examining the effects of Kolmogorov phase screen errors across the aperture. The wrapped and unwrapped phases are displayed in Fig. 7a and 7b, respectively. The far-field intensity patterns for the uncorrected and corrected far-field intensity measurements are shown in Fig. 7c and Fig. 7d, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Structure function for the unwrapped phase profile corresponding to the applied phase plate. The solid black line represents the measured structure function and the dashed grey line is the analytical Von Karman structure function with the Fried parameter equal to ro = D/18 and the outer scale length equal to L0=1.8D.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Background subtraction and residual charge data from the Sensors Unlimited wave-front sensor camera. Figure 9a represents the residual charge on the wave-front sensor camera as a function of camera reads. The laser was applied to the focal plane array before the second camera read. Figure 9b represents the residual charge on the wave-front sensor camera after the average intensity has been subtracted.

Equations (7)

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σ2=1mi=0m1(ϕiϕavg)2,
σ21ϕo0ϕo(ϕϕo/2)2dϕ=(π23)122n.
Dφ(ρ)=4π0κdκ[1J0(κρ)]Fφ(κ),
Dφ(ρ)=3.696(roκo)5/3[15(ρκo)5/63(2)5/6Γ(11/6)K5/6(ρκo)].
σ212d2-dd-dddxdy(1|xd|)(1|yd|)Dφ(x,y),
σ24d20π/40d/cos(θ)rdrdθ(1rcos(θ)d)(1rsin(θ)d)Dϕ(r),
σ2=1.31(dro)5/3{10.682(dκo)1/3+0.073(dκo)2}46.18(dro)5/3m=2(dκo)2m5/3Γ(m+1/6)m!22m5/6(2m+3)(2m+2)x{[12m+1]2m+4+0π/4dθ(cosθ)m+2}+46.18(dro)5/3m=2(dκo)2mΓ(m+11/6)m!22m+5/6(2m+14/3)(2m+11/3)x{[12m+11/6]2m+17/3+0π/4dθ(cosθ)2m+11/3}

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