Abstract

This paper presents a novel Fabry-Perot (FP) optical fiber pressure/acoustic sensor. It consists of two V-shaped grooves having different sized widths, a diaphragm on the surface of the larger V-groove, and a 45° angle-polished fiber. The precision of FP cavity length is determined by the fabrication process of photolithography and anisotropic etching of a silicon crystal. Therefore, the cavity length can be controlled on the order of ten nm. Sensors were fabricated and tested. Test results indicate that the sensors’ cavity lengths have been controlled precisely. The packaged sensor has demonstrated very good static and dynamic responses compared to a commercially available pressure sensor and a microphone.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. G. Zhou and L. M. Sim, “Damage detection and assessment in fibre-reinforced composite structures with embedded fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 11(6), 925–939 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Rice, R. Duncan, D. Gifford, and B. Childers, “Fiber optic distributed strain, acoustic emission, and moisture detection sensors for health maintenance,” in IEEE Systems Readiness Technology Conference(2003), pp. 505–514.
  3. X. Wang, B. Li, Z. Xiao, S. H. Lee, H. Roman, O. L. Russo, K. K. Chin, and K. R. Farmer, “An ultra-sensitive optical MEMS sensor for partial discharge detection,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(3), 521–527 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Xu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Miniature all-silica fiber optic pressure and acoustic sensors,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3269–3271 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

2007

2006

2005

X. Wang, B. Li, Z. Xiao, S. H. Lee, H. Roman, O. L. Russo, K. K. Chin, and K. R. Farmer, “An ultra-sensitive optical MEMS sensor for partial discharge detection,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(3), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Pinet, A. Pham, and S. Rioux, “Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor for medical applications: an opportunity for intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) therapy,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Cibula and D. Donlagić, “Miniature fiber-optic pressure sensor with a polymer diaphragm,” Appl. Opt. 44(14), 2736–2744 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Donlagic and E. Cibula, “All-fiber high-sensitivity pressure sensor with SiO2 diaphragm,” Opt. Lett. 30(16), 2071–2073 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Miniature all-silica fiber optic pressure and acoustic sensors,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3269–3271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, “Embedded micromachined fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensors in aerodynamics applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 102–107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. Zhou and L. M. Sim, “Damage detection and assessment in fibre-reinforced composite structures with embedded fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 11(6), 925–939 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, “A novel MEMS pressure sensor fabricated on an optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 993–995 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. J. Nijdam, J. G. E. Gardeniers, C. Gui, and M. Elwenspoek, “Etching pits and dislocations in Si {111},” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 86(3), 238–247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abeysinghe, D. C.

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, “A novel MEMS pressure sensor fabricated on an optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 993–995 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Afromowitz, M. A.

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anbo, W.

Anderson, S. J.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, “Embedded micromachined fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensors in aerodynamics applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 102–107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, “Embedded micromachined fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensors in aerodynamics applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 102–107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, “A novel MEMS pressure sensor fabricated on an optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 993–995 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chana, K. S.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, “Embedded micromachined fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensors in aerodynamics applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 102–107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chin, K. K.

K. K. Chin, Y. Sun, G. Feng, G. E. Georgiou, K. Guo, E. Niver, H. Roman, and K. Noe, “Fabry-Perot diaphragm fiber-optic sensor,” Appl. Opt. 46(31), 7614–7619 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, B. Li, Z. Xiao, S. H. Lee, H. Roman, O. L. Russo, K. K. Chin, and K. R. Farmer, “An ultra-sensitive optical MEMS sensor for partial discharge detection,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(3), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cibula, E.

Cooper, K. L.

Dasgupta, S.

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, “A novel MEMS pressure sensor fabricated on an optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 993–995 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Donlagic, D.

Elwenspoek, M.

A. J. Nijdam, J. G. E. Gardeniers, C. Gui, and M. Elwenspoek, “Etching pits and dislocations in Si {111},” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 86(3), 238–247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, K. R.

X. Wang, B. Li, Z. Xiao, S. H. Lee, H. Roman, O. L. Russo, K. K. Chin, and K. R. Farmer, “An ultra-sensitive optical MEMS sensor for partial discharge detection,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(3), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, G.

Gander, M. J.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, “Embedded micromachined fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensors in aerodynamics applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 102–107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gardeniers, J. G. E.

A. J. Nijdam, J. G. E. Gardeniers, C. Gui, and M. Elwenspoek, “Etching pits and dislocations in Si {111},” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 86(3), 238–247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Georgiou, G. E.

Gui, C.

A. J. Nijdam, J. G. E. Gardeniers, C. Gui, and M. Elwenspoek, “Etching pits and dislocations in Si {111},” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 86(3), 238–247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, K.

Hartl, J. C.

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, H. E.

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, “A novel MEMS pressure sensor fabricated on an optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 993–995 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, “Embedded micromachined fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensors in aerodynamics applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 102–107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T. V.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, “Embedded micromachined fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensors in aerodynamics applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 102–107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

X. Wang, B. Li, Z. Xiao, S. H. Lee, H. Roman, O. L. Russo, K. K. Chin, and K. R. Farmer, “An ultra-sensitive optical MEMS sensor for partial discharge detection,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(3), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lenardic, B.

Li, B.

X. Wang, B. Li, Z. Xiao, S. H. Lee, H. Roman, O. L. Russo, K. K. Chin, and K. R. Farmer, “An ultra-sensitive optical MEMS sensor for partial discharge detection,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(3), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W. N.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, “Embedded micromachined fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensors in aerodynamics applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 102–107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, G. L.

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nijdam, A. J.

A. J. Nijdam, J. G. E. Gardeniers, C. Gui, and M. Elwenspoek, “Etching pits and dislocations in Si {111},” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 86(3), 238–247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Niver, E.

Noe, K.

Pevec, S.

Pham, A.

E. Pinet, A. Pham, and S. Rioux, “Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor for medical applications: an opportunity for intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) therapy,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pickrell, G. R.

Pinet, E.

E. Cibula, S. Pevec, B. Lenardic, E. Pinet, and D. Donlagic, “Miniature all-glass robust pressure sensor,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5098–5106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pinet, A. Pham, and S. Rioux, “Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor for medical applications: an opportunity for intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) therapy,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reuben, R. L.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, “Embedded micromachined fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensors in aerodynamics applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 102–107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rioux, S.

E. Pinet, A. Pham, and S. Rioux, “Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor for medical applications: an opportunity for intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) therapy,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roman, H.

K. K. Chin, Y. Sun, G. Feng, G. E. Georgiou, K. Guo, E. Niver, H. Roman, and K. Noe, “Fabry-Perot diaphragm fiber-optic sensor,” Appl. Opt. 46(31), 7614–7619 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, B. Li, Z. Xiao, S. H. Lee, H. Roman, O. L. Russo, K. K. Chin, and K. R. Farmer, “An ultra-sensitive optical MEMS sensor for partial discharge detection,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(3), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russo, O. L.

X. Wang, B. Li, Z. Xiao, S. H. Lee, H. Roman, O. L. Russo, K. K. Chin, and K. R. Farmer, “An ultra-sensitive optical MEMS sensor for partial discharge detection,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(3), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saaski, E.

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sim, L. M.

G. Zhou and L. M. Sim, “Damage detection and assessment in fibre-reinforced composite structures with embedded fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 11(6), 925–939 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, R.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, “Embedded micromachined fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensors in aerodynamics applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 102–107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Wang, A.

Wang, X.

Wolthuis, R. A.

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, Z.

X. Wang, B. Li, Z. Xiao, S. H. Lee, H. Roman, O. L. Russo, K. K. Chin, and K. R. Farmer, “An ultra-sensitive optical MEMS sensor for partial discharge detection,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(3), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Yizheng, Z.

Zhou, G.

G. Zhou and L. M. Sim, “Damage detection and assessment in fibre-reinforced composite structures with embedded fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 11(6), 925–939 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, “A novel MEMS pressure sensor fabricated on an optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 993–995 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, “Embedded micromachined fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensors in aerodynamics applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 102–107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

R. A. Wolthuis, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, “Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectrum modulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 974–981 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Micromech. Microeng.

X. Wang, B. Li, Z. Xiao, S. H. Lee, H. Roman, O. L. Russo, K. K. Chin, and K. R. Farmer, “An ultra-sensitive optical MEMS sensor for partial discharge detection,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(3), 521–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

E. Pinet, A. Pham, and S. Rioux, “Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor for medical applications: an opportunity for intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) therapy,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys.

A. J. Nijdam, J. G. E. Gardeniers, C. Gui, and M. Elwenspoek, “Etching pits and dislocations in Si {111},” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 86(3), 238–247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smart Mater. Struct.

G. Zhou and L. M. Sim, “Damage detection and assessment in fibre-reinforced composite structures with embedded fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 11(6), 925–939 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Rice, R. Duncan, D. Gifford, and B. Childers, “Fiber optic distributed strain, acoustic emission, and moisture detection sensors for health maintenance,” in IEEE Systems Readiness Technology Conference(2003), pp. 505–514.

K. Hsieh, and E. Smela, “Micromachined optical fiber based Fabry-Perot pressure sensor,” presented at MEMS Alliance Symposium, Laurel, MD, 18–19 Apr. 2005.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

3D schematic model of the sensor. (a) oblique view the angle polished fiber and two V-grooves within the silicon chip; (b) horizontal section view (perpendicular to the diaphragm) with details about the FP cavity. (c) vertical section view with the details about the hole etched to release the diaphragm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photo of the grooves etched by KOH.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscopic photo of the large groove after the backside silicon has been etched away.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Linearity and hysteresis of the optical sensor. Black squares and red circles are the measurement data from the sensor when the applied pressure was increased and decreased, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic test set up of the intensity testing system with a speaker and an acoustical enclosure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between the dynamic responses of the optical fiber sensor and the reference microphone.

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