Abstract

This research aimed to investigate the feasibility of using direct amorphization of silicon induced by femtosecond laser irradiation for maskless lithography. A thin layer of amorphous silicon of predetermined pattern was first generated by irradiation by a femtosecond laser of Mega Hertz pulse frequency. The following KOH etching revealed that the amorphous silicon layer acted as an etch stop. Line width less than 1/67 the focused spot size was demonstrated and hence the proposed maskless lithography process has the potential of producing submicron and nanoscale features by employing a laser beam of shorter wavelength and a high NA focusing lens. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), a Micro-Raman and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analyses were used to evaluate the quality of amorphous layer and the etching process.

© 2009 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Bauerle, Laser processing and chemistry, (Springer, New York, 3rd ed., 2000).
  2. D. Lim, Y. Kamotani, B. Cho, J. Mazumder, and S. Takayama, “Fabrication of microfluidic mixers and artificial vasculatures using a high-brightness diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser direct write method,” Lab Chip 3(4), 318–323 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Tan, A. Dalili, and K. Venkatakrishnan, ““High Repetition Rate Femtosecond Laser Nano-machining of Thin Films,” J,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 537–545 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Stanley, K. Venkatakrishnan, and L. E. N. Lim, “Direct writing of photomask by ultrashort laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(1), 204–206 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Venkatakrishnan, B. K. A. Ngoi, P. Stanley, L. E. N. Lim, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Laser writing techniques for photomask fabrication using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(4), 493–496 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Yasuda, S. Arai, J. Kai, Y. Ooae, T. Abe, S. Maruyama, and T. Kiuchi, “Multielectron beam blanking aperture array system SYNAPSE-2000,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 3813–3820 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Schmidt, L. Bischoff, and J. Teichert, “Writing FIB implantation and subsequent anisotropic wet chemical etching for fabrication of 3D structures in silicon,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 61(1-3), 369–373 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, C. J. Postek, and J. Bennett, “Modification of hydrogen-passivated silicon by a scanning tunnelling microscope operating air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(20), 2001–2003 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. C. Minne, H. T. Soh, P. Flueckinger, and C. F. Quate, “Fabrication of 0.1-MU-M Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with the atomic-force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 703–705 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. M. Chapbell, E. S. Snow, and P. J. McMarr, “Fabrication of nanometer-scale side-gated silicon field-effect transistors with an atomic-force microwave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(11), 1388–1390 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, G. Luo, X. Zhou, G. Y. Xie, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Fabrication of silicon-based multilevel nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation and anisotropic wet etching,” Nanotechnology 16(4), 422–428 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Ueno, R. Okada, K. Saiki, and A. Koma, “Nano-scale anodic oxidation on a Si(111) surface terminated by bilayer-GaSe,” Surf. Sci. 514(1-3), 27–32 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. S. S. Chien, J. W. Chang, S. W. Lin, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chan, S. Gwo, T. S. Chao, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanometer-scale conversion of Si3N4 to SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 360–362 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. A. Weinberger, S. Hong, C. A. Mirkin, B. W. Wessels, and T. B. Higgins, ““Combinatorial generation and analysis of nanometer- and micrometer-scale silicon features via “dip-pen” nanolithography and wet chemical etching,” Adv. Mater. 12(21), 1600–1603 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. T. Lee, J. S. Oh, K. H. Park, J. S. Ha, H. J. Yoo, and J. Y. Koo, “Nanometer-scale lithography on H-passivated Si(100) by atomic force microscope in air,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1451–1454 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, S. Yamada, N. Takano, T. Oyama, and K. Ashida, “Etch stop of silicon surface induced by tribo-nanolithography,” NanoBiotechnology 16, 1411–1414 (2005).
  18. J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, “Tribonanolithography of silicon in aqueous solution based on atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1766–1768 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, ““Mechanical approach to nanomachining of silicon using oxide characteristics based on tribo nanolithography (TNL) in KOH solution,” ASME,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126(4), 801–806 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanely, L. E. N. Lim, and B. K. A. Ngoi, “Femtosecond pulsed laser direct writing system,” Opt. Eng. 41(6), 1441–1445 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. M. Liu, R. Yen, H. Kurz, and N. Bloembergen, “Phase-Transformation on and charged-partocle emisson from a silicon crystal-surface, induced by picosecond laser-pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39(9), 755–757 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 74, 19–25 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. C. Bradley, W. R. Anderson, J. J. McClelland, and R. J. Celotta, “Nanofabrication via atom optics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 141(3-4), 210–218 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. V. Osipov, P. Patzner, and P. Hess, “Kinetics of laser-induced oxidation of silicon near room temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 275–280 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Patzner, A. V. Osipov, and P. Hess, “Photoinduced self-limited low-temperature growth of ultra-thin silicon-oxide films with water vapor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 85(2), 145–150 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Bonse, K. W. Brzezinka, and A. J. Meixner, “Modifying single-crystalline silicon by femtosecond laser pulses: an analysis by micro Raman spectroscopy, scanning laser microscopy and atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 221(1-4), 215–230 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009

B. Tan, A. Dalili, and K. Venkatakrishnan, ““High Repetition Rate Femtosecond Laser Nano-machining of Thin Films,” J,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 537–545 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. V. Osipov, P. Patzner, and P. Hess, “Kinetics of laser-induced oxidation of silicon near room temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 275–280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Patzner, A. V. Osipov, and P. Hess, “Photoinduced self-limited low-temperature growth of ultra-thin silicon-oxide films with water vapor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 85(2), 145–150 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, G. Luo, X. Zhou, G. Y. Xie, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Fabrication of silicon-based multilevel nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation and anisotropic wet etching,” Nanotechnology 16(4), 422–428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, S. Yamada, N. Takano, T. Oyama, and K. Ashida, “Etch stop of silicon surface induced by tribo-nanolithography,” NanoBiotechnology 16, 1411–1414 (2005).

2004

J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, “Tribonanolithography of silicon in aqueous solution based on atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, ““Mechanical approach to nanomachining of silicon using oxide characteristics based on tribo nanolithography (TNL) in KOH solution,” ASME,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126(4), 801–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, K. W. Brzezinka, and A. J. Meixner, “Modifying single-crystalline silicon by femtosecond laser pulses: an analysis by micro Raman spectroscopy, scanning laser microscopy and atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 221(1-4), 215–230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Lim, Y. Kamotani, B. Cho, J. Mazumder, and S. Takayama, “Fabrication of microfluidic mixers and artificial vasculatures using a high-brightness diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser direct write method,” Lab Chip 3(4), 318–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Stanley, K. Venkatakrishnan, and L. E. N. Lim, “Direct writing of photomask by ultrashort laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(1), 204–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. K. A. Ngoi, P. Stanley, L. E. N. Lim, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Laser writing techniques for photomask fabrication using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(4), 493–496 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanely, L. E. N. Lim, and B. K. A. Ngoi, “Femtosecond pulsed laser direct writing system,” Opt. Eng. 41(6), 1441–1445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Ueno, R. Okada, K. Saiki, and A. Koma, “Nano-scale anodic oxidation on a Si(111) surface terminated by bilayer-GaSe,” Surf. Sci. 514(1-3), 27–32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. S. S. Chien, J. W. Chang, S. W. Lin, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chan, S. Gwo, T. S. Chao, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanometer-scale conversion of Si3N4 to SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 360–362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Weinberger, S. Hong, C. A. Mirkin, B. W. Wessels, and T. B. Higgins, ““Combinatorial generation and analysis of nanometer- and micrometer-scale silicon features via “dip-pen” nanolithography and wet chemical etching,” Adv. Mater. 12(21), 1600–1603 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. C. Bradley, W. R. Anderson, J. J. McClelland, and R. J. Celotta, “Nanofabrication via atom optics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 141(3-4), 210–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. T. Lee, J. S. Oh, K. H. Park, J. S. Ha, H. J. Yoo, and J. Y. Koo, “Nanometer-scale lithography on H-passivated Si(100) by atomic force microscope in air,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1451–1454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmidt, L. Bischoff, and J. Teichert, “Writing FIB implantation and subsequent anisotropic wet chemical etching for fabrication of 3D structures in silicon,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 61(1-3), 369–373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. Yasuda, S. Arai, J. Kai, Y. Ooae, T. Abe, S. Maruyama, and T. Kiuchi, “Multielectron beam blanking aperture array system SYNAPSE-2000,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 3813–3820 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. C. Minne, H. T. Soh, P. Flueckinger, and C. F. Quate, “Fabrication of 0.1-MU-M Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with the atomic-force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 703–705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Chapbell, E. S. Snow, and P. J. McMarr, “Fabrication of nanometer-scale side-gated silicon field-effect transistors with an atomic-force microwave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(11), 1388–1390 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, C. J. Postek, and J. Bennett, “Modification of hydrogen-passivated silicon by a scanning tunnelling microscope operating air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(20), 2001–2003 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. M. Liu, R. Yen, H. Kurz, and N. Bloembergen, “Phase-Transformation on and charged-partocle emisson from a silicon crystal-surface, induced by picosecond laser-pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39(9), 755–757 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abe, T.

H. Yasuda, S. Arai, J. Kai, Y. Ooae, T. Abe, S. Maruyama, and T. Kiuchi, “Multielectron beam blanking aperture array system SYNAPSE-2000,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 3813–3820 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, W. R.

C. C. Bradley, W. R. Anderson, J. J. McClelland, and R. J. Celotta, “Nanofabrication via atom optics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 141(3-4), 210–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arai, S.

H. Yasuda, S. Arai, J. Kai, Y. Ooae, T. Abe, S. Maruyama, and T. Kiuchi, “Multielectron beam blanking aperture array system SYNAPSE-2000,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 3813–3820 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ashida, K.

N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, S. Yamada, N. Takano, T. Oyama, and K. Ashida, “Etch stop of silicon surface induced by tribo-nanolithography,” NanoBiotechnology 16, 1411–1414 (2005).

Baudach, S.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J.

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, C. J. Postek, and J. Bennett, “Modification of hydrogen-passivated silicon by a scanning tunnelling microscope operating air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(20), 2001–2003 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, L.

B. Schmidt, L. Bischoff, and J. Teichert, “Writing FIB implantation and subsequent anisotropic wet chemical etching for fabrication of 3D structures in silicon,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 61(1-3), 369–373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

J. M. Liu, R. Yen, H. Kurz, and N. Bloembergen, “Phase-Transformation on and charged-partocle emisson from a silicon crystal-surface, induced by picosecond laser-pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39(9), 755–757 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, K. W. Brzezinka, and A. J. Meixner, “Modifying single-crystalline silicon by femtosecond laser pulses: an analysis by micro Raman spectroscopy, scanning laser microscopy and atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 221(1-4), 215–230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C. C.

C. C. Bradley, W. R. Anderson, J. J. McClelland, and R. J. Celotta, “Nanofabrication via atom optics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 141(3-4), 210–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brzezinka, K. W.

J. Bonse, K. W. Brzezinka, and A. J. Meixner, “Modifying single-crystalline silicon by femtosecond laser pulses: an analysis by micro Raman spectroscopy, scanning laser microscopy and atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 221(1-4), 215–230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Celotta, R. J.

C. C. Bradley, W. R. Anderson, J. J. McClelland, and R. J. Celotta, “Nanofabrication via atom optics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 141(3-4), 210–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T. T.

F. S. S. Chien, J. W. Chang, S. W. Lin, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chan, S. Gwo, T. S. Chao, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanometer-scale conversion of Si3N4 to SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 360–362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. W.

F. S. S. Chien, J. W. Chang, S. W. Lin, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chan, S. Gwo, T. S. Chao, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanometer-scale conversion of Si3N4 to SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 360–362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chao, T. S.

F. S. S. Chien, J. W. Chang, S. W. Lin, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chan, S. Gwo, T. S. Chao, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanometer-scale conversion of Si3N4 to SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 360–362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chapbell, P. M.

P. M. Chapbell, E. S. Snow, and P. J. McMarr, “Fabrication of nanometer-scale side-gated silicon field-effect transistors with an atomic-force microwave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(11), 1388–1390 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. T.

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chien, F. S. S.

F. S. S. Chien, J. W. Chang, S. W. Lin, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chan, S. Gwo, T. S. Chao, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanometer-scale conversion of Si3N4 to SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 360–362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cho, B.

D. Lim, Y. Kamotani, B. Cho, J. Mazumder, and S. Takayama, “Fabrication of microfluidic mixers and artificial vasculatures using a high-brightness diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser direct write method,” Lab Chip 3(4), 318–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chou, Y. C.

F. S. S. Chien, J. W. Chang, S. W. Lin, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chan, S. Gwo, T. S. Chao, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanometer-scale conversion of Si3N4 to SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 360–362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dagata, J. A.

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, C. J. Postek, and J. Bennett, “Modification of hydrogen-passivated silicon by a scanning tunnelling microscope operating air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(20), 2001–2003 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dalili, A.

B. Tan, A. Dalili, and K. Venkatakrishnan, ““High Repetition Rate Femtosecond Laser Nano-machining of Thin Films,” J,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 537–545 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. J.

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, C. J. Postek, and J. Bennett, “Modification of hydrogen-passivated silicon by a scanning tunnelling microscope operating air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(20), 2001–2003 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Flueckinger, P.

S. C. Minne, H. T. Soh, P. Flueckinger, and C. F. Quate, “Fabrication of 0.1-MU-M Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with the atomic-force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 703–705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gwo, S.

F. S. S. Chien, J. W. Chang, S. W. Lin, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chan, S. Gwo, T. S. Chao, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanometer-scale conversion of Si3N4 to SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 360–362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J. S.

H. T. Lee, J. S. Oh, K. H. Park, J. S. Ha, H. J. Yoo, and J. Y. Koo, “Nanometer-scale lithography on H-passivated Si(100) by atomic force microscope in air,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1451–1454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harary, H. H.

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, C. J. Postek, and J. Bennett, “Modification of hydrogen-passivated silicon by a scanning tunnelling microscope operating air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(20), 2001–2003 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

P. Patzner, A. V. Osipov, and P. Hess, “Photoinduced self-limited low-temperature growth of ultra-thin silicon-oxide films with water vapor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 85(2), 145–150 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Osipov, P. Patzner, and P. Hess, “Kinetics of laser-induced oxidation of silicon near room temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 275–280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, T. B.

D. A. Weinberger, S. Hong, C. A. Mirkin, B. W. Wessels, and T. B. Higgins, ““Combinatorial generation and analysis of nanometer- and micrometer-scale silicon features via “dip-pen” nanolithography and wet chemical etching,” Adv. Mater. 12(21), 1600–1603 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.

D. A. Weinberger, S. Hong, C. A. Mirkin, B. W. Wessels, and T. B. Higgins, ““Combinatorial generation and analysis of nanometer- and micrometer-scale silicon features via “dip-pen” nanolithography and wet chemical etching,” Adv. Mater. 12(21), 1600–1603 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W. F.

F. S. S. Chien, J. W. Chang, S. W. Lin, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chan, S. Gwo, T. S. Chao, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanometer-scale conversion of Si3N4 to SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 360–362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kai, J.

H. Yasuda, S. Arai, J. Kai, Y. Ooae, T. Abe, S. Maruyama, and T. Kiuchi, “Multielectron beam blanking aperture array system SYNAPSE-2000,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 3813–3820 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kamotani, Y.

D. Lim, Y. Kamotani, B. Cho, J. Mazumder, and S. Takayama, “Fabrication of microfluidic mixers and artificial vasculatures using a high-brightness diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser direct write method,” Lab Chip 3(4), 318–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawasegi, N.

N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, S. Yamada, N. Takano, T. Oyama, and K. Ashida, “Etch stop of silicon surface induced by tribo-nanolithography,” NanoBiotechnology 16, 1411–1414 (2005).

J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, ““Mechanical approach to nanomachining of silicon using oxide characteristics based on tribo nanolithography (TNL) in KOH solution,” ASME,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126(4), 801–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, “Tribonanolithography of silicon in aqueous solution based on atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kiuchi, T.

H. Yasuda, S. Arai, J. Kai, Y. Ooae, T. Abe, S. Maruyama, and T. Kiuchi, “Multielectron beam blanking aperture array system SYNAPSE-2000,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 3813–3820 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koma, A.

K. Ueno, R. Okada, K. Saiki, and A. Koma, “Nano-scale anodic oxidation on a Si(111) surface terminated by bilayer-GaSe,” Surf. Sci. 514(1-3), 27–32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koo, J. Y.

H. T. Lee, J. S. Oh, K. H. Park, J. S. Ha, H. J. Yoo, and J. Y. Koo, “Nanometer-scale lithography on H-passivated Si(100) by atomic force microscope in air,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1451–1454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, J.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

J. M. Liu, R. Yen, H. Kurz, and N. Bloembergen, “Phase-Transformation on and charged-partocle emisson from a silicon crystal-surface, induced by picosecond laser-pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39(9), 755–757 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. W.

J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, ““Mechanical approach to nanomachining of silicon using oxide characteristics based on tribo nanolithography (TNL) in KOH solution,” ASME,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126(4), 801–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, “Tribonanolithography of silicon in aqueous solution based on atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. T.

H. T. Lee, J. S. Oh, K. H. Park, J. S. Ha, H. J. Yoo, and J. Y. Koo, “Nanometer-scale lithography on H-passivated Si(100) by atomic force microscope in air,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1451–1454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D.

D. Lim, Y. Kamotani, B. Cho, J. Mazumder, and S. Takayama, “Fabrication of microfluidic mixers and artificial vasculatures using a high-brightness diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser direct write method,” Lab Chip 3(4), 318–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lim, L. E. N.

P. Stanley, K. Venkatakrishnan, and L. E. N. Lim, “Direct writing of photomask by ultrashort laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(1), 204–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. K. A. Ngoi, P. Stanley, L. E. N. Lim, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Laser writing techniques for photomask fabrication using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(4), 493–496 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanely, L. E. N. Lim, and B. K. A. Ngoi, “Femtosecond pulsed laser direct writing system,” Opt. Eng. 41(6), 1441–1445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. W.

F. S. S. Chien, J. W. Chang, S. W. Lin, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chan, S. Gwo, T. S. Chao, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanometer-scale conversion of Si3N4 to SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 360–362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

J. M. Liu, R. Yen, H. Kurz, and N. Bloembergen, “Phase-Transformation on and charged-partocle emisson from a silicon crystal-surface, induced by picosecond laser-pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39(9), 755–757 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. F.

Y. Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, G. Luo, X. Zhou, G. Y. Xie, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Fabrication of silicon-based multilevel nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation and anisotropic wet etching,” Nanotechnology 16(4), 422–428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, G.

Y. Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, G. Luo, X. Zhou, G. Y. Xie, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Fabrication of silicon-based multilevel nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation and anisotropic wet etching,” Nanotechnology 16(4), 422–428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, S.

H. Yasuda, S. Arai, J. Kai, Y. Ooae, T. Abe, S. Maruyama, and T. Kiuchi, “Multielectron beam blanking aperture array system SYNAPSE-2000,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 3813–3820 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mazumder, J.

D. Lim, Y. Kamotani, B. Cho, J. Mazumder, and S. Takayama, “Fabrication of microfluidic mixers and artificial vasculatures using a high-brightness diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser direct write method,” Lab Chip 3(4), 318–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, J. J.

C. C. Bradley, W. R. Anderson, J. J. McClelland, and R. J. Celotta, “Nanofabrication via atom optics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 141(3-4), 210–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McMarr, P. J.

P. M. Chapbell, E. S. Snow, and P. J. McMarr, “Fabrication of nanometer-scale side-gated silicon field-effect transistors with an atomic-force microwave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(11), 1388–1390 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meixner, A. J.

J. Bonse, K. W. Brzezinka, and A. J. Meixner, “Modifying single-crystalline silicon by femtosecond laser pulses: an analysis by micro Raman spectroscopy, scanning laser microscopy and atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 221(1-4), 215–230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minne, S. C.

S. C. Minne, H. T. Soh, P. Flueckinger, and C. F. Quate, “Fabrication of 0.1-MU-M Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with the atomic-force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 703–705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, C. A.

D. A. Weinberger, S. Hong, C. A. Mirkin, B. W. Wessels, and T. B. Higgins, ““Combinatorial generation and analysis of nanometer- and micrometer-scale silicon features via “dip-pen” nanolithography and wet chemical etching,” Adv. Mater. 12(21), 1600–1603 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morita, N.

N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, S. Yamada, N. Takano, T. Oyama, and K. Ashida, “Etch stop of silicon surface induced by tribo-nanolithography,” NanoBiotechnology 16, 1411–1414 (2005).

J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, ““Mechanical approach to nanomachining of silicon using oxide characteristics based on tribo nanolithography (TNL) in KOH solution,” ASME,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126(4), 801–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, “Tribonanolithography of silicon in aqueous solution based on atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ngoi, B. K. A.

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. K. A. Ngoi, P. Stanley, L. E. N. Lim, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Laser writing techniques for photomask fabrication using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(4), 493–496 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanely, L. E. N. Lim, and B. K. A. Ngoi, “Femtosecond pulsed laser direct writing system,” Opt. Eng. 41(6), 1441–1445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. S.

H. T. Lee, J. S. Oh, K. H. Park, J. S. Ha, H. J. Yoo, and J. Y. Koo, “Nanometer-scale lithography on H-passivated Si(100) by atomic force microscope in air,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1451–1454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okada, R.

K. Ueno, R. Okada, K. Saiki, and A. Koma, “Nano-scale anodic oxidation on a Si(111) surface terminated by bilayer-GaSe,” Surf. Sci. 514(1-3), 27–32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ooae, Y.

H. Yasuda, S. Arai, J. Kai, Y. Ooae, T. Abe, S. Maruyama, and T. Kiuchi, “Multielectron beam blanking aperture array system SYNAPSE-2000,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 3813–3820 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Osipov, A. V.

A. V. Osipov, P. Patzner, and P. Hess, “Kinetics of laser-induced oxidation of silicon near room temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 275–280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Patzner, A. V. Osipov, and P. Hess, “Photoinduced self-limited low-temperature growth of ultra-thin silicon-oxide films with water vapor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 85(2), 145–150 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oyama, T.

N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, S. Yamada, N. Takano, T. Oyama, and K. Ashida, “Etch stop of silicon surface induced by tribo-nanolithography,” NanoBiotechnology 16, 1411–1414 (2005).

Park, J. W.

J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, “Tribonanolithography of silicon in aqueous solution based on atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, ““Mechanical approach to nanomachining of silicon using oxide characteristics based on tribo nanolithography (TNL) in KOH solution,” ASME,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126(4), 801–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

H. T. Lee, J. S. Oh, K. H. Park, J. S. Ha, H. J. Yoo, and J. Y. Koo, “Nanometer-scale lithography on H-passivated Si(100) by atomic force microscope in air,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1451–1454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Patzner, P.

P. Patzner, A. V. Osipov, and P. Hess, “Photoinduced self-limited low-temperature growth of ultra-thin silicon-oxide films with water vapor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 85(2), 145–150 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Osipov, P. Patzner, and P. Hess, “Kinetics of laser-induced oxidation of silicon near room temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 275–280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Postek, C. J.

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, C. J. Postek, and J. Bennett, “Modification of hydrogen-passivated silicon by a scanning tunnelling microscope operating air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(20), 2001–2003 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Quate, C. F.

S. C. Minne, H. T. Soh, P. Flueckinger, and C. F. Quate, “Fabrication of 0.1-MU-M Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with the atomic-force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 703–705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saiki, K.

K. Ueno, R. Okada, K. Saiki, and A. Koma, “Nano-scale anodic oxidation on a Si(111) surface terminated by bilayer-GaSe,” Surf. Sci. 514(1-3), 27–32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

B. Schmidt, L. Bischoff, and J. Teichert, “Writing FIB implantation and subsequent anisotropic wet chemical etching for fabrication of 3D structures in silicon,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 61(1-3), 369–373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneir, J.

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, C. J. Postek, and J. Bennett, “Modification of hydrogen-passivated silicon by a scanning tunnelling microscope operating air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(20), 2001–2003 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sivakumar, N. R.

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. K. A. Ngoi, P. Stanley, L. E. N. Lim, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Laser writing techniques for photomask fabrication using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(4), 493–496 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Snow, E. S.

P. M. Chapbell, E. S. Snow, and P. J. McMarr, “Fabrication of nanometer-scale side-gated silicon field-effect transistors with an atomic-force microwave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(11), 1388–1390 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Soh, H. T.

S. C. Minne, H. T. Soh, P. Flueckinger, and C. F. Quate, “Fabrication of 0.1-MU-M Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with the atomic-force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 703–705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stanely, P.

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanely, L. E. N. Lim, and B. K. A. Ngoi, “Femtosecond pulsed laser direct writing system,” Opt. Eng. 41(6), 1441–1445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, P.

P. Stanley, K. Venkatakrishnan, and L. E. N. Lim, “Direct writing of photomask by ultrashort laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(1), 204–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. K. A. Ngoi, P. Stanley, L. E. N. Lim, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Laser writing techniques for photomask fabrication using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(4), 493–496 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takano, N.

N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, S. Yamada, N. Takano, T. Oyama, and K. Ashida, “Etch stop of silicon surface induced by tribo-nanolithography,” NanoBiotechnology 16, 1411–1414 (2005).

Takayama, S.

D. Lim, Y. Kamotani, B. Cho, J. Mazumder, and S. Takayama, “Fabrication of microfluidic mixers and artificial vasculatures using a high-brightness diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser direct write method,” Lab Chip 3(4), 318–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tan, B.

B. Tan, A. Dalili, and K. Venkatakrishnan, ““High Repetition Rate Femtosecond Laser Nano-machining of Thin Films,” J,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 537–545 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanely, L. E. N. Lim, and B. K. A. Ngoi, “Femtosecond pulsed laser direct writing system,” Opt. Eng. 41(6), 1441–1445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. K. A. Ngoi, P. Stanley, L. E. N. Lim, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Laser writing techniques for photomask fabrication using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(4), 493–496 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teichert, J.

B. Schmidt, L. Bischoff, and J. Teichert, “Writing FIB implantation and subsequent anisotropic wet chemical etching for fabrication of 3D structures in silicon,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 61(1-3), 369–373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, K.

K. Ueno, R. Okada, K. Saiki, and A. Koma, “Nano-scale anodic oxidation on a Si(111) surface terminated by bilayer-GaSe,” Surf. Sci. 514(1-3), 27–32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Venkatakrishnan, K.

B. Tan, A. Dalili, and K. Venkatakrishnan, ““High Repetition Rate Femtosecond Laser Nano-machining of Thin Films,” J,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 537–545 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Stanley, K. Venkatakrishnan, and L. E. N. Lim, “Direct writing of photomask by ultrashort laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(1), 204–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. K. A. Ngoi, P. Stanley, L. E. N. Lim, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Laser writing techniques for photomask fabrication using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(4), 493–496 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanely, L. E. N. Lim, and B. K. A. Ngoi, “Femtosecond pulsed laser direct writing system,” Opt. Eng. 41(6), 1441–1445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weinberger, D. A.

D. A. Weinberger, S. Hong, C. A. Mirkin, B. W. Wessels, and T. B. Higgins, ““Combinatorial generation and analysis of nanometer- and micrometer-scale silicon features via “dip-pen” nanolithography and wet chemical etching,” Adv. Mater. 12(21), 1600–1603 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, B. W.

D. A. Weinberger, S. Hong, C. A. Mirkin, B. W. Wessels, and T. B. Higgins, ““Combinatorial generation and analysis of nanometer- and micrometer-scale silicon features via “dip-pen” nanolithography and wet chemical etching,” Adv. Mater. 12(21), 1600–1603 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. L.

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, G. Y.

Y. Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, G. Luo, X. Zhou, G. Y. Xie, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Fabrication of silicon-based multilevel nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation and anisotropic wet etching,” Nanotechnology 16(4), 422–428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, S.

N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, S. Yamada, N. Takano, T. Oyama, and K. Ashida, “Etch stop of silicon surface induced by tribo-nanolithography,” NanoBiotechnology 16, 1411–1414 (2005).

Yasuda, H.

H. Yasuda, S. Arai, J. Kai, Y. Ooae, T. Abe, S. Maruyama, and T. Kiuchi, “Multielectron beam blanking aperture array system SYNAPSE-2000,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 3813–3820 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yen, R.

J. M. Liu, R. Yen, H. Kurz, and N. Bloembergen, “Phase-Transformation on and charged-partocle emisson from a silicon crystal-surface, induced by picosecond laser-pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39(9), 755–757 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, H. J.

H. T. Lee, J. S. Oh, K. H. Park, J. S. Ha, H. J. Yoo, and J. Y. Koo, “Nanometer-scale lithography on H-passivated Si(100) by atomic force microscope in air,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1451–1454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Y. Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, G. Luo, X. Zhou, G. Y. Xie, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Fabrication of silicon-based multilevel nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation and anisotropic wet etching,” Nanotechnology 16(4), 422–428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, G. Luo, X. Zhou, G. Y. Xie, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Fabrication of silicon-based multilevel nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation and anisotropic wet etching,” Nanotechnology 16(4), 422–428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Y. Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, G. Luo, X. Zhou, G. Y. Xie, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Fabrication of silicon-based multilevel nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation and anisotropic wet etching,” Nanotechnology 16(4), 422–428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

Y. Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, G. Luo, X. Zhou, G. Y. Xie, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Fabrication of silicon-based multilevel nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation and anisotropic wet etching,” Nanotechnology 16(4), 422–428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

D. A. Weinberger, S. Hong, C. A. Mirkin, B. W. Wessels, and T. B. Higgins, ““Combinatorial generation and analysis of nanometer- and micrometer-scale silicon features via “dip-pen” nanolithography and wet chemical etching,” Adv. Mater. 12(21), 1600–1603 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, “Tribonanolithography of silicon in aqueous solution based on atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. S. S. Chien, J. W. Chang, S. W. Lin, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chan, S. Gwo, T. S. Chao, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanometer-scale conversion of Si3N4 to SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 360–362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Liu, R. Yen, H. Kurz, and N. Bloembergen, “Phase-Transformation on and charged-partocle emisson from a silicon crystal-surface, induced by picosecond laser-pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39(9), 755–757 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dagata, J. Schneir, H. H. Harary, C. J. Evans, C. J. Postek, and J. Bennett, “Modification of hydrogen-passivated silicon by a scanning tunnelling microscope operating air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(20), 2001–2003 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Minne, H. T. Soh, P. Flueckinger, and C. F. Quate, “Fabrication of 0.1-MU-M Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with the atomic-force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(6), 703–705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Chapbell, E. S. Snow, and P. J. McMarr, “Fabrication of nanometer-scale side-gated silicon field-effect transistors with an atomic-force microwave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(11), 1388–1390 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

B. Tan, A. Dalili, and K. Venkatakrishnan, ““High Repetition Rate Femtosecond Laser Nano-machining of Thin Films,” J,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 537–545 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. K. A. Ngoi, P. Stanley, L. E. N. Lim, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Laser writing techniques for photomask fabrication using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(4), 493–496 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Osipov, P. Patzner, and P. Hess, “Kinetics of laser-induced oxidation of silicon near room temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 275–280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Patzner, A. V. Osipov, and P. Hess, “Photoinduced self-limited low-temperature growth of ultra-thin silicon-oxide films with water vapor,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 85(2), 145–150 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

J. Bonse, K. W. Brzezinka, and A. J. Meixner, “Modifying single-crystalline silicon by femtosecond laser pulses: an analysis by micro Raman spectroscopy, scanning laser microscopy and atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 221(1-4), 215–230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bradley, W. R. Anderson, J. J. McClelland, and R. J. Celotta, “Nanofabrication via atom optics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 141(3-4), 210–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.

J. W. Park, N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, and D. W. Lee, ““Mechanical approach to nanomachining of silicon using oxide characteristics based on tribo nanolithography (TNL) in KOH solution,” ASME,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126(4), 801–806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

H. T. Lee, J. S. Oh, K. H. Park, J. S. Ha, H. J. Yoo, and J. Y. Koo, “Nanometer-scale lithography on H-passivated Si(100) by atomic force microscope in air,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1451–1454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

H. Yasuda, S. Arai, J. Kai, Y. Ooae, T. Abe, S. Maruyama, and T. Kiuchi, “Multielectron beam blanking aperture array system SYNAPSE-2000,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 3813–3820 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Stanley, K. Venkatakrishnan, and L. E. N. Lim, “Direct writing of photomask by ultrashort laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(1), 204–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

D. Lim, Y. Kamotani, B. Cho, J. Mazumder, and S. Takayama, “Fabrication of microfluidic mixers and artificial vasculatures using a high-brightness diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser direct write method,” Lab Chip 3(4), 318–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

NanoBiotechnology

N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, S. Yamada, N. Takano, T. Oyama, and K. Ashida, “Etch stop of silicon surface induced by tribo-nanolithography,” NanoBiotechnology 16, 1411–1414 (2005).

Nanotechnology

Y. Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, G. Luo, X. Zhou, G. Y. Xie, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Fabrication of silicon-based multilevel nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation and anisotropic wet etching,” Nanotechnology 16(4), 422–428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanely, L. E. N. Lim, and B. K. A. Ngoi, “Femtosecond pulsed laser direct writing system,” Opt. Eng. 41(6), 1441–1445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys.

B. Schmidt, L. Bischoff, and J. Teichert, “Writing FIB implantation and subsequent anisotropic wet chemical etching for fabrication of 3D structures in silicon,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 61(1-3), 369–373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci.

K. Ueno, R. Okada, K. Saiki, and A. Koma, “Nano-scale anodic oxidation on a Si(111) surface terminated by bilayer-GaSe,” Surf. Sci. 514(1-3), 27–32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Bauerle, Laser processing and chemistry, (Springer, New York, 3rd ed., 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics