Abstract

We report on a unified theoretical model of the resolution of SPR sensors which makes it possible to predict the ultimate performance of all major configurations of SPR sensors. The theory indicates that the performance of SPR sensors is independent of the method of excitation of surface plasmons (prism or grating coupling) or the method of modulation (amplitude, angular or wavelength) and depends dominantly on the noise properties of the light source and detector. Results of the theoretical analysis are compared with the performance reported for several SPR sensors to illustrate that the best state-of-art SPR sensors are approaching their theoretical limits. Possibilities for further advances in the performance of SPR sensor technology are discussed.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors, Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors (Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Karlsson and A. Fält, “Experimental design for kinetic analysis of protein-protein interactions with surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” J. Immunol. Methods 200(1-2), 121–133 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. T. Hastings, J. Guo, P. D. Keathley, P. B. Kumaresh, Y. Wei, S. Law, and L. G. Bachas, “Optimal self-referenced sensing using long- and short- range surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17661–17672 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Dostálek and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on an array of diffraction gratings for highly parallelized observation of biomolecular interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 303–310 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. K. Popov, N. Bonod, and S. Enoch, “Comparison of plasmon surface waves on shallow and deep metallic 1D and 2D gratings,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4224–4237 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. J. Alleyne, A. G. Kirk, R. C. McPhedran, N. A. P. Nicorovici, and D. Maystre, “Enhanced SPR sensitivity using periodic metallic structures,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8163–8169 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. M. Chinowsky, M. S. Grow, K. S. Johnston, K. Nelson, T. Edwards, E. Fu, and P. Yager, “Compact, high performance surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2208–2215 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(5), 1399–1404 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Patskovsky, M. Vallieres, M. Maisonneuve, I. H. Song, M. Meunier, and A. V. Kabashin, “Designing efficient zero calibration point for phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2255–2263 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. M. Wu and M. C. Pao, “Sensitivity-tunable optical sensors based on surface plasmon resonance and phase detection,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3509–3514 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Raether, “Surface-Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings,” Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 111, 1–133 (1988).
  14. M. Servin, J. C. Estrada, J. A. Quiroga, J. F. Mosiño, and M. Cywiak, “Noise in phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8789–8794 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. Ran and S. G. Lipson, “Comparison between sensitivities of phase and intensity detection in surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5641–5650 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. M. Yeatman, “Resolution and sensitivity in surface plasmon microscopy and sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 11(6-7), 635–649 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Surface plasmon resonance: instrumental resolution using photo diode arrays,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(11), 1630–1638 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, J. Melendez, T. Murphy, G. Miller, and H. Garner, “Detection of DNA hybridization using the TISPR-1 surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Biochem. 274(1), 7–17 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. M. Chinowsky, L. S. Jung, and S. S. Yee, “Optimal linear data analysis for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 89–97 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Tobiška and J. Homola, “Advanced data processing for SPR biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 162–169 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherová, and J. Homola, “A new surface plasmon resonance sensor for high-throughput screening applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherova, and J. Homola, “Towards parallelized surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 187–193 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. I. Stemmler, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Compact surface plasmon resonance-transducers with spectral readout for biosensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 98–105 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(7), 2100–2105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Thirstrup and W. Zong, “Data analysis for surface plasmon resonance sensors using dynamic baseline algorithm,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 106(2), 796–802 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, “Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 91(1-3), 266–274 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Piliarik, M. Vala, I. Tichý, and J. Homola, “Compact and low-cost biosensor based on novel approach to spectroscopy of surface plasmons,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3430–3435 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Slavík and J. Homola, “Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(1), 10–12 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009

M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(5), 1399–1404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(7), 2100–2105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, M. Vala, I. Tichý, and J. Homola, “Compact and low-cost biosensor based on novel approach to spectroscopy of surface plasmons,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3430–3435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Patskovsky, M. Vallieres, M. Maisonneuve, I. H. Song, M. Meunier, and A. V. Kabashin, “Designing efficient zero calibration point for phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2255–2263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Servin, J. C. Estrada, J. A. Quiroga, J. F. Mosiño, and M. Cywiak, “Noise in phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8789–8794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dostálek and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on an array of diffraction gratings for highly parallelized observation of biomolecular interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 303–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. M. Chinowsky, M. S. Grow, K. S. Johnston, K. Nelson, T. Edwards, E. Fu, and P. Yager, “Compact, high performance surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2208–2215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherova, and J. Homola, “Towards parallelized surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Popov, N. Bonod, and S. Enoch, “Comparison of plasmon surface waves on shallow and deep metallic 1D and 2D gratings,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4224–4237 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Alleyne, A. G. Kirk, R. C. McPhedran, N. A. P. Nicorovici, and D. Maystre, “Enhanced SPR sensitivity using periodic metallic structures,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8163–8169 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Hastings, J. Guo, P. D. Keathley, P. B. Kumaresh, Y. Wei, S. Law, and L. G. Bachas, “Optimal self-referenced sensing using long- and short- range surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17661–17672 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavík and J. Homola, “Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(1), 10–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

C. Thirstrup and W. Zong, “Data analysis for surface plasmon resonance sensors using dynamic baseline algorithm,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 106(2), 796–802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Tobiška and J. Homola, “Advanced data processing for SPR biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 162–169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherová, and J. Homola, “A new surface plasmon resonance sensor for high-throughput screening applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, “Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 91(1-3), 266–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. G. Nenninger, M. Piliarik, and J. Homola, “Data analysis for optical sensors based on spectroscopy of surface plasmons,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(12), 2038–2046 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Surface plasmon resonance: instrumental resolution using photo diode arrays,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(11), 1630–1638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, J. Melendez, T. Murphy, G. Miller, and H. Garner, “Detection of DNA hybridization using the TISPR-1 surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Biochem. 274(1), 7–17 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Chinowsky, L. S. Jung, and S. S. Yee, “Optimal linear data analysis for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 89–97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Stemmler, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Compact surface plasmon resonance-transducers with spectral readout for biosensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 98–105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Karlsson and A. Fält, “Experimental design for kinetic analysis of protein-protein interactions with surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” J. Immunol. Methods 200(1-2), 121–133 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

E. M. Yeatman, “Resolution and sensitivity in surface plasmon microscopy and sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 11(6-7), 635–649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. Raether, “Surface-Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings,” Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 111, 1–133 (1988).

Alleyne, C. J.

Arwin, H.

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bachas, L. G.

Bardin, F.

F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(7), 2100–2105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartholomew, D. U.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, “Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 91(1-3), 266–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bellemain, A.

F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(7), 2100–2105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

Brecht, A.

I. Stemmler, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Compact surface plasmon resonance-transducers with spectral readout for biosensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 98–105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Canva, M.

F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(7), 2100–2105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chinowsky, T. M.

T. M. Chinowsky, M. S. Grow, K. S. Johnston, K. Nelson, T. Edwards, E. Fu, and P. Yager, “Compact, high performance surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2208–2215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, “Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 91(1-3), 266–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Chinowsky, L. S. Jung, and S. S. Yee, “Optimal linear data analysis for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 89–97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cywiak, M.

Dostálek, J.

J. Dostálek and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on an array of diffraction gratings for highly parallelized observation of biomolecular interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 303–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, T.

T. M. Chinowsky, M. S. Grow, K. S. Johnston, K. Nelson, T. Edwards, E. Fu, and P. Yager, “Compact, high performance surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2208–2215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elkind, J.

K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, J. Melendez, T. Murphy, G. Miller, and H. Garner, “Detection of DNA hybridization using the TISPR-1 surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Biochem. 274(1), 7–17 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elkind, J. L.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, “Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 91(1-3), 266–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

Estrada, J. C.

Etheridge, S.

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fält, A.

R. Karlsson and A. Fält, “Experimental design for kinetic analysis of protein-protein interactions with surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” J. Immunol. Methods 200(1-2), 121–133 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, E.

T. M. Chinowsky, M. S. Grow, K. S. Johnston, K. Nelson, T. Edwards, E. Fu, and P. Yager, “Compact, high performance surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2208–2215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garner, H.

K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, J. Melendez, T. Murphy, G. Miller, and H. Garner, “Detection of DNA hybridization using the TISPR-1 surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Biochem. 274(1), 7–17 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

I. Stemmler, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Compact surface plasmon resonance-transducers with spectral readout for biosensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 98–105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grow, M. S.

T. M. Chinowsky, M. S. Grow, K. S. Johnston, K. Nelson, T. Edwards, E. Fu, and P. Yager, “Compact, high performance surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2208–2215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

Hastings, J. T.

Homola, J.

M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(5), 1399–1404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, M. Vala, I. Tichý, and J. Homola, “Compact and low-cost biosensor based on novel approach to spectroscopy of surface plasmons,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3430–3435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dostálek and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on an array of diffraction gratings for highly parallelized observation of biomolecular interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 303–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherova, and J. Homola, “Towards parallelized surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík and J. Homola, “Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(1), 10–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherová, and J. Homola, “A new surface plasmon resonance sensor for high-throughput screening applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tobiška and J. Homola, “Advanced data processing for SPR biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 162–169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Nenninger, M. Piliarik, and J. Homola, “Data analysis for optical sensors based on spectroscopy of surface plasmons,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(12), 2038–2046 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johansen, K.

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Surface plasmon resonance: instrumental resolution using photo diode arrays,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(11), 1630–1638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K. S.

T. M. Chinowsky, M. S. Grow, K. S. Johnston, K. Nelson, T. Edwards, E. Fu, and P. Yager, “Compact, high performance surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2208–2215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jung, L. S.

T. M. Chinowsky, L. S. Jung, and S. S. Yee, “Optimal linear data analysis for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 89–97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

Kaiser, R.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, “Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 91(1-3), 266–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, R.

R. Karlsson and A. Fält, “Experimental design for kinetic analysis of protein-protein interactions with surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” J. Immunol. Methods 200(1-2), 121–133 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keathley, P. D.

Kirk, A. G.

Kukanskis, K.

K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, J. Melendez, T. Murphy, G. Miller, and H. Garner, “Detection of DNA hybridization using the TISPR-1 surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Biochem. 274(1), 7–17 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumaresh, P. B.

Law, S.

Liedberg, B.

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Surface plasmon resonance: instrumental resolution using photo diode arrays,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(11), 1630–1638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, S. G.

Lundstrom, I.

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Surface plasmon resonance: instrumental resolution using photo diode arrays,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(11), 1630–1638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maisonneuve, M.

Maystre, D.

McPhedran, R. C.

Melendez, J.

K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, J. Melendez, T. Murphy, G. Miller, and H. Garner, “Detection of DNA hybridization using the TISPR-1 surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Biochem. 274(1), 7–17 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meunier, M.

Miller, G.

K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, J. Melendez, T. Murphy, G. Miller, and H. Garner, “Detection of DNA hybridization using the TISPR-1 surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Biochem. 274(1), 7–17 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosiño, J. F.

Murphy, T.

K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, J. Melendez, T. Murphy, G. Miller, and H. Garner, “Detection of DNA hybridization using the TISPR-1 surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Biochem. 274(1), 7–17 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, K.

T. M. Chinowsky, M. S. Grow, K. S. Johnston, K. Nelson, T. Edwards, E. Fu, and P. Yager, “Compact, high performance surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2208–2215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nenninger, G. G.

G. G. Nenninger, M. Piliarik, and J. Homola, “Data analysis for optical sensors based on spectroscopy of surface plasmons,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(12), 2038–2046 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nicorovici, N. A. P.

Pao, M. C.

Párová, L.

M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(5), 1399–1404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patskovsky, S.

Piliarik, M.

M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(5), 1399–1404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, M. Vala, I. Tichý, and J. Homola, “Compact and low-cost biosensor based on novel approach to spectroscopy of surface plasmons,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3430–3435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherova, and J. Homola, “Towards parallelized surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherová, and J. Homola, “A new surface plasmon resonance sensor for high-throughput screening applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Nenninger, M. Piliarik, and J. Homola, “Data analysis for optical sensors based on spectroscopy of surface plasmons,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(12), 2038–2046 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Popov, E. K.

Quinn, J. G.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, “Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 91(1-3), 266–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quiroga, J. A.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, “Surface-Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings,” Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 111, 1–133 (1988).

Ran, B.

Roach, J. A.

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roger, G.

F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(7), 2100–2105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Servin, M.

Slavík, R.

R. Slavík and J. Homola, “Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(1), 10–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, I. H.

Stalberg, R.

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Surface plasmon resonance: instrumental resolution using photo diode arrays,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(11), 1630–1638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stemmler, I.

I. Stemmler, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Compact surface plasmon resonance-transducers with spectral readout for biosensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 98–105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thirstrup, C.

C. Thirstrup and W. Zong, “Data analysis for surface plasmon resonance sensors using dynamic baseline algorithm,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 106(2), 796–802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tichý, I.

M. Piliarik, M. Vala, I. Tichý, and J. Homola, “Compact and low-cost biosensor based on novel approach to spectroscopy of surface plasmons,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3430–3435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tobiška, P.

P. Tobiška and J. Homola, “Advanced data processing for SPR biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 162–169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vaisocherova, H.

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherova, and J. Homola, “Towards parallelized surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vaisocherová, H.

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherová, and J. Homola, “A new surface plasmon resonance sensor for high-throughput screening applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vala, M.

M. Piliarik, M. Vala, I. Tichý, and J. Homola, “Compact and low-cost biosensor based on novel approach to spectroscopy of surface plasmons,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3430–3435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vallieres, M.

Wei, Y.

Wu, C. M.

Yager, P.

T. M. Chinowsky, M. S. Grow, K. S. Johnston, K. Nelson, T. Edwards, E. Fu, and P. Yager, “Compact, high performance surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2208–2215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeatman, E. M.

E. M. Yeatman, “Resolution and sensitivity in surface plasmon microscopy and sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 11(6-7), 635–649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

T. M. Chinowsky, L. S. Jung, and S. S. Yee, “Optimal linear data analysis for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 89–97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zong, W.

C. Thirstrup and W. Zong, “Data analysis for surface plasmon resonance sensors using dynamic baseline algorithm,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 106(2), 796–802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem.

K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, J. Melendez, T. Murphy, G. Miller, and H. Garner, “Detection of DNA hybridization using the TISPR-1 surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Anal. Biochem. 274(1), 7–17 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherová, and J. Homola, “A new surface plasmon resonance sensor for high-throughput screening applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2104–2110 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(7), 2100–2105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, M. Vala, I. Tichý, and J. Homola, “Compact and low-cost biosensor based on novel approach to spectroscopy of surface plasmons,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3430–3435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Chinowsky, M. S. Grow, K. S. Johnston, K. Nelson, T. Edwards, E. Fu, and P. Yager, “Compact, high performance surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(9-10), 2208–2215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(5), 1399–1404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Yeatman, “Resolution and sensitivity in surface plasmon microscopy and sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 11(6-7), 635–649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Immunol. Methods

R. Karlsson and A. Fält, “Experimental design for kinetic analysis of protein-protein interactions with surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” J. Immunol. Methods 200(1-2), 121–133 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

G. G. Nenninger, M. Piliarik, and J. Homola, “Data analysis for optical sensors based on spectroscopy of surface plasmons,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(12), 2038–2046 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Johansen, R. Stalberg, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Surface plasmon resonance: instrumental resolution using photo diode arrays,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(11), 1630–1638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

J. Dostálek and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on an array of diffraction gratings for highly parallelized observation of biomolecular interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 303–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík and J. Homola, “Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(1), 10–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Vala, S. Etheridge, J. A. Roach, and J. Homola, “Long-range surface plasmons for sensitive detection of bacterial analytes,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Thirstrup and W. Zong, “Data analysis for surface plasmon resonance sensors using dynamic baseline algorithm,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 106(2), 796–802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, “Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 91(1-3), 266–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherova, and J. Homola, “Towards parallelized surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Stemmler, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Compact surface plasmon resonance-transducers with spectral readout for biosensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 98–105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Chinowsky, L. S. Jung, and S. S. Yee, “Optimal linear data analysis for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 89–97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Tobiška and J. Homola, “Advanced data processing for SPR biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 162–169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Springer Tracts Mod. Phys.

H. Raether, “Surface-Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings,” Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 111, 1–133 (1988).

Other

J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors, Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors (Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of an optical system of an SPR sensor. (b) Typical wavelength or angular spectra of light coupled with a surface plasmon. The refractive index change Δn results in the shift in the resonant wavelength Δλr , angle Δθr and the change in the amplitude of reflected light ΔR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensitivity of amplitude-based SPR sensors as a function of wavelength. Sensitivity of an SPR sensor with prism coupling calculated using Eq. (14) and sensitivity of an SPR sensor with grating coupling calculated rigorously; grating periods - 800 nm and 400 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(color online) Angular (a) and wavelength (b) width of SPR dip for an SPR sensor with grating coupling as a function of wavelength calculated with a rigorous model of light diffraction and theoretical models provided by Eq. (25) for the angular width and Eq. (26) for the wavelength width.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The ultimate resolution of an SPR sensor calculated using Eq. (29) (parameters given in the text) and compared with the best experimental results reported by: (a) Stemmler et al. [24], (b) Thirstrup et al. [26], (c) Piliarik et al. [9], (d) Nenninger et al. [2], (e) Chinowsky et al. [27], (f) Biacore 3000 (GE Healthcare, USA), (g) Wu et al. [11], (h) Bardin et al. [25], (i) Piliarik et al. [28].

Equations (29)

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βsp=ωcn2εmn2+εm=ωc(nef+iγi),
Δef(prism)=npsin(θ)nef=0,
Δef(grating)=nsin(θ)+λmΛnef=0,
S=δYδnefδnefδn,
σRI=σsoS,
Ij(t)=I¯+c(t)+sj(t),
ρ=ρi,j=σc2σI2=σc2σc2+σs2,
σI(Σt)=σINt.
σI(Σp)=σINp1+(Np1)ρ=σINprA,
σso=σINrA,
S(I)=dIdnefnefn=I0dRdnefnefn.
R14γiγrΔef2+(γi+γr)2,
Δef=±(γi+γr)3.
S(I)=I0dRdnefnefn=±332I0γiγr(γi+γr)3nefn.
σRI(I)=σsoS(I)=239rAI0N(γi+γr)3γiγr(nefn)1σI.
σso(θ,λ)=KrsσI(th)I0Nw(θ,λ)dR,
rs=1ρ,
Sθ=dθrdn=dθrdnefnefn,
Sλ=dλrdn=dλrdnefnefn,
(dθrdnef)prism=(np2nef2)12,
(dλrdnef)prism=(dnpdλnefnpdnefdλ)1,
(dθrdnef)grating=sgn(m)(nd(nef|m|λΛ)2)12,
(dλrdnef)grating=(|m|Λdnefdλ)1,
dR=2γiγr(γi+γr)2.
wθ2(γi+γr)dθrdnef,
wλ2(γi+γr)dλrdnef,
σRI(λ,prism)=σRI(θ,prism)=σRI(λ,grating)=σRI(θ,grating)=KrsσI(th)I0N(γi+γr)3γiγr(nefn)1
σRI(all)=KrN(γi+γr)3γiγr(nefn)1σI(max)I0
σRI(all)=KrN(γi/γr+1)3(γi/γr)2εmn32(εm)2σI(max)I0=ABCσI(max)I0.

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