Abstract

We investigate the intensity noise of a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser based on a novel technique where the noise is sampled with a low repetition rate signal in a low walk-off Raman amplifier configuration. With this method, we experimentally demonstrate that continuous-wave Raman fiber lasers exhibit high contrast intensity fluctuations on a timescale of several tens to hundreds of GHz. In fact, the power of the Raman laser fluctuates between nearly zero and a high multiple of the average power. Numerical simulations are used to study the role of pump depletion on the noise transfer process. Our study validates models of pumps used in some recent continuous wave supercontinuum generation simulations.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1353-1355 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martín-López, M. González-Herráez, and S. Coen, "The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation." Opt. Express 13, 6615-6625 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. H. Frosz, O. Bang, and A. Bjarklev, "Soliton collision and Raman gain regimes in continuous-wave pumped supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 14, 9391-9407 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "A new model for CW supercontinuum generation," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO’2008 (The Optical Society of America, San Jose, 2008). Paper CMT3.
  6. J.-C. Bouteiller, "Spectral modeling of Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1698-1700 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Spectral broadening in Raman fiber lasers." Opt. Lett. 31, 3007-3009 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, "Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1135 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Keita, P. Delaye, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, "Relative intensity noise transfer of large-bandwidth pump lasers in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2479-2485 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Hammani, C. Finot, J. M. Dudley, and G. Millot, "Optical rogue-wave-like extreme value fluctuations in fiber Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 16, 16467-16474 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser & Photonics Review,  1, 231-248 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martín-López, M. González-Herráez, and S. Coen, "The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation." Opt. Express 13, 6615-6625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1353-1355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Bouteiller, "Spectral modeling of Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1698-1700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Andrekson, P.

P. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser & Photonics Review,  1, 231-248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

Avdokhin, A. V.

Babin, S. A.

Bang, O.

Bjarklev, A.

Bouteiller, J.-C.

J.-C. Bouteiller, "Spectral modeling of Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1698-1700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Churkin, D. V.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Spectral broadening in Raman fiber lasers." Opt. Lett. 31, 3007-3009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

Corredera, P.

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delaye, P.

K. Keita, P. Delaye, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, "Relative intensity noise transfer of large-bandwidth pump lasers in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2479-2485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

Finot, C.

Fludger, C. R. S.

Fotiadi, A. A.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frey, R.

K. Keita, P. Delaye, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, "Relative intensity noise transfer of large-bandwidth pump lasers in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2479-2485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frosz, M. H.

González-Herráez, M.

F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martín-López, M. González-Herráez, and S. Coen, "The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation." Opt. Express 13, 6615-6625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hammani, K.

Handerek, V.

Harper, P.

Hernanz, M. L.

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Horche, P. R.

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ismagulov, A. E.

Kablukov, S. I.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Spectral broadening in Raman fiber lasers." Opt. Lett. 31, 3007-3009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karalekas, V.

Keita, K.

K. Keita, P. Delaye, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, "Relative intensity noise transfer of large-bandwidth pump lasers in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2479-2485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martín-López, S.

F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martín-López, M. González-Herráez, and S. Coen, "The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation." Opt. Express 13, 6615-6625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mears, R. J.

Medvedkov, O. I.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V. K.

Millot, G.

Podivilov, E. V.

Popov, S. V.

Roosen, G.

K. Keita, P. Delaye, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, "Relative intensity noise transfer of large-bandwidth pump lasers in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2479-2485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Turitsyn, S. K.

Vanholsbeeck, F.

Westlund, M.

P. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser & Photonics Review,  1, 231-248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J.-C. Bouteiller, "Spectral modeling of Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1698-1700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

K. Keita, P. Delaye, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, "Relative intensity noise transfer of large-bandwidth pump lasers in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2479-2485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laser & Photonics Review (1)

P. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser & Photonics Review,  1, 231-248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "A new model for CW supercontinuum generation," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO’2008 (The Optical Society of America, San Jose, 2008). Paper CMT3.

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