Abstract

We investigate the intensity noise of a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser based on a novel technique where the noise is sampled with a low repetition rate signal in a low walk-off Raman amplifier configuration. With this method, we experimentally demonstrate that continuous-wave Raman fiber lasers exhibit high contrast intensity fluctuations on a timescale of several tens to hundreds of GHz. In fact, the power of the Raman laser fluctuates between nearly zero and a high multiple of the average power. Numerical simulations are used to study the role of pump depletion on the noise transfer process. Our study validates models of pumps used in some recent continuous wave supercontinuum generation simulations.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1353-1355 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martín-López, M. González-Herráez, and S. Coen, "The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation." Opt. Express 13, 6615-6625 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. H. Frosz, O. Bang, and A. Bjarklev, "Soliton collision and Raman gain regimes in continuous-wave pumped supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 14, 9391-9407 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "A new model for CW supercontinuum generation," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO’2008 (The Optical Society of America, San Jose, 2008). Paper CMT3.
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-C. Bouteiller, "Spectral modeling of Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1698-1700 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Spectral broadening in Raman fiber lasers." Opt. Lett. 31, 3007-3009 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, "Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1135 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Keita, P. Delaye, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, "Relative intensity noise transfer of large-bandwidth pump lasers in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2479-2485 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Hammani, C. Finot, J. M. Dudley, and G. Millot, "Optical rogue-wave-like extreme value fluctuations in fiber Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 16, 16467-16474 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser & Photonics Review,  1, 231-248 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

2005

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martín-López, M. González-Herráez, and S. Coen, "The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation." Opt. Express 13, 6615-6625 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1353-1355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Bouteiller, "Spectral modeling of Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1698-1700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

Andrekson, P.

P. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser & Photonics Review,  1, 231-248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

Avdokhin, A. V.

Babin, S. A.

Bang, O.

Bjarklev, A.

Bouteiller, J.-C.

J.-C. Bouteiller, "Spectral modeling of Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1698-1700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Churkin, D. V.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Spectral broadening in Raman fiber lasers." Opt. Lett. 31, 3007-3009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

Corredera, P.

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delaye, P.

K. Keita, P. Delaye, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, "Relative intensity noise transfer of large-bandwidth pump lasers in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2479-2485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

Finot, C.

Fludger, C. R. S.

Fotiadi, A. A.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frey, R.

K. Keita, P. Delaye, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, "Relative intensity noise transfer of large-bandwidth pump lasers in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2479-2485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frosz, M. H.

González-Herráez, M.

F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martín-López, M. González-Herráez, and S. Coen, "The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation." Opt. Express 13, 6615-6625 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hammani, K.

Handerek, V.

Harper, P.

Hernanz, M. L.

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Horche, P. R.

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ismagulov, A. E.

Kablukov, S. I.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Spectral broadening in Raman fiber lasers." Opt. Lett. 31, 3007-3009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karalekas, V.

Keita, K.

K. Keita, P. Delaye, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, "Relative intensity noise transfer of large-bandwidth pump lasers in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2479-2485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martín-López, S.

F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martín-López, M. González-Herráez, and S. Coen, "The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation." Opt. Express 13, 6615-6625 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mears, R. J.

Medvedkov, O. I.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V. K.

Millot, G.

Podivilov, E. V.

Popov, S. V.

Roosen, G.

K. Keita, P. Delaye, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, "Relative intensity noise transfer of large-bandwidth pump lasers in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2479-2485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Turitsyn, S. K.

Vanholsbeeck, F.

Westlund, M.

P. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser & Photonics Review,  1, 231-248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J.-C. Bouteiller, "Spectral modeling of Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1698-1700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, "Relative intensity noise in cascaded-Raman fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

K. Keita, P. Delaye, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, "Relative intensity noise transfer of large-bandwidth pump lasers in Raman fiber amplifiers." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2479-2485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laser & Photonics Review

P. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser & Photonics Review,  1, 231-248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "A new model for CW supercontinuum generation," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO’2008 (The Optical Society of America, San Jose, 2008). Paper CMT3.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) RF-spectra of the output signal with a co- (solid, zero walk-off) and counter-propagating (dotted) pump. (b) Overlay of 30 oscilloscope traces of pulses amplified with the co-propagating pump (black), with a single trace in inset. The dashed line in (a) and the gray lines in (b) are measured in the absence of pump. (c) Signal noise versus pump-to-signal walk-off. Fiber length is 150 m.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) RIN versus walk-off with 1000 m of LEAF (circles). The result from the 150 m fiber [Fig. 1(c)], translated vertically for comparison, is superimposed (red crosses). (b) Maximum peak power normalized to the average peak power as a function of walk-off.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Signal RIN obtained by simulation of the noise transfer process in a 150 m long LEAF with parameters identical to that of the experiment for an average signal power Ps of 300 µW (solid) and 500 µW (dashed). The pump laser has a 200 GHz FWHM sech2 spectral linewidth with a random spectral phase.

Equations (3)

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fc=12πDλLeff ,
zps(z,t)=αPs(z,t)+gRPs (z,t)Pp(z,t),
[z(Δτ/L)t]Pp(z,t)=αPp(z,t)gRPs(z,t)Pp (z,t).

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