Abstract

We report what we believe to be the first use of organic nanostructures for efficient colour conversion of gallium nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs). The particular nanomaterials, based on star-shaped truxene oligofluorenes, offer an attractive alternative to inorganic colloidal quantum dots in the search for novel and functional ‘nanophosphors’. The truxenes have been formed into a composite with photoresist and ink-jet printed onto microstructured gallium nitride LEDs, resulting in a demonstrator hybrid microdisplay technology with pixel size ~32µm. The output power density of the hybrid device was measured to be ~8.4mW/cm2 per pixel at driving current density of 870.8A/cm2 and the efficiency of colour conversion at drive current of 7mA was estimated to be approximately 50%.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V.I . Klimov, "Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642-646 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Heliotis, G. Itskos, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, I. M. Watson, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic semiconductor heterostructures with efficient non-radiative energy transfer," Adv. Mater. 18, 334-338 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Nakamura, "Current status of GaN-based solid state lighting," MRS Bull. 34, 101-107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2650-2658 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Xu, J. Zhang, K. M. Davitt, Y. K. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Application of blue-green and ultraviolet micro-LEDs to biological imaging and detection," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 094013 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D.S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson, and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. A. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Contact printing of quantum dot light emitting devices," Nano Lett. 8, 4513-4517 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, "Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13695-13702 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Y. Lai, R. D. Xia, Q. Y. He, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Enhanced solid-state luminescence and low-threshold lasing from starburst macromolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 21, 355-360 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Heliotis, S.A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243304 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Cluster issue on ‘Micro-pixellated LED’s for science and instrumentation’ (Guest Editors, M.D. Dawson and M.A.A. Neil) J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 090301 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. A. DeFranco, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and G. G. Malliaras, "Photolithographic patterning of organic electronic materials," Org. Electron. 7, 22-28 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Raabe and J. Michl, The Chemistry of Organic Silicon Compounds (John Wiley, 1989), Chap. 17.
  19. E. Tekin, P. J. Smith, S. Hoeppener, A. M. J. van den Berg, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 23-28 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lai, R. D. Xia, Q. Y. He, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Enhanced solid-state luminescence and low-threshold lasing from starburst macromolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 21, 355-360 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, "Current status of GaN-based solid state lighting," MRS Bull. 34, 101-107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

Cluster issue on ‘Micro-pixellated LED’s for science and instrumentation’ (Guest Editors, M.D. Dawson and M.A.A. Neil) J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 090301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Contact printing of quantum dot light emitting devices," Nano Lett. 8, 4513-4517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. Zhang, K. M. Davitt, Y. K. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Application of blue-green and ultraviolet micro-LEDs to biological imaging and detection," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 094013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D.S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson, and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2650-2658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Tekin, P. J. Smith, S. Hoeppener, A. M. J. van den Berg, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

G. Heliotis, S.A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, G. Itskos, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, I. M. Watson, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic semiconductor heterostructures with efficient non-radiative energy transfer," Adv. Mater. 18, 334-338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. DeFranco, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and G. G. Malliaras, "Photolithographic patterning of organic electronic materials," Org. Electron. 7, 22-28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V.I . Klimov, "Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642-646 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, "Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13695-13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achermann, M.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V.I . Klimov, "Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642-646 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, S. C.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anikeeva, P. O.

L. A. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Contact printing of quantum dot light emitting devices," Nano Lett. 8, 4513-4517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

L. A. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Contact printing of quantum dot light emitting devices," Nano Lett. 8, 4513-4517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berridge, R.

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, "Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13695-13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, D. D. C.

W. Y. Lai, R. D. Xia, Q. Y. He, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Enhanced solid-state luminescence and low-threshold lasing from starburst macromolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 21, 355-360 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, S.A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, G. Itskos, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, I. M. Watson, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic semiconductor heterostructures with efficient non-radiative energy transfer," Adv. Mater. 18, 334-338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, "Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13695-13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulovic, V.

L. A. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Contact printing of quantum dot light emitting devices," Nano Lett. 8, 4513-4517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choulis, S. A.

G. Heliotis, S.A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coe-Sullivan, S. A.

L. A. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Contact printing of quantum dot light emitting devices," Nano Lett. 8, 4513-4517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davitt, K. M.

H. Xu, J. Zhang, K. M. Davitt, Y. K. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Application of blue-green and ultraviolet micro-LEDs to biological imaging and detection," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 094013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cluster issue on ‘Micro-pixellated LED’s for science and instrumentation’ (Guest Editors, M.D. Dawson and M.A.A. Neil) J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 090301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D.S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson, and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2650-2658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, G. Itskos, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, I. M. Watson, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic semiconductor heterostructures with efficient non-radiative energy transfer," Adv. Mater. 18, 334-338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DeFranco, J. A.

J. A. DeFranco, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and G. G. Malliaras, "Photolithographic patterning of organic electronic materials," Org. Electron. 7, 22-28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elfstrom, D.

A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elson, D. S.

Feldmann, J.

E. Tekin, P. J. Smith, S. Hoeppener, A. M. J. van den Berg, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

French, P. M. W.

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D.S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson, and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2650-2658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Girkin, J. M.

Gong, Z.

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2650-2658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, C.

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2650-2658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D.S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson, and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D.S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson, and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2650-2658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guilhabert, B.

A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, Q. Y.

W. Y. Lai, R. D. Xia, Q. Y. He, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Enhanced solid-state luminescence and low-threshold lasing from starburst macromolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 21, 355-360 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heliotis, G.

G. Heliotis, S.A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, G. Itskos, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, I. M. Watson, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic semiconductor heterostructures with efficient non-radiative energy transfer," Adv. Mater. 18, 334-338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoeppener, S.

E. Tekin, P. J. Smith, S. Hoeppener, A. M. J. van den Berg, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

W. Y. Lai, R. D. Xia, Q. Y. He, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Enhanced solid-state luminescence and low-threshold lasing from starburst macromolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 21, 355-360 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itskos, G.

G. Heliotis, S.A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, G. Itskos, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, I. M. Watson, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic semiconductor heterostructures with efficient non-radiative energy transfer," Adv. Mater. 18, 334-338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, C. W.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kanibolotsky, A. L.

A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, "Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13695-13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, G.

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2650-2658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, G. T.

Kim, L. A.

L. A. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Contact printing of quantum dot light emitting devices," Nano Lett. 8, 4513-4517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klimov, V. I.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V.I . Klimov, "Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642-646 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koeberg, M.

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, "Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13695-13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koleske, D. D.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V.I . Klimov, "Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642-646 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kos, S.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V.I . Klimov, "Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642-646 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuehne, A. J. C.

A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. Y.

W. Y. Lai, R. D. Xia, Q. Y. He, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Enhanced solid-state luminescence and low-threshold lasing from starburst macromolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 21, 355-360 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Levermore, P. A.

W. Y. Lai, R. D. Xia, Q. Y. He, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Enhanced solid-state luminescence and low-threshold lasing from starburst macromolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 21, 355-360 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

J. A. DeFranco, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and G. G. Malliaras, "Photolithographic patterning of organic electronic materials," Org. Electron. 7, 22-28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mackintosh, A. R.

A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malliaras, G. G.

J. A. DeFranco, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and G. G. Malliaras, "Photolithographic patterning of organic electronic materials," Org. Electron. 7, 22-28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murray, R.

G. Heliotis, S.A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, G. Itskos, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, I. M. Watson, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic semiconductor heterostructures with efficient non-radiative energy transfer," Adv. Mater. 18, 334-338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, "Current status of GaN-based solid state lighting," MRS Bull. 34, 101-107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neil, M. A. A.

Cluster issue on ‘Micro-pixellated LED’s for science and instrumentation’ (Guest Editors, M.D. Dawson and M.A.A. Neil) J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 090301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D.S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson, and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2650-2658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A. V.

H. Xu, J. Zhang, K. M. Davitt, Y. K. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Application of blue-green and ultraviolet micro-LEDs to biological imaging and detection," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 094013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oddos, S.

Perepichka, I. F.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, "Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13695-13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pethrick, R. A.

A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petruska, M. A.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V.I . Klimov, "Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642-646 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poher, V.

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2650-2658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D.S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson, and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogach, A. L.

E. Tekin, P. J. Smith, S. Hoeppener, A. M. J. van den Berg, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

J. A. DeFranco, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and G. G. Malliaras, "Photolithographic patterning of organic electronic materials," Org. Electron. 7, 22-28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, U.S.

E. Tekin, P. J. Smith, S. Hoeppener, A. M. J. van den Berg, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, P. E.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skabara, P. J.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, "Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13695-13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. L.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V.I . Klimov, "Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642-646 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. J.

E. Tekin, P. J. Smith, S. Hoeppener, A. M. J. van den Berg, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. K.

H. Xu, J. Zhang, K. M. Davitt, Y. K. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Application of blue-green and ultraviolet micro-LEDs to biological imaging and detection," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 094013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stavrinou, P. N.

G. Heliotis, S.A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steckel, J. S.

L. A. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Contact printing of quantum dot light emitting devices," Nano Lett. 8, 4513-4517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steckl, A. J.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Susha, A. S.

E. Tekin, P. J. Smith, S. Hoeppener, A. M. J. van den Berg, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tekin, E.

E. Tekin, P. J. Smith, S. Hoeppener, A. M. J. van den Berg, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsiminis, G.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, A. M. J.

E. Tekin, P. J. Smith, S. Hoeppener, A. M. J. van den Berg, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

G. Heliotis, G. Itskos, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, I. M. Watson, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic semiconductor heterostructures with efficient non-radiative energy transfer," Adv. Mater. 18, 334-338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, R.

G. Heliotis, S.A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, R. D.

W. Y. Lai, R. D. Xia, Q. Y. He, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Enhanced solid-state luminescence and low-threshold lasing from starburst macromolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 21, 355-360 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, J. Zhang, K. M. Davitt, Y. K. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Application of blue-green and ultraviolet micro-LEDs to biological imaging and detection," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 094013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. X.

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2650-2658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, H. X. Zhang, G. T. Kennedy, C. Griffin, S. Oddos, E. Gu, D.S. Elson, J. M. Girkin, P. M. W. French, M. D. Dawson, and M. A. A. Neil, "Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diodes," Opt. Express 15, 11196-11206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

H. Xu, J. Zhang, K. M. Davitt, Y. K. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Application of blue-green and ultraviolet micro-LEDs to biological imaging and detection," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 094013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

E. Tekin, P. J. Smith, S. Hoeppener, A. M. J. van den Berg, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and U. S. Schubert, "Inkjet printing of luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

G. Heliotis, G. Itskos, R. Murray, M. D. Dawson, I. M. Watson, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Hybrid inorganic/organic semiconductor heterostructures with efficient non-radiative energy transfer," Adv. Mater. 18, 334-338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lai, R. D. Xia, Q. Y. He, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Enhanced solid-state luminescence and low-threshold lasing from starburst macromolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 21, 355-360 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. C. Kuehne, D. Elfstrom, A. R. Mackintosh, A. L. Kanibolotsky, B. Guilhabert, E. Gu, I. F. Perepichka, P. J. Skabara, M. D. Dawson, and R. A. Pethrick, "Direct laser writing of nanosized oligofluorene truxenes in UV-transparent photoresist microstructures," Adv. Mater. 21, 781-785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, S.A. Choulis, G. Itskos, R. Xia, R. Murray, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Low-threshold lasers based on a high-mobility semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

Z. Gong, H. X. Zhang, E. Gu, C. Griffin, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, "Matrix-addressable micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes with uniform emission and increased light output," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2650-2658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. L. Kanibolotsky, R. Berridge, P. J. Skabara, I. F. Perepichka, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Koeberg, "Synthesis and properties of monodisperse oligofluorene-functionalized truxenes: highly fluorescent star-shaped architectures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13695-13702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Xu, J. Zhang, K. M. Davitt, Y. K. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Application of blue-green and ultraviolet micro-LEDs to biological imaging and detection," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 094013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cluster issue on ‘Micro-pixellated LED’s for science and instrumentation’ (Guest Editors, M.D. Dawson and M.A.A. Neil) J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 090301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

S. Nakamura, "Current status of GaN-based solid state lighting," MRS Bull. 34, 101-107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

L. A. Kim, P. O. Anikeeva, S. A. Coe-Sullivan, J. S. Steckel, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Contact printing of quantum dot light emitting devices," Nano Lett. 8, 4513-4517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V.I . Klimov, "Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642-646 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Org. Electron. (1)

J. A. DeFranco, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and G. G. Malliaras, "Photolithographic patterning of organic electronic materials," Org. Electron. 7, 22-28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Raabe and J. Michl, The Chemistry of Organic Silicon Compounds (John Wiley, 1989), Chap. 17.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic picture of inkjet printing one T3/CHDV blend droplet on one pixel of the matrix addressable micro-pixellated LEDs

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) chemical structure of T3 molecule; (b) normalized absorption (black) and emission (red) spectra of T3/CHDV blends and normalized emission (blue) spectrum of micro-LEDs

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Plan view optical micrograph of 3×3 array of 10wt% T3 in CHDV matrix integrated on the GaN LED micropixels; (b) oblique SEM image of the inkjet printed T3/CHDV blend microstructure on one single LED micropixel

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical micrographs of (a) two pixels: bare micro-LEDs pixel (top) and T3/CHDV blend integrated on the pixel (bottom); (b) three alternating pixels with T3/CHDV blend

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral output of a single hybrid pixel showing integrated photopumping by the underlying electroluminescent gallium nitride ultraviolet LED. The peak at 368nm is unconverted and/or scattered pump light and the broad vibronic-structured emission between 400nm and 600nm is from the T3 organic nanostructures

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Photoluminescence spectra of T3/CHDV blend microstructure pumped by the micro-LEDs underneath under increasing current; Inset, the integrated peak intensity of emission at 408nm

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optical output power plotting of the micro-LEDs pixel before and after T3/CHDV integration via inkjet printing under increasing injection current. The latter have here been corrected for the effects of the filter

Metrics