Abstract

K-shell x-ray at about 3 keV emitted from Ar clusters irradiated by 110mJ 55 fs intense laser pulses is studied. The x-ray flux is optimized by moving the nozzle away from the focus of the laser pulse. The total flux of K-shell x-ray photons in 4π reaches a maximum of 4.5×109 photons/shot with a conversion efficiency of 2.5×10−5 when the nozzle displacement is 2 mm and a long plasma channel is observed by a probe beam.

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  1. V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric emission of high-energy electrons in the two-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion of large xenon clusters irradiated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043204 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. M. Chen, J. J. Park, K. H. Hong, J. L. Kim, J. Zhang, and C. H. Nam, “Emission of a hot electron jet from intense femtosecond-laser-cluster interactions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2 Pt 2), 025402 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J. W. G. Tisch, Y. L. Shao, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of atomic clusters heated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 369–382 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. Chen, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton induced x-ray emission from Kr clusters on M-shell (~100 Å) and L-shell (~6 Å) transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(12), 1810–1813 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398(6727), 489–492 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Ditmire, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “High intensity laser absorption by gases of atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(16), 3121–3124 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. P. Krainov and M. B. Smirnov, “Cluster beams in the super-intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rep. 370(3), 237–331 (2002) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Mocek, C. M. Kim, H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from a cryogenically cooled Ar gas jet irradiated by 25 fs laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1819–1821 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Jha, D. Mathur, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Enhancement of x-ray yields from heteronuclear cluster plasmas irradiated by intense laser light,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(18), L291–L299 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonte, F. Dorchies, and P. Mora, “Study of intense femtosecond laser propagation into a dense Ar gas and cluster jet,” Phys. Plasmas 13(3), 033105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. G. Lee, H. T. Kim, K. H. Hong, C. H. Nam, I. W. Choi, A. Bartnik, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Generation of bright low-divergence high-order harmonics in a long gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3726–3728 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. C. Chou, P. H. Lin, C. A. Lin, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chen, “Dramatic enhancement of optical-field-ionization collisional-excitation x-ray lasing by an optically preformed plasma waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063904 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. H. Chu, H. E. Tsai, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, and H. E. Chu, “Control of laser-beam propagation and absorption in a nanoplasma gas by programming of a transient complex refractive index with a prepulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3 Pt 2), 035403 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, Q. L. Dong, and X. Lu, “Generation and propagation of hot electrons in laser-plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 957–971 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. http://www.princetoninstruments.com/pdfs/whitepapers/direct_detection.pdf
  18. O. F. Hagena, “Cluster ion sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(4), 2374–2379 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Dorchies, F. Blasco, T. Caillaud, J. Stevefelt, C. Stenz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Spatial distribution of cluster size and density insupersonic jets as targets for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023201 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, “Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2259–2261 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. S. Park, N. Izumi, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, P. K. Patel, T. W. Phillips, and B. B. Zhang, “Characteristics of high energy Kα and Bremsstrahlung sources generated by short pulse petawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 4048–4050 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. C. Issac, G. Vieux, B. Ersfeld, E. Brunetti, S. P. Jamison, J. Gallacher, D. Clark, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Plasmas 11(7), 3491–3496 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Hippler, K. Saeed, I. Mcgregor, and H. Kleinpoppen, “Energy-dependence of characteristic and bremsstrahlung cross-sections of argon induced by electron-bombardment- at low energies,” Z. Phys. A 307(1), 83–87 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5 Pt 2), 056402 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. F. Dorchies, T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonté, H. Jouin, S. Micheau, B. Pons, and J. Stevefelt, “Investigation of laser-irradiated Ar cluster dynamics from K-shell x-ray emission measurements,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(6 Pt 2), 066410 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Chou, P. H. Lin, C. A. Lin, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chen, “Dramatic enhancement of optical-field-ionization collisional-excitation x-ray lasing by an optically preformed plasma waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonte, F. Dorchies, and P. Mora, “Study of intense femtosecond laser propagation into a dense Ar gas and cluster jet,” Phys. Plasmas 13(3), 033105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. Jha, D. Mathur, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Enhancement of x-ray yields from heteronuclear cluster plasmas irradiated by intense laser light,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(18), L291–L299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, Q. L. Dong, and X. Lu, “Generation and propagation of hot electrons in laser-plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 957–971 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Dorchies, T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonté, H. Jouin, S. Micheau, B. Pons, and J. Stevefelt, “Investigation of laser-irradiated Ar cluster dynamics from K-shell x-ray emission measurements,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(6 Pt 2), 066410 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, “Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2259–2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Park, N. Izumi, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, P. K. Patel, T. W. Phillips, and B. B. Zhang, “Characteristics of high energy Kα and Bremsstrahlung sources generated by short pulse petawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 4048–4050 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Issac, G. Vieux, B. Ersfeld, E. Brunetti, S. P. Jamison, J. Gallacher, D. Clark, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Plasmas 11(7), 3491–3496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Chu, H. E. Tsai, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, and H. E. Chu, “Control of laser-beam propagation and absorption in a nanoplasma gas by programming of a transient complex refractive index with a prepulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3 Pt 2), 035403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric emission of high-energy electrons in the two-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion of large xenon clusters irradiated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Dorchies, F. Blasco, T. Caillaud, J. Stevefelt, C. Stenz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Spatial distribution of cluster size and density insupersonic jets as targets for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

L. M. Chen, J. J. Park, K. H. Hong, J. L. Kim, J. Zhang, and C. H. Nam, “Emission of a hot electron jet from intense femtosecond-laser-cluster interactions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2 Pt 2), 025402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Krainov and M. B. Smirnov, “Cluster beams in the super-intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rep. 370(3), 237–331 (2002) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lee, H. T. Kim, K. H. Hong, C. H. Nam, I. W. Choi, A. Bartnik, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Generation of bright low-divergence high-order harmonics in a long gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3726–3728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5 Pt 2), 056402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

T. Mocek, C. M. Kim, H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from a cryogenically cooled Ar gas jet irradiated by 25 fs laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1819–1821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398(6727), 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J. W. G. Tisch, Y. L. Shao, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of atomic clusters heated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 369–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Ditmire, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “High intensity laser absorption by gases of atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(16), 3121–3124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. Chen, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton induced x-ray emission from Kr clusters on M-shell (~100 Å) and L-shell (~6 Å) transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(12), 1810–1813 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

O. F. Hagena, “Cluster ion sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(4), 2374–2379 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. Hippler, K. Saeed, I. Mcgregor, and H. Kleinpoppen, “Energy-dependence of characteristic and bremsstrahlung cross-sections of argon induced by electron-bombardment- at low energies,” Z. Phys. A 307(1), 83–87 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alexeev, I.

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonsen, T. M.

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartnik, A.

D. G. Lee, H. T. Kim, K. H. Hong, C. H. Nam, I. W. Choi, A. Bartnik, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Generation of bright low-divergence high-order harmonics in a long gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3726–3728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blasco, F.

T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonte, F. Dorchies, and P. Mora, “Study of intense femtosecond laser propagation into a dense Ar gas and cluster jet,” Phys. Plasmas 13(3), 033105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Dorchies, T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonté, H. Jouin, S. Micheau, B. Pons, and J. Stevefelt, “Investigation of laser-irradiated Ar cluster dynamics from K-shell x-ray emission measurements,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(6 Pt 2), 066410 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dorchies, F. Blasco, T. Caillaud, J. Stevefelt, C. Stenz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Spatial distribution of cluster size and density insupersonic jets as targets for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boldarev, A. S.

F. Dorchies, F. Blasco, T. Caillaud, J. Stevefelt, C. Stenz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Spatial distribution of cluster size and density insupersonic jets as targets for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bonte, C.

T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonte, F. Dorchies, and P. Mora, “Study of intense femtosecond laser propagation into a dense Ar gas and cluster jet,” Phys. Plasmas 13(3), 033105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonté, C.

F. Dorchies, T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonté, H. Jouin, S. Micheau, B. Pons, and J. Stevefelt, “Investigation of laser-irradiated Ar cluster dynamics from K-shell x-ray emission measurements,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(6 Pt 2), 066410 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borisov, A. B.

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. Chen, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton induced x-ray emission from Kr clusters on M-shell (~100 Å) and L-shell (~6 Å) transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(12), 1810–1813 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, K.

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. Chen, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton induced x-ray emission from Kr clusters on M-shell (~100 Å) and L-shell (~6 Å) transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(12), 1810–1813 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunetti, E.

R. C. Issac, G. Vieux, B. Ersfeld, E. Brunetti, S. P. Jamison, J. Gallacher, D. Clark, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Plasmas 11(7), 3491–3496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bulanov, S. V.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caillaud, T.

T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonte, F. Dorchies, and P. Mora, “Study of intense femtosecond laser propagation into a dense Ar gas and cluster jet,” Phys. Plasmas 13(3), 033105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Dorchies, T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonté, H. Jouin, S. Micheau, B. Pons, and J. Stevefelt, “Investigation of laser-irradiated Ar cluster dynamics from K-shell x-ray emission measurements,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(6 Pt 2), 066410 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dorchies, F. Blasco, T. Caillaud, J. Stevefelt, C. Stenz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Spatial distribution of cluster size and density insupersonic jets as targets for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cha, Y. H.

T. Mocek, C. M. Kim, H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from a cryogenically cooled Ar gas jet irradiated by 25 fs laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1819–1821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, C. C.

B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, “Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2259–2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. M.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, “Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2259–2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Chen, J. J. Park, K. H. Hong, J. L. Kim, J. Zhang, and C. H. Nam, “Emission of a hot electron jet from intense femtosecond-laser-cluster interactions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2 Pt 2), 025402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. Y.

M. C. Chou, P. H. Lin, C. A. Lin, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chen, “Dramatic enhancement of optical-field-ionization collisional-excitation x-ray lasing by an optically preformed plasma waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Chu, H. E. Tsai, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, and H. E. Chu, “Control of laser-beam propagation and absorption in a nanoplasma gas by programming of a transient complex refractive index with a prepulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3 Pt 2), 035403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. Chen, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton induced x-ray emission from Kr clusters on M-shell (~100 Å) and L-shell (~6 Å) transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(12), 1810–1813 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, I. W.

D. G. Lee, H. T. Kim, K. H. Hong, C. H. Nam, I. W. Choi, A. Bartnik, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Generation of bright low-divergence high-order harmonics in a long gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3726–3728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. C.

M. C. Chou, P. H. Lin, C. A. Lin, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chen, “Dramatic enhancement of optical-field-ionization collisional-excitation x-ray lasing by an optically preformed plasma waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, H. E.

H. H. Chu, H. E. Tsai, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, and H. E. Chu, “Control of laser-beam propagation and absorption in a nanoplasma gas by programming of a transient complex refractive index with a prepulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3 Pt 2), 035403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, H. H.

H. H. Chu, H. E. Tsai, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, and H. E. Chu, “Control of laser-beam propagation and absorption in a nanoplasma gas by programming of a transient complex refractive index with a prepulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3 Pt 2), 035403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, H. K.

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D.

R. C. Issac, G. Vieux, B. Ersfeld, E. Brunetti, S. P. Jamison, J. Gallacher, D. Clark, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Plasmas 11(7), 3491–3496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Collette, A.

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Constantin, C. G.

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, T. E.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398(6727), 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Daido, H.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daito, I.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dewald, E. L.

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ditmire, T.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398(6727), 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J. W. G. Tisch, Y. L. Shao, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of atomic clusters heated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 369–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “High intensity laser absorption by gases of atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(16), 3121–3124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Q. L.

J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, Q. L. Dong, and X. Lu, “Generation and propagation of hot electrons in laser-plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 957–971 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorchies, F.

T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonte, F. Dorchies, and P. Mora, “Study of intense femtosecond laser propagation into a dense Ar gas and cluster jet,” Phys. Plasmas 13(3), 033105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Dorchies, T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonté, H. Jouin, S. Micheau, B. Pons, and J. Stevefelt, “Investigation of laser-irradiated Ar cluster dynamics from K-shell x-ray emission measurements,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(6 Pt 2), 066410 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dorchies, F. Blasco, T. Caillaud, J. Stevefelt, C. Stenz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Spatial distribution of cluster size and density insupersonic jets as targets for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ersfeld, B.

R. C. Issac, G. Vieux, B. Ersfeld, E. Brunetti, S. P. Jamison, J. Gallacher, D. Clark, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Plasmas 11(7), 3491–3496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fiedorowicz, H.

D. G. Lee, H. T. Kim, K. H. Hong, C. H. Nam, I. W. Choi, A. Bartnik, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Generation of bright low-divergence high-order harmonics in a long gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3726–3728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Froula, D. H.

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gallacher, J.

R. C. Issac, G. Vieux, B. Ersfeld, E. Brunetti, S. P. Jamison, J. Gallacher, D. Clark, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Plasmas 11(7), 3491–3496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gasilov, V. A.

F. Dorchies, F. Blasco, T. Caillaud, J. Stevefelt, C. Stenz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Spatial distribution of cluster size and density insupersonic jets as targets for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glenzer, S. H.

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hagena, O. F.

O. F. Hagena, “Cluster ion sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(4), 2374–2379 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hay, N.

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J. W. G. Tisch, Y. L. Shao, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of atomic clusters heated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 369–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, Y.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hays, G.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398(6727), 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hippler, R.

R. Hippler, K. Saeed, I. Mcgregor, and H. Kleinpoppen, “Energy-dependence of characteristic and bremsstrahlung cross-sections of argon induced by electron-bombardment- at low energies,” Z. Phys. A 307(1), 83–87 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Homma, T.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, K. H.

L. M. Chen, J. J. Park, K. H. Hong, J. L. Kim, J. Zhang, and C. H. Nam, “Emission of a hot electron jet from intense femtosecond-laser-cluster interactions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2 Pt 2), 025402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Lee, H. T. Kim, K. H. Hong, C. H. Nam, I. W. Choi, A. Bartnik, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Generation of bright low-divergence high-order harmonics in a long gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3726–3728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Mocek, C. M. Kim, H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from a cryogenically cooled Ar gas jet irradiated by 25 fs laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1819–1821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hou, B. X.

B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, “Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2259–2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J. W. G. Tisch, Y. L. Shao, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of atomic clusters heated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 369–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “High intensity laser absorption by gases of atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(16), 3121–3124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Issac, R. C.

R. C. Issac, G. Vieux, B. Ersfeld, E. Brunetti, S. P. Jamison, J. Gallacher, D. Clark, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Plasmas 11(7), 3491–3496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Izumi, N.

H. S. Park, N. Izumi, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, P. K. Patel, T. W. Phillips, and B. B. Zhang, “Characteristics of high energy Kα and Bremsstrahlung sources generated by short pulse petawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 4048–4050 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, S. P.

R. C. Issac, G. Vieux, B. Ersfeld, E. Brunetti, S. P. Jamison, J. Gallacher, D. Clark, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Plasmas 11(7), 3491–3496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jaroszynski, D. A.

R. C. Issac, G. Vieux, B. Ersfeld, E. Brunetti, S. P. Jamison, J. Gallacher, D. Clark, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Plasmas 11(7), 3491–3496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jha, J.

J. Jha, D. Mathur, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Enhancement of x-ray yields from heteronuclear cluster plasmas irradiated by intense laser light,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(18), L291–L299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jouin, H.

F. Dorchies, T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonté, H. Jouin, S. Micheau, B. Pons, and J. Stevefelt, “Investigation of laser-irradiated Ar cluster dynamics from K-shell x-ray emission measurements,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(6 Pt 2), 066410 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kando, M.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, A.

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Key, M. H.

H. S. Park, N. Izumi, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, P. K. Patel, T. W. Phillips, and B. B. Zhang, “Characteristics of high energy Kα and Bremsstrahlung sources generated by short pulse petawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 4048–4050 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, “Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2259–2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. M.

T. Mocek, C. M. Kim, H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from a cryogenically cooled Ar gas jet irradiated by 25 fs laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1819–1821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. T.

D. G. Lee, H. T. Kim, K. H. Hong, C. H. Nam, I. W. Choi, A. Bartnik, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Generation of bright low-divergence high-order harmonics in a long gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3726–3728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. L.

L. M. Chen, J. J. Park, K. H. Hong, J. L. Kim, J. Zhang, and C. H. Nam, “Emission of a hot electron jet from intense femtosecond-laser-cluster interactions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2 Pt 2), 025402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. Y.

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, T.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kleinpoppen, H.

R. Hippler, K. Saeed, I. Mcgregor, and H. Kleinpoppen, “Energy-dependence of characteristic and bremsstrahlung cross-sections of argon induced by electron-bombardment- at low energies,” Z. Phys. A 307(1), 83–87 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J. A.

H. S. Park, N. Izumi, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, P. K. Patel, T. W. Phillips, and B. B. Zhang, “Characteristics of high energy Kα and Bremsstrahlung sources generated by short pulse petawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 4048–4050 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koga, J.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kotaki, H.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krainov, V. P.

V. P. Krainov and M. B. Smirnov, “Cluster beams in the super-intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rep. 370(3), 237–331 (2002) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, M.

J. Jha, D. Mathur, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Enhancement of x-ray yields from heteronuclear cluster plasmas irradiated by intense laser light,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(18), L291–L299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric emission of high-energy electrons in the two-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion of large xenon clusters irradiated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kritcher, A. L.

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krol, A.

B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, “Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2259–2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kugland, N. L.

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumarappan, V.

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric emission of high-energy electrons in the two-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion of large xenon clusters irradiated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Landen, O. L.

H. S. Park, N. Izumi, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, P. K. Patel, T. W. Phillips, and B. B. Zhang, “Characteristics of high energy Kα and Bremsstrahlung sources generated by short pulse petawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 4048–4050 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

H. H. Chu, H. E. Tsai, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, and H. E. Chu, “Control of laser-beam propagation and absorption in a nanoplasma gas by programming of a transient complex refractive index with a prepulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3 Pt 2), 035403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D. G.

D. G. Lee, H. T. Kim, K. H. Hong, C. H. Nam, I. W. Choi, A. Bartnik, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Generation of bright low-divergence high-order harmonics in a long gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3726–3728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Mocek, C. M. Kim, H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from a cryogenically cooled Ar gas jet irradiated by 25 fs laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1819–1821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. T.

J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, Q. L. Dong, and X. Lu, “Generation and propagation of hot electrons in laser-plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 957–971 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. A.

M. C. Chou, P. H. Lin, C. A. Lin, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chen, “Dramatic enhancement of optical-field-ionization collisional-excitation x-ray lasing by an optically preformed plasma waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J. Y.

M. C. Chou, P. H. Lin, C. A. Lin, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chen, “Dramatic enhancement of optical-field-ionization collisional-excitation x-ray lasing by an optically preformed plasma waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Chu, H. E. Tsai, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, and H. E. Chu, “Control of laser-beam propagation and absorption in a nanoplasma gas by programming of a transient complex refractive index with a prepulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3 Pt 2), 035403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, P. H.

M. C. Chou, P. H. Lin, C. A. Lin, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chen, “Dramatic enhancement of optical-field-ionization collisional-excitation x-ray lasing by an optically preformed plasma waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, Q. L. Dong, and X. Lu, “Generation and propagation of hot electrons in laser-plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 957–971 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luk, T. S.

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. Chen, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton induced x-ray emission from Kr clusters on M-shell (~100 Å) and L-shell (~6 Å) transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(12), 1810–1813 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, J.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J. W. G. Tisch, Y. L. Shao, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of atomic clusters heated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 369–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mason, M. B.

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J. W. G. Tisch, Y. L. Shao, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of atomic clusters heated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 369–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, D.

J. Jha, D. Mathur, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Enhancement of x-ray yields from heteronuclear cluster plasmas irradiated by intense laser light,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(18), L291–L299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric emission of high-energy electrons in the two-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion of large xenon clusters irradiated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mcgregor, I.

R. Hippler, K. Saeed, I. Mcgregor, and H. Kleinpoppen, “Energy-dependence of characteristic and bremsstrahlung cross-sections of argon induced by electron-bombardment- at low energies,” Z. Phys. A 307(1), 83–87 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McNaught, S. J.

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5 Pt 2), 056402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPherson, A.

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. Chen, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton induced x-ray emission from Kr clusters on M-shell (~100 Å) and L-shell (~6 Å) transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(12), 1810–1813 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Micheau, S.

F. Dorchies, T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonté, H. Jouin, S. Micheau, B. Pons, and J. Stevefelt, “Investigation of laser-irradiated Ar cluster dynamics from K-shell x-ray emission measurements,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(6 Pt 2), 066410 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milchberg, H. M.

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5 Pt 2), 056402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mocek, T.

T. Mocek, C. M. Kim, H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from a cryogenically cooled Ar gas jet irradiated by 25 fs laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1819–1821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mora, P.

T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonte, F. Dorchies, and P. Mora, “Study of intense femtosecond laser propagation into a dense Ar gas and cluster jet,” Phys. Plasmas 13(3), 033105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mori, M.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, “Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2259–2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

L. M. Chen, J. J. Park, K. H. Hong, J. L. Kim, J. Zhang, and C. H. Nam, “Emission of a hot electron jet from intense femtosecond-laser-cluster interactions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2 Pt 2), 025402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Lee, H. T. Kim, K. H. Hong, C. H. Nam, I. W. Choi, A. Bartnik, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Generation of bright low-divergence high-order harmonics in a long gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3726–3728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Mocek, C. M. Kim, H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from a cryogenically cooled Ar gas jet irradiated by 25 fs laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1819–1821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nees, J. A.

B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, “Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2259–2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neumayer, P.

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niemann, C.

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, K.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. S.

H. S. Park, N. Izumi, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, P. K. Patel, T. W. Phillips, and B. B. Zhang, “Characteristics of high energy Kα and Bremsstrahlung sources generated by short pulse petawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 4048–4050 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. J.

L. M. Chen, J. J. Park, K. H. Hong, J. L. Kim, J. Zhang, and C. H. Nam, “Emission of a hot electron jet from intense femtosecond-laser-cluster interactions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2 Pt 2), 025402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parra, E.

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5 Pt 2), 056402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, P. K.

H. S. Park, N. Izumi, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, P. K. Patel, T. W. Phillips, and B. B. Zhang, “Characteristics of high energy Kα and Bremsstrahlung sources generated by short pulse petawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 4048–4050 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, T. W.

H. S. Park, N. Izumi, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, P. K. Patel, T. W. Phillips, and B. B. Zhang, “Characteristics of high energy Kα and Bremsstrahlung sources generated by short pulse petawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 4048–4050 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pirozhkov, A. S.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pons, B.

F. Dorchies, T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonté, H. Jouin, S. Micheau, B. Pons, and J. Stevefelt, “Investigation of laser-irradiated Ar cluster dynamics from K-shell x-ray emission measurements,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(6 Pt 2), 066410 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, C. K.

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. Chen, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton induced x-ray emission from Kr clusters on M-shell (~100 Å) and L-shell (~6 Å) transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(12), 1810–1813 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, J. S.

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saeed, K.

R. Hippler, K. Saeed, I. Mcgregor, and H. Kleinpoppen, “Energy-dependence of characteristic and bremsstrahlung cross-sections of argon induced by electron-bombardment- at low energies,” Z. Phys. A 307(1), 83–87 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Y. L.

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J. W. G. Tisch, Y. L. Shao, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of atomic clusters heated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 369–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z. M.

J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, Q. L. Dong, and X. Lu, “Generation and propagation of hot electrons in laser-plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 957–971 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. J.

T. Mocek, C. M. Kim, H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from a cryogenically cooled Ar gas jet irradiated by 25 fs laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1819–1821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shiryaev, O. B.

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. Chen, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton induced x-ray emission from Kr clusters on M-shell (~100 Å) and L-shell (~6 Å) transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(12), 1810–1813 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnov, M. B.

V. P. Krainov and M. B. Smirnov, “Cluster beams in the super-intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rep. 370(3), 237–331 (2002) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. A.

T. Ditmire, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “High intensity laser absorption by gases of atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(16), 3121–3124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Springate, E.

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J. W. G. Tisch, Y. L. Shao, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of atomic clusters heated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 369–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stenz, C.

F. Dorchies, F. Blasco, T. Caillaud, J. Stevefelt, C. Stenz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Spatial distribution of cluster size and density insupersonic jets as targets for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stevefelt, J.

F. Dorchies, T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonté, H. Jouin, S. Micheau, B. Pons, and J. Stevefelt, “Investigation of laser-irradiated Ar cluster dynamics from K-shell x-ray emission measurements,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(6 Pt 2), 066410 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dorchies, F. Blasco, T. Caillaud, J. Stevefelt, C. Stenz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Spatial distribution of cluster size and density insupersonic jets as targets for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, T.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Theobald, W.

B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, “Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2259–2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B. D.

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. Chen, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton induced x-ray emission from Kr clusters on M-shell (~100 Å) and L-shell (~6 Å) transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(12), 1810–1813 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tisch, J. W. G.

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J. W. G. Tisch, Y. L. Shao, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of atomic clusters heated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 369–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “High intensity laser absorption by gases of atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(16), 3121–3124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H. E.

H. H. Chu, H. E. Tsai, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, and H. E. Chu, “Control of laser-beam propagation and absorption in a nanoplasma gas by programming of a transient complex refractive index with a prepulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3 Pt 2), 035403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vieux, G.

R. C. Issac, G. Vieux, B. Ersfeld, E. Brunetti, S. P. Jamison, J. Gallacher, D. Clark, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Plasmas 11(7), 3491–3496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

M. C. Chou, P. H. Lin, C. A. Lin, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chen, “Dramatic enhancement of optical-field-ionization collisional-excitation x-ray lasing by an optically preformed plasma waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Chu, H. E. Tsai, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, and H. E. Chu, “Control of laser-beam propagation and absorption in a nanoplasma gas by programming of a transient complex refractive index with a prepulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3 Pt 2), 035403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, Z. Y.

J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, Q. L. Dong, and X. Lu, “Generation and propagation of hot electrons in laser-plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 957–971 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wharton, K. B.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398(6727), 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y. F.

H. H. Chu, H. E. Tsai, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, and H. E. Chu, “Control of laser-beam propagation and absorption in a nanoplasma gas by programming of a transient complex refractive index with a prepulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3 Pt 2), 035403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanovsky, V. P.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398(6727), 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B. B.

H. S. Park, N. Izumi, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, P. K. Patel, T. W. Phillips, and B. B. Zhang, “Characteristics of high energy Kα and Bremsstrahlung sources generated by short pulse petawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 4048–4050 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, Q. L. Dong, and X. Lu, “Generation and propagation of hot electrons in laser-plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 957–971 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Chen, J. J. Park, K. H. Hong, J. L. Kim, J. Zhang, and C. H. Nam, “Emission of a hot electron jet from intense femtosecond-laser-cluster interactions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2 Pt 2), 025402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zweiback, J.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398(6727), 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. M. Sheng, Z. Y. Wei, Q. L. Dong, and X. Lu, “Generation and propagation of hot electrons in laser-plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 957–971 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. G. Lee, H. T. Kim, K. H. Hong, C. H. Nam, I. W. Choi, A. Bartnik, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Generation of bright low-divergence high-order harmonics in a long gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3726–3728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, J. Ma, H. Kotaki, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayashi, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Ogura, M. Mori, A. S. Pirozhkov, J. Koga, H. Daido, S. V. Bulanov, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, and Y. Kato, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kα radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Mocek, C. M. Kim, H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from a cryogenically cooled Ar gas jet irradiated by 25 fs laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(14), 1819–1821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, “Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2259–2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Kugland, C. G. Constantin, P. Neumayer, H. K. Chung, A. Collette, E. L. Dewald, D. H. Froula, S. H. Glenzer, A. Kemp, A. L. Kritcher, J. S. Ross, and C. Niemann, “High Kα x-ray conversion efficiency from extended source gas jet targets irradiated by ultra short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

J. Jha, D. Mathur, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Enhancement of x-ray yields from heteronuclear cluster plasmas irradiated by intense laser light,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(18), L291–L299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398(6727), 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (2)

T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonte, F. Dorchies, and P. Mora, “Study of intense femtosecond laser propagation into a dense Ar gas and cluster jet,” Phys. Plasmas 13(3), 033105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Issac, G. Vieux, B. Ersfeld, E. Brunetti, S. P. Jamison, J. Gallacher, D. Clark, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Plasmas 11(7), 3491–3496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

V. P. Krainov and M. B. Smirnov, “Cluster beams in the super-intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rep. 370(3), 237–331 (2002) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

F. Dorchies, F. Blasco, T. Caillaud, J. Stevefelt, C. Stenz, A. S. Boldarev, and V. A. Gasilov, “Spatial distribution of cluster size and density insupersonic jets as targets for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023201 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric emission of high-energy electrons in the two-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion of large xenon clusters irradiated by intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J. W. G. Tisch, Y. L. Shao, M. B. Mason, N. Hay, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of atomic clusters heated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 369–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (4)

L. M. Chen, J. J. Park, K. H. Hong, J. L. Kim, J. Zhang, and C. H. Nam, “Emission of a hot electron jet from intense femtosecond-laser-cluster interactions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2 Pt 2), 025402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Chu, H. E. Tsai, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Lee, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chen, and H. E. Chu, “Control of laser-beam propagation and absorption in a nanoplasma gas by programming of a transient complex refractive index with a prepulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3 Pt 2), 035403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(5 Pt 2), 056402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dorchies, T. Caillaud, F. Blasco, C. Bonté, H. Jouin, S. Micheau, B. Pons, and J. Stevefelt, “Investigation of laser-irradiated Ar cluster dynamics from K-shell x-ray emission measurements,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(6 Pt 2), 066410 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M. C. Chou, P. H. Lin, C. A. Lin, J. Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S. Y. Chen, “Dramatic enhancement of optical-field-ionization collisional-excitation x-ray lasing by an optically preformed plasma waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, B. D. Thompson, A. B. Borisov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. Chen, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton induced x-ray emission from Kr clusters on M-shell (~100 Å) and L-shell (~6 Å) transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(12), 1810–1813 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, R. A. Smith, J. W. G. Tisch, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “High intensity laser absorption by gases of atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(16), 3121–3124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

O. F. Hagena, “Cluster ion sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(4), 2374–2379 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Park, N. Izumi, M. H. Key, J. A. Koch, O. L. Landen, P. K. Patel, T. W. Phillips, and B. B. Zhang, “Characteristics of high energy Kα and Bremsstrahlung sources generated by short pulse petawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 4048–4050 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. A (1)

R. Hippler, K. Saeed, I. Mcgregor, and H. Kleinpoppen, “Energy-dependence of characteristic and bremsstrahlung cross-sections of argon induced by electron-bombardment- at low energies,” Z. Phys. A 307(1), 83–87 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

http://www.princetoninstruments.com/pdfs/whitepapers/direct_detection.pdf

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the experimental setup. The inset shows the dependence of Rayleigh scattered signal S on the gas jet back pressure P. The experimental data is fitted by S∝ P2.44.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the total flux of K-shell photons emitted into 4π on the nozzle position relative to the focus point of laser pulses. The dots are experimental data averaged by 5 shots, and the error bars are standard deviation errors. The inset shows the atom density profile at z=2mm and 4 MPa stagnation pressure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X ray spectrum emitted from Ar clusters. The inset shows the dependence of K-shell photons emitted into 4π on the laser peak intensity measured in vacuum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transverse shadowgraphs of the plasma profile when the nozzle is 0 (a), 2.5 mm (b) and 4 mm (c) away from the laser focus. The laser propagates from the right to the left. The focusing cone of the laser pulse in vacuum is marked with white lines in (b) and (c). The position of laser focus is indicated by the arrows. The plasma column and channel is marked by red lines in (a) and (b).

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