Abstract

Near vacuum ultraviolet (UV) upconversion (UC) emissions with a spectral resolution of 1 nm, from the 6GJ, 6DJ, 6IJ, 6PJ levels of Gd3+ and the 2L17/2, 4D7/2, 2H(2)9/2, 2D5/2, 4G7/2, 2K13/2, 2P3/2 levels of Er3+, were observed under 974 nm laser excitation. Mechanism analyses illustrate that successive energy transfers (ETs) from Yb3+ to Er3+ generate UV UC radiations in Er3+, while two resonant ETs from Er3+ to Gd3+ lead to UV UC radiations in Gd3+. Power dependence analyses indicate that the expected inefficient four- and five-photon processes have been switched into efficient two-photon processes due to a super saturation UC phenomenon that employs consecutive saturations at the intermediate states.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2008

E. de la Rosa, D. Solis, L. A. Díaz-Torres, P. Salas, C. Angeles-Chavez, and O. Meza, “Blue-green upconversion emission in ZrO2:Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cao, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, P. F. Zhu, G. D. Wei, G. F. Wang, R. Kim, and L. L. Wang, “Ultraviolet upconversion emissions of Gd3+.,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 857–859 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, K. Krämer, D. Biner, and H. U. Güdel, “High-resolution luminescence spectroscopy study of down-conversion routes in NaGdF4:Nd3+ and NaGdF4:Tm3+ using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 77(12), 125110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser exciation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(1-3), 127–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, G. Somesfalean, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Upconversion mechanism for two-color emission in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195204 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. B. Chen and Z. F. Song, “Study on six-photon and five-photon ultraviolet upconversion luminescence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(4), 965–971 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 induced by infrared diode laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 87–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Huang, T. Yamashita, R. Jose, Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Intense ultraviolet emission from Tb3+ and Yb3+ codoped glass ceramic containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, “Semiconductor-laser-pumped high-power upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyer, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/ or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117(1), 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. F. Suyer, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Aebischer, S. Heer, D. Biner, K. Krämer, M. Haase, and H. U. Güdel, “Visible light emission upon near-infrared excitation in a transparent solution of nanocrystalline β-NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 407(1-3), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3:Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er infrared-to-visible upconversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Kondo, T. Hirai, and S. Hashimoto, “Energy migration and relaxation through Gd3+ sublattice in NaGdF4,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 727–732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. L. Xu and Z. K. Jiang, “Ultraviolet and violet upconversion luminescence in Er3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, S. H. Huang, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, B. J. Chen, S. Z. Lu, and E. Shulin, “Infrared-to-violet upconversion from Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6936–6938 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Pollau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

L. de S. Menezes and C. B. de Araújo,G. S Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. de S. Menezes and C. B. de Araújo,G. S Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. II. Gd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4443–4446 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide quo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aebischer, A.

J. F. Suyer, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Aebischer, S. Heer, D. Biner, K. Krämer, M. Haase, and H. U. Güdel, “Visible light emission upon near-infrared excitation in a transparent solution of nanocrystalline β-NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 407(1-3), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, M. A.

L. de S. Menezes and C. B. de Araújo,G. S Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aghahadi, B.

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser exciation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(1-3), 127–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Angeles-Chavez, C.

E. de la Rosa, D. Solis, L. A. Díaz-Torres, P. Salas, C. Angeles-Chavez, and O. Meza, “Blue-green upconversion emission in ZrO2:Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arai, Y.

L. H. Huang, T. Yamashita, R. Jose, Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Intense ultraviolet emission from Tb3+ and Yb3+ codoped glass ceramic containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bär, S.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, “Semiconductor-laser-pumped high-power upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3:Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biner, D.

E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, K. Krämer, D. Biner, and H. U. Güdel, “High-resolution luminescence spectroscopy study of down-conversion routes in NaGdF4:Nd3+ and NaGdF4:Tm3+ using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 77(12), 125110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyer, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/ or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117(1), 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aebischer, S. Heer, D. Biner, K. Krämer, M. Haase, and H. U. Güdel, “Visible light emission upon near-infrared excitation in a transparent solution of nanocrystalline β-NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 407(1-3), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyer, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bischel, W. K.

Boyer, J.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3:Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J. C.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Butterworth, S.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, “Semiconductor-laser-pumped high-power upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, C. Y.

Capobianco, J. A.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3:Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. II. Gd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4443–4446 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide quo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. J.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, S. H. Huang, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, B. J. Chen, S. Z. Lu, and E. Shulin, “Infrared-to-violet upconversion from Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6936–6938 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. P.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er infrared-to-visible upconversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. Q.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. Y.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser exciation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(1-3), 127–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, G. Somesfalean, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Upconversion mechanism for two-color emission in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195204 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 induced by infrared diode laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 87–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. B.

de Araújo, C. B.

L. de S. Menezes and C. B. de Araújo,G. S Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de la Rosa, E.

E. de la Rosa, D. Solis, L. A. Díaz-Torres, P. Salas, C. Angeles-Chavez, and O. Meza, “Blue-green upconversion emission in ZrO2:Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Díaz-Torres, L. A.

E. de la Rosa, D. Solis, L. A. Díaz-Torres, P. Salas, C. Angeles-Chavez, and O. Meza, “Blue-green upconversion emission in ZrO2:Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diening, A.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, “Semiconductor-laser-pumped high-power upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, P.

E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, K. Krämer, D. Biner, and H. U. Güdel, “High-resolution luminescence spectroscopy study of down-conversion routes in NaGdF4:Nd3+ and NaGdF4:Tm3+ using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 77(12), 125110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide quo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. II. Gd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4443–4446 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

García-Revilla, S.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er infrared-to-visible upconversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerner, P.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyer, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, J.

J. F. Suyer, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/ or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117(1), 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyer, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, K. Krämer, D. Biner, and H. U. Güdel, “High-resolution luminescence spectroscopy study of down-conversion routes in NaGdF4:Nd3+ and NaGdF4:Tm3+ using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 77(12), 125110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyer, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/ or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117(1), 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aebischer, S. Heer, D. Biner, K. Krämer, M. Haase, and H. U. Güdel, “Visible light emission upon near-infrared excitation in a transparent solution of nanocrystalline β-NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 407(1-3), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyer, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. H.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er infrared-to-visible upconversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haase, M.

A. Aebischer, S. Heer, D. Biner, K. Krämer, M. Haase, and H. U. Güdel, “Visible light emission upon near-infrared excitation in a transparent solution of nanocrystalline β-NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 407(1-3), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, S.

H. Kondo, T. Hirai, and S. Hashimoto, “Energy migration and relaxation through Gd3+ sublattice in NaGdF4,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 727–732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heer, S.

A. Aebischer, S. Heer, D. Biner, K. Krämer, M. Haase, and H. U. Güdel, “Visible light emission upon near-infrared excitation in a transparent solution of nanocrystalline β-NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 407(1-3), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyer, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. Pollau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, “Semiconductor-laser-pumped high-power upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, T.

H. Kondo, T. Hirai, and S. Hashimoto, “Energy migration and relaxation through Gd3+ sublattice in NaGdF4,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 727–732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L. H.

L. H. Huang, T. Yamashita, R. Jose, Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Intense ultraviolet emission from Tb3+ and Yb3+ codoped glass ceramic containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, S. H. Huang, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, B. J. Chen, S. Z. Lu, and E. Shulin, “Infrared-to-violet upconversion from Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6936–6938 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, “Semiconductor-laser-pumped high-power upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. K.

H. L. Xu and Z. K. Jiang, “Ultraviolet and violet upconversion luminescence in Er3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jose, R.

L. H. Huang, T. Yamashita, R. Jose, Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Intense ultraviolet emission from Tb3+ and Yb3+ codoped glass ceramic containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, R.

Kondo, H.

H. Kondo, T. Hirai, and S. Hashimoto, “Energy migration and relaxation through Gd3+ sublattice in NaGdF4,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 727–732 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, K.

E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, K. Krämer, D. Biner, and H. U. Güdel, “High-resolution luminescence spectroscopy study of down-conversion routes in NaGdF4:Nd3+ and NaGdF4:Tm3+ using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 77(12), 125110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Aebischer, S. Heer, D. Biner, K. Krämer, M. Haase, and H. U. Güdel, “Visible light emission upon near-infrared excitation in a transparent solution of nanocrystalline β-NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 407(1-3), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, K. W.

J. F. Suyer, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/ or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117(1), 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyer, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

Liang, H. J.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser exciation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(1-3), 127–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, G. Somesfalean, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Upconversion mechanism for two-color emission in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195204 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. C.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er infrared-to-visible upconversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S. Z.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, S. H. Huang, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, B. J. Chen, S. Z. Lu, and E. Shulin, “Infrared-to-violet upconversion from Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6936–6938 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lüthi, S. R.

M. Pollau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maciel, G. S

L. de S. Menezes and C. B. de Araújo,G. S Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Menezes, L. de S.

L. de S. Menezes and C. B. de Araújo,G. S Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

L. de S. Menezes and C. B. de Araújo,G. S Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meza, O.

E. de la Rosa, D. Solis, L. A. Díaz-Torres, P. Salas, C. Angeles-Chavez, and O. Meza, “Blue-green upconversion emission in ZrO2:Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Naccache, R.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

L. H. Huang, T. Yamashita, R. Jose, Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Intense ultraviolet emission from Tb3+ and Yb3+ codoped glass ceramic containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Page, R. H.

Pandozzi, F.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

Pollau, M.

M. Pollau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G. S.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, S. H. Huang, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, B. J. Chen, S. Z. Lu, and E. Shulin, “Infrared-to-violet upconversion from Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6936–6938 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W. P.

C. Y. Cao, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, P. F. Zhu, G. D. Wei, G. F. Wang, R. Kim, and L. L. Wang, “Ultraviolet upconversion emissions of Gd3+.,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 857–859 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, S. H. Huang, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, B. J. Chen, S. Z. Lu, and E. Shulin, “Infrared-to-violet upconversion from Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6936–6938 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rademaker, K.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, “Semiconductor-laser-pumped high-power upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. II. Gd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4443–4446 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide quo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, C.

J. F. Suyer, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salas, P.

E. de la Rosa, D. Solis, L. A. Díaz-Torres, P. Salas, C. Angeles-Chavez, and O. Meza, “Blue-green upconversion emission in ZrO2:Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaffers, K. I.

Seelert, W.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, “Semiconductor-laser-pumped high-power upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shulin, E.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, S. H. Huang, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, B. J. Chen, S. Z. Lu, and E. Shulin, “Infrared-to-violet upconversion from Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6936–6938 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solis, D.

E. de la Rosa, D. Solis, L. A. Díaz-Torres, P. Salas, C. Angeles-Chavez, and O. Meza, “Blue-green upconversion emission in ZrO2:Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, H. J. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser exciation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(1-3), 127–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, G. Somesfalean, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Upconversion mechanism for two-color emission in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195204 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 induced by infrared diode laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 87–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, Z. F.

Speghini, A.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3:Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

G. Y. Chen, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 induced by infrared diode laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 87–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, G. Somesfalean, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Upconversion mechanism for two-color emission in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195204 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser exciation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(1-3), 127–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suyer, J. F.

J. F. Suyer, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/ or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117(1), 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyer, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Krämer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suyver, J. F.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

L. H. Huang, T. Yamashita, R. Jose, Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Intense ultraviolet emission from Tb3+ and Yb3+ codoped glass ceramic containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tassano, J. B.

van der Kolk, E.

E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, K. Krämer, D. Biner, and H. U. Güdel, “High-resolution luminescence spectroscopy study of down-conversion routes in NaGdF4:Nd3+ and NaGdF4:Tm3+ using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 77(12), 125110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Veen, M. K.

J. F. Suyer, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/ or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117(1), 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vetrone, F.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3:Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Waide, P. A.

Wang, F. P.

G. Y. Chen, G. Somesfalean, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Upconversion mechanism for two-color emission in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195204 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser exciation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(1-3), 127–131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 induced by infrared diode laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 87–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. F.

Wang, L. L.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. S.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wei, G. D.

Wu, C. F.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, S. H. Huang, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, B. J. Chen, S. Z. Lu, and E. Shulin, “Infrared-to-violet upconversion from Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6936–6938 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. L.

H. L. Xu and Z. K. Jiang, “Ultraviolet and violet upconversion luminescence in Er3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

L. H. Huang, T. Yamashita, R. Jose, Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Intense ultraviolet emission from Tb3+ and Yb3+ codoped glass ceramic containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. J.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Recorded UV UC radiation spectrum of (a) NaGdF4 and (b) NaYF4 microcrystals doped with 20 mol%Yb3+, 2 mol% Er3+ ions in the wavelength range 230-330 nm. The inset is an extended recording of Fig. 1(a) in the spectroscopic range of 185-230 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy level diagrams of Er3+, Yb3+, and Gd3+ ions as well as the proposed mechanisms to produce UV UC radiations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pump power dependences of all fluorescent radiations (>250 nm) in the NaGdF4:Yb3+/Er3+ powders.

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