Abstract

We propose a new class of optoelectronic devices in which the optical properties of the active material is enhanced by strain generated from micromechanical structures. As a concrete example, we modeled the emission efficiency of strained germanium supported by a cantilever-like platform. Our simulations indicate that net optical gain is obtainable even in indirect germanium under a substrate biaxial tensile strain of about 1.5% with an electron-hole injection concentration of 9×1018 cm-3 while direct bandgap germanium becomes available at a strain of 2%. A large wavelength tuning span of 400 nm in the mid-IR range also opens up the possibility of a tunable on-chip germanium biomedical light source.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (3)

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec and D. Bensahel, "Enhanced photoluminescence of heavy n-doped germanium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, V. H. Crespi, and P. Zhang, "Prediction that uniaxial tension along <111> produces a direct band gap in germanium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(15), 156401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes," Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1198-1200 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, "Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator," Opt. Commun. 281(4), 846-850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, "Enhanced photoluminescence from germanium-based ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

T. Alan, A. T. Zehnder, D. Sengupta, and M. A. Hines, "Methyl monolayers improve the fracture strength and durability of silicon nanobeams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. G. Evans, D. S. Tinberg, M. M. Roberts, M. G. Lagally, Y. Xiao, B. Lai, and Z. Cai, "Germanium hut nanostressors on freestanding thin silicon membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 073112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicidation-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge epitaxial films on Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(5), 660-662 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Mooney, G. M. Cohen, J. O. Chu, and C. E. Murray, "Elastic strain relaxation in free-standing SiGe/Si structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1093-1095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Paul, "Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(10), R75-R108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, "Type-I Ge/Ge1-x-ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175-1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

B. M. Haugerud, L. A. Bosworth, and R. E. Belford, "Mechanically induced strain enhancement of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 4102-4107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Franke, and M. J. Heck, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, "Polycrystalline silicon-germanium films for integrated microsystems," J. Micromech. Sys. 12(2), 160-171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Roundy, and M. L. Cohen, "Ideal strength of diamond, Si, and Ge," Phys. Rev. B 64(21), 212103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Namazu, Y. Isono, and T. Tanaka, "Evaluation of size effect on mechanical properties of single crystal silicon by nanoscale bending test using AFM," J. Micromech. Sys. 9(4), 450-459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Chen, A. Ayon, and S. M. Spearing, "Controlling and Testing the Fracture Strength of Silicon on the Mesoscale," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(6), 1476-1484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Schaeffler, "High-mobility Si and Ge structures," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12(12), 1515-1549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. C. Houghton, G. C. Aers, S. Yang, E. Wang, and N. L. Rowell, "Type I band alignment in Si1-xGex/Si(001) quantum wells: photoluminescence under applied [110] and [100] Uniaxial Stress," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 866-869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. M. Rieger, and P. Vogl, "Electronic-band parameters in strained Si1-xGex alloys on Si1-yGey substrates," Phys. Rev. B 48(19), 14276-14287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

C. G. Van de Walle, "Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory," Phys. Rev. B 39(3), 1871-1883 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Chong, and C. G. Fonstad, "Theoretical Gain of Strained-Layer Semiconductor Lasers in the Large Strain Regime," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(2), 171-178 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Johansson, J.-A. Schweitz, L. Tenerz, and J. Tiren, "Fracture testing of silicon microelements in situ in a scanning electron microscope," J. Appl. Phys. 63(10), 4799-4803 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. L. Ruoff, "On the ultimate yield strength of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 49(1), 197-200 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Aers, G. C.

D. C. Houghton, G. C. Aers, S. Yang, E. Wang, and N. L. Rowell, "Type I band alignment in Si1-xGex/Si(001) quantum wells: photoluminescence under applied [110] and [100] Uniaxial Stress," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 866-869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alan, T.

T. Alan, A. T. Zehnder, D. Sengupta, and M. A. Hines, "Methyl monolayers improve the fracture strength and durability of silicon nanobeams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ayon, A.

K.-S. Chen, A. Ayon, and S. M. Spearing, "Controlling and Testing the Fracture Strength of Silicon on the Mesoscale," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(6), 1476-1484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Belford, R. E.

B. M. Haugerud, L. A. Bosworth, and R. E. Belford, "Mechanically induced strain enhancement of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 4102-4107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bensahel, D.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec and D. Bensahel, "Enhanced photoluminescence of heavy n-doped germanium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, "Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator," Opt. Commun. 281(4), 846-850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bosworth, L. A.

B. M. Haugerud, L. A. Bosworth, and R. E. Belford, "Mechanically induced strain enhancement of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 4102-4107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec and D. Bensahel, "Enhanced photoluminescence of heavy n-doped germanium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, "Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator," Opt. Commun. 281(4), 846-850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boulmer, J.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec and D. Bensahel, "Enhanced photoluminescence of heavy n-doped germanium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

P. G. Evans, D. S. Tinberg, M. M. Roberts, M. G. Lagally, Y. Xiao, B. Lai, and Z. Cai, "Germanium hut nanostressors on freestanding thin silicon membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 073112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicidation-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge epitaxial films on Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(5), 660-662 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Checoury, X.

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, "Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator," Opt. Commun. 281(4), 846-850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.-S.

K.-S. Chen, A. Ayon, and S. M. Spearing, "Controlling and Testing the Fracture Strength of Silicon on the Mesoscale," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(6), 1476-1484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chong, T. C.

T. C. Chong, and C. G. Fonstad, "Theoretical Gain of Strained-Layer Semiconductor Lasers in the Large Strain Regime," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(2), 171-178 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. O.

P. M. Mooney, G. M. Cohen, J. O. Chu, and C. E. Murray, "Elastic strain relaxation in free-standing SiGe/Si structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1093-1095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, G. M.

P. M. Mooney, G. M. Cohen, J. O. Chu, and C. E. Murray, "Elastic strain relaxation in free-standing SiGe/Si structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1093-1095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, M. L.

D. Roundy, and M. L. Cohen, "Ideal strength of diamond, Si, and Ge," Phys. Rev. B 64(21), 212103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crespi, V. H.

F. Zhang, V. H. Crespi, and P. Zhang, "Prediction that uniaxial tension along <111> produces a direct band gap in germanium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(15), 156401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Damlencourt, J. F.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec and D. Bensahel, "Enhanced photoluminescence of heavy n-doped germanium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, D. T.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicidation-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge epitaxial films on Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(5), 660-662 (2004).
[CrossRef]

David, S.

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, "Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator," Opt. Commun. 281(4), 846-850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Debarre, D.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec and D. Bensahel, "Enhanced photoluminescence of heavy n-doped germanium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

El Kurdi, M.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec and D. Bensahel, "Enhanced photoluminescence of heavy n-doped germanium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, "Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator," Opt. Commun. 281(4), 846-850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P. G.

P. G. Evans, D. S. Tinberg, M. M. Roberts, M. G. Lagally, Y. Xiao, B. Lai, and Z. Cai, "Germanium hut nanostressors on freestanding thin silicon membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 073112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, G.

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, "Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator," Opt. Commun. 281(4), 846-850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fonstad, C. G.

T. C. Chong, and C. G. Fonstad, "Theoretical Gain of Strained-Layer Semiconductor Lasers in the Large Strain Regime," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(2), 171-178 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Franke, A. E.

A. E. Franke, and M. J. Heck, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, "Polycrystalline silicon-germanium films for integrated microsystems," J. Micromech. Sys. 12(2), 160-171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghyselen, B.

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, "Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator," Opt. Commun. 281(4), 846-850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haugerud, B. M.

B. M. Haugerud, L. A. Bosworth, and R. E. Belford, "Mechanically induced strain enhancement of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 4102-4107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heck, M. J.

A. E. Franke, and M. J. Heck, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, "Polycrystalline silicon-germanium films for integrated microsystems," J. Micromech. Sys. 12(2), 160-171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hines, M. A.

T. Alan, A. T. Zehnder, D. Sengupta, and M. A. Hines, "Methyl monolayers improve the fracture strength and durability of silicon nanobeams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, D. C.

D. C. Houghton, G. C. Aers, S. Yang, E. Wang, and N. L. Rowell, "Type I band alignment in Si1-xGex/Si(001) quantum wells: photoluminescence under applied [110] and [100] Uniaxial Stress," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 866-869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Howe, R. T.

A. E. Franke, and M. J. Heck, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, "Polycrystalline silicon-germanium films for integrated microsystems," J. Micromech. Sys. 12(2), 160-171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

P. H. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, "Enhanced photoluminescence from germanium-based ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicidation-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge epitaxial films on Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(5), 660-662 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Isono, Y.

T. Namazu, Y. Isono, and T. Tanaka, "Evaluation of size effect on mechanical properties of single crystal silicon by nanoscale bending test using AFM," J. Micromech. Sys. 9(4), 450-459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, S.

S. Johansson, J.-A. Schweitz, L. Tenerz, and J. Tiren, "Fracture testing of silicon microelements in situ in a scanning electron microscope," J. Appl. Phys. 63(10), 4799-4803 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicidation-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge epitaxial films on Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(5), 660-662 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kermarrec, O.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec and D. Bensahel, "Enhanced photoluminescence of heavy n-doped germanium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and B. Ghyselen, "Two-dimensional photonic crystals with pure germanium-on-insulator," Opt. Commun. 281(4), 846-850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes," Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1198-1200 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, "Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si," Opt. Express 15(18), 11272-11277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicidation-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge epitaxial films on Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(5), 660-662 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

King, T.-J.

A. E. Franke, and M. J. Heck, T.-J. King, R. T. Howe, "Polycrystalline silicon-germanium films for integrated microsystems," J. Micromech. Sys. 12(2), 160-171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

P. H. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, "Enhanced photoluminescence from germanium-based ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

Kociniewski, T.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec and D. Bensahel, "Enhanced photoluminescence of heavy n-doped germanium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kouvetakis, J.

J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, "Type-I Ge/Ge1-x-ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175-1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lagally, M. G.

P. G. Evans, D. S. Tinberg, M. M. Roberts, M. G. Lagally, Y. Xiao, B. Lai, and Z. Cai, "Germanium hut nanostressors on freestanding thin silicon membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 073112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, B.

P. G. Evans, D. S. Tinberg, M. M. Roberts, M. G. Lagally, Y. Xiao, B. Lai, and Z. Cai, "Germanium hut nanostressors on freestanding thin silicon membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 073112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A. V.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lim, P. H.

P. H. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, "Enhanced photoluminescence from germanium-based ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes," Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1198-1200 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, "Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si," Opt. Express 15(18), 11272-11277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicidation-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge epitaxial films on Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(5), 660-662 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.-C.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Menéndez, J.

J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, "Type-I Ge/Ge1-x-ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175-1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes," Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1198-1200 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, "Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si," Opt. Express 15(18), 11272-11277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicidation-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge epitaxial films on Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(5), 660-662 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, P. M.

P. M. Mooney, G. M. Cohen, J. O. Chu, and C. E. Murray, "Elastic strain relaxation in free-standing SiGe/Si structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1093-1095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, G.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. E.

P. M. Mooney, G. M. Cohen, J. O. Chu, and C. E. Murray, "Elastic strain relaxation in free-standing SiGe/Si structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1093-1095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Namazu, T.

T. Namazu, Y. Isono, and T. Tanaka, "Evaluation of size effect on mechanical properties of single crystal silicon by nanoscale bending test using AFM," J. Micromech. Sys. 9(4), 450-459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, T.-P.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec and D. Bensahel, "Enhanced photoluminescence of heavy n-doped germanium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ou, H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D.

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, "Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si," Opt. Express 15(18), 11272-11277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paul, D. J.

D. J. Paul, "Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(10), R75-R108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441(7090), 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rieger, M. M.

M. M. Rieger, and P. Vogl, "Electronic-band parameters in strained Si1-xGex alloys on Si1-yGey substrates," Phys. Rev. B 48(19), 14276-14287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, M. M.

P. G. Evans, D. S. Tinberg, M. M. Roberts, M. G. Lagally, Y. Xiao, B. Lai, and Z. Cai, "Germanium hut nanostressors on freestanding thin silicon membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 073112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roundy, D.

D. Roundy, and M. L. Cohen, "Ideal strength of diamond, Si, and Ge," Phys. Rev. B 64(21), 212103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rowell, N. L.

D. C. Houghton, G. C. Aers, S. Yang, E. Wang, and N. L. Rowell, "Type I band alignment in Si1-xGex/Si(001) quantum wells: photoluminescence under applied [110] and [100] Uniaxial Stress," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 866-869 (1995).
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Ruoff, A. L.

A. L. Ruoff, "On the ultimate yield strength of solids," J. Appl. Phys. 49(1), 197-200 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sandland, J. G.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909-2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schaeffler, F.

F. Schaeffler, "High-mobility Si and Ge structures," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12(12), 1515-1549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schweitz, J.-A.

S. Johansson, J.-A. Schweitz, L. Tenerz, and J. Tiren, "Fracture testing of silicon microelements in situ in a scanning electron microscope," J. Appl. Phys. 63(10), 4799-4803 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sengupta, D.

T. Alan, A. T. Zehnder, D. Sengupta, and M. A. Hines, "Methyl monolayers improve the fracture strength and durability of silicon nanobeams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spearing, S. M.

K.-S. Chen, A. Ayon, and S. M. Spearing, "Controlling and Testing the Fracture Strength of Silicon on the Mesoscale," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83(6), 1476-1484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Takita, S.

P. H. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, "Enhanced photoluminescence from germanium-based ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

T. Namazu, Y. Isono, and T. Tanaka, "Evaluation of size effect on mechanical properties of single crystal silicon by nanoscale bending test using AFM," J. Micromech. Sys. 9(4), 450-459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tenerz, L.

S. Johansson, J.-A. Schweitz, L. Tenerz, and J. Tiren, "Fracture testing of silicon microelements in situ in a scanning electron microscope," J. Appl. Phys. 63(10), 4799-4803 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tinberg, D. S.

P. G. Evans, D. S. Tinberg, M. M. Roberts, M. G. Lagally, Y. Xiao, B. Lai, and Z. Cai, "Germanium hut nanostressors on freestanding thin silicon membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 073112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tiren, J.

S. Johansson, J.-A. Schweitz, L. Tenerz, and J. Tiren, "Fracture testing of silicon microelements in situ in a scanning electron microscope," J. Appl. Phys. 63(10), 4799-4803 (1988).
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C. G. Van de Walle, "Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory," Phys. Rev. B 39(3), 1871-1883 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vogl, P.

M. M. Rieger, and P. Vogl, "Electronic-band parameters in strained Si1-xGex alloys on Si1-yGey substrates," Phys. Rev. B 48(19), 14276-14287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

P. H. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, "Enhanced photoluminescence from germanium-based ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

<100> in-plane stress distribution of our proposed strain generation structure as calculated by FEA. The x, y and z axes are the crystallographic axes <100>, <010> and <001> respectively. The <010> distribution is obtained by a 90° rotation about the <001> axis. Positive stress values are tensile.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Strain dependencies of Ge direct conductance bandedge, the lh valence bandedge, the conductance band Γ to L valley separation as well as the lh direct bandgap, E , E Vlh, ΔE ΓL=E -E CL and E gΓlh respectively with the biaxial tensile strain, where ECL is the L valley bandedge. E and EVlh are plotted with respect to their unstrained positions. (b) Interband gain profiles of Ge at 1.75% substrate surface biaxial tensile strain and various carrier injection concentrations. The colored lines show the average biaxial tensile strain within the active layer for each concentration. For the concentration 9×1018 cm-3, the gray lines represent the height-dependent biaxial tensile strain within each strain sublayer of our model. (c) Wavelength and gain variation of Ge with biaxial tensile strain, assuming an injection concentration of 9×1018 cm-3.

Equations (4)

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mlh mo = 1 (γ1f+γ2),mlh,perpendicularmo=1(γ1+2f+γ2)
mhh mo = 1 (γ1+γ2),mhh,perpendicularmo=1(γ12γ2)
g (Ephoton)=(mrmr0.2%strain)32ABlhEphotonEgΓlhEphoton
×(fc(mrmc(EphotonEgΓlh))fv(mrmlh(EphotonEgΓlh)))

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