Abstract

We demonstrate the measurement of field-free molecular alignment of nitrogen by a cross-(de)focusing assisted polarization spectroscopy technique, allowing us to distinguish the transient orientation of prealigned molecules on the basis of the relative ratio of the adjacent revival peaks of the measured signal. For impulsive excitation with high pump intensities, the involved orientation-dependent ionization of the neutral molecules contributes to the signal.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

Y. H. Chen, S. Varma, A. York, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot, space- and time-resolved measurement of rotational wavepacket revivals in H(2), D(2), N(2), O(2), and N(2)O,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11341–11357 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, “Polarization effects on nonsequential double ionization of molecular fragments in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 75(4), 043402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Hertz, D. Daems, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Field-free molecular alignment induced by elliptically polarized laser pulses: Noninvasive three-dimensional characterization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Renard, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Measurement of laser-induced alignment of molecules by cross defocusing,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 70–72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Experimental observation of revival structures in picosecond laser-induced alignment of I2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(15), 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baertschy, M.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, H.

Calegari, F.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caumes, J.-P.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Châteauneuf, M.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. H.

Chin, S. L.

Corkum, P. B.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

Couarion, A.

J. Wu, H. Cai, A. Couarion, and H. Zeng, “Few-cycle shock X-wave generation by filamentation in pre-aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 013828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Daems, D.

E. Hertz, D. Daems, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Field-free molecular alignment induced by elliptically polarized laser pulses: Noninvasive three-dimensional characterization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, P. W.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois, J.

Faucher, O.

E. Hertz, D. Daems, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Field-free molecular alignment induced by elliptically polarized laser pulses: Noninvasive three-dimensional characterization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Loriot, E. Hertz, A. Rouzée, B. Sinardet, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Strong-field molecular ionization: determination of ionization probabilities calibrated with field-free alignment,” Opt. Lett. 31(19), 2897–2899 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Renard, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Measurement of laser-induced alignment of molecules by cross defocusing,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 70–72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, Q.

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, C. H.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guérin, S.

E. Hertz, D. Daems, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Field-free molecular alignment induced by elliptically polarized laser pulses: Noninvasive three-dimensional characterization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C.

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, “Polarization effects on nonsequential double ionization of molecular fragments in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 75(4), 043402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heesel, E.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertz, E.

E. Hertz, D. Daems, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Field-free molecular alignment induced by elliptically polarized laser pulses: Noninvasive three-dimensional characterization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Loriot, E. Hertz, A. Rouzée, B. Sinardet, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Strong-field molecular ionization: determination of ionization probabilities calibrated with field-free alignment,” Opt. Lett. 31(19), 2897–2899 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jauslin, H. R.

E. Hertz, D. Daems, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Field-free molecular alignment induced by elliptically polarized laser pulses: Noninvasive three-dimensional characterization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajumba, N.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanai, T.

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, I. J.

Kim, T. K.

Lavorel, B.

E. Hertz, D. Daems, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Field-free molecular alignment induced by elliptically polarized laser pulses: Noninvasive three-dimensional characterization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Loriot, E. Hertz, A. Rouzée, B. Sinardet, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Strong-field molecular ionization: determination of ionization probabilities calibrated with field-free alignment,” Opt. Lett. 31(19), 2897–2899 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Renard, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Measurement of laser-induced alignment of molecules by cross defocusing,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 70–72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, G. H.

Lee, K. F.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loriot, V.

Marangos, J. P.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marceau, C.

Milchberg, H. M.

Minemoto, S.

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

Nisoli, M.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. B.

Pashayan, Y. T.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, Y.

Qi, H.

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. Zeng, “Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renard, M.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renard, V.

V. Renard, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Measurement of laser-induced alignment of molecules by cross defocusing,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 70–72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosca-Pruna, F.

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Experimental observation of revival structures in picosecond laser-induced alignment of I2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(15), 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouzée, A.

Sakai, H.

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seideman, T.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sinardet, B.

Stagira, S.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stapelfeldt, H.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

Torres, R.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varma, S.

Velotta, R.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(23), 233003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Experimental observation of revival structures in picosecond laser-induced alignment of I2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(15), 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, N.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Cai, J. Wu, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Comparison study of supercontinuum generation by molecular alignment of N2 and O2.,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5822–5828 (2009).
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J. Wu, H. Cai, A. Couarion, and H. Zeng, “Few-cycle shock X-wave generation by filamentation in pre-aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 013828 (2009).
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J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. Zeng, “Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053412 (2008).
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J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, “Polarization effects on nonsequential double ionization of molecular fragments in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 75(4), 043402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

York, A.

Zeng, H.

H. Cai, J. Wu, A. Couairon, and H. Zeng, “Spectral modulation of femtosecond laser pulse induced by molecular alignment revivals,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 827–829 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Cai, A. Couarion, and H. Zeng, “Few-cycle shock X-wave generation by filamentation in pre-aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 013828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Cai, J. Wu, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Comparison study of supercontinuum generation by molecular alignment of N2 and O2.,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5822–5828 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Cai, H. Zeng, and A. Couairon, “Femtosecond filamentation and pulse compression in the wake of molecular alignment,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2593–2595 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. Zeng, “Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, “Polarization effects on nonsequential double ionization of molecular fragments in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 75(4), 043402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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J. Wu, H. Cai, A. Couarion, and H. Zeng, “Few-cycle shock X-wave generation by filamentation in pre-aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 013828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, “Polarization effects on nonsequential double ionization of molecular fragments in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 75(4), 043402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. Zeng, “Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Hertz, D. Daems, S. Guérin, H. R. Jauslin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Field-free molecular alignment induced by elliptically polarized laser pulses: Noninvasive three-dimensional characterization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(4), 043423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Experimental observation of revival structures in picosecond laser-induced alignment of I2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(15), 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Wu‚ H. Cai‚ A. Couarion‚ and H. Zeng, “Wavelength tuning of a few-cycle laser pulse by molecular alignment in femtosecond filamentation wake,” Phys. Rev. A 79‚ 063812 (2009).

J. Wu, H. Cai, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Controllable supercontinuum generation by the quantum wake of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041404(R) (2009).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Modulation of the contained energy in a small aperture at the inner (solid curve) and periphery (dashed curve) of the beam profile. (b) Calculated molecular alignment metric <<cos 2 θ>> of N2 versus time delay. (c), (d) Simulated output signal from the photodiode without (dashed curves) and with (solid curves) the contributions of cross-defocusing (η = 5.0) and anisotropic ionization under various pump intensities.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured molecular alignment signal of N2 under various pump intensities. The dashed curves represent the numerically fitted ones (shifted by 0.1 as compared with the measured ones).

Equations (9)

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fm(t)=n0w02/[4dΔn0(t)]
wLm=w0β{1+[L/(Z0β)Z0/fm]2}1/2,
SD(t)~20D/2I(r,t)dr~[w0/wL(m)]2{1D3/[12wL(m)]2}.
SD(t)~20D/2I(r,t)dr=SD01η[<<cos2θ(t)>>r=01/3],
Wk(θ)=σK0IpKTp(a+b<<cos2θ>>)=W0(a+b<<cos2θ>>)
n//=1+2πN0[1WK(θ)](α+Δα<<cos2θ>>)~1+2πN0{α(1aW0)+[Δα(1aW0)bW0α]<<cos2θ>>}.
n=1+2πN0[1WK(θ)](α+Δα<<sin2θsin2ϕ>>)~1+πN0{(α+α//)(1aW0)+[Δα(aW01)bW0(α+α//)]<<cos2θ>>},
Δn=n//n~N0Δαπ[bW0/3+(33aW0+bW0)(<<cos2θ>>1/3)].
SD~(Δnπd/λ0)2[1η(<<cos2θ>>1/3)]1.

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