Abstract

Both ensemble and single-molecule measurements were performed to explore the fluorescence properties of Au nanoclusters (NCs). Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement was observed for ensemble NCs in solution, but photobleaching was found at ambient environments. At the single-molecule level, fluorescence blinking and single-step photobleaching were observed. Furthermore, their time-resolved fluorescence shows a single exponential decay with a lifetime of ~7 ns and is insensitive to changes in fluorescence intensity. The lifetime distribution is more homogeneous within ensemble Au NCs as compared to CdSe QDs. Therefore, Au NCs have potential applications as nontoxic fluorescent labels for lifetime-based imaging microscopy. However, their low quantum yields and poor photostability are disadvantageous factors, which require further improvement.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Biju, T. Ioth, A. Anas, A. Sujith, and M. Ishikawa, "Semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoparticles," Bioanal. Chem. 391, 2469-2495 (2008).
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  2. E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. I. Mork, and D. Schultz, "Single-target molecule detection with nonbleaching multicolor optical immunolabels,"Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 996-1001 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. D. McFarland and R. P. VanDuyne, "Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. VanDijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Far-Field Optical Microscopy of Single Metal Nanoparticles," Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 594-601 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, and T. A. Feldmann, "Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles," J. Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, "High Quantum Yield Blue Emission from Water-Soluble Au8 Nanodots," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 7780-7781 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, "Highly Fluorescent, Water-Soluble, Size-Tunable Gold Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,077402 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, C. H. Wu, C. A. Lin, W. H. Chang, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. H. Chan, and W. J. Parak, "Improvement of conversion efficiency for multi-junction solar cells by incorporation of Au nanoclusters," Opt. Express 16, 15754-15758 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Fluorescent Biological Labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. R. Jana and X. G. Peng, "Single-Phase and Gram-Scale Routes toward Nearly Monodisperse Au and Other Noble Metal Nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14280-14281 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Benda and M. Hof, "TCSPC upgrade of a confocal FCS microscope" Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Noseung, J. B. Yoon, and J. B. Allen, "Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of CdSe Nanocrystals Dispersed in CHCl3 by Oxygen Passivation of Surface States," Nano Lett. 3, 747-749 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Photo-Activated Luminescence of CdSe Quantum Dot Monolayers," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137-12142 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. T. Yuan, W. C. Chou, Y. N. Chen, C. A. Lin, and W. H. Chang, "Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement in colloidal CdSeTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Luminescent Blinking from Silver Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 9989-9993 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, ""On"/"off" fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 1028-1040 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 67, 125304 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Tang, and R. A. Marcus, "Mechanisms of fluorescence blinking in semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 054704 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Dahan, T. Laurence, F. Pinaud, D. S. Chemla, A. P. Alivisatos, M. Sauer, and S. Weiss, "Time-gated biological imaging by use of colloidal quantum dots," Opt. Lett. 26, 825-827 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, "Fluorescence Decay Time of Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 137401 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

C. T. Yuan, W. C. Chou, Y. N. Chen, C. A. Lin, and W. H. Chang, "Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement in colloidal CdSeTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Biju, T. Ioth, A. Anas, A. Sujith, and M. Ishikawa, "Semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoparticles," Bioanal. Chem. 391, 2469-2495 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, C. H. Wu, C. A. Lin, W. H. Chang, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. H. Chan, and W. J. Parak, "Improvement of conversion efficiency for multi-junction solar cells by incorporation of Au nanoclusters," Opt. Express 16, 15754-15758 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

A. Benda and M. Hof, "TCSPC upgrade of a confocal FCS microscope" Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Tang, and R. A. Marcus, "Diffusion-Controlled Electron Transfer Processes and Power-Law Statistics of Fluorescence Intermittency of Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 107401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tang, and R. A. Marcus, "Mechanisms of fluorescence blinking in semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 054704 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. VanDijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Far-Field Optical Microscopy of Single Metal Nanoparticles," Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 594-601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, and T. A. Feldmann, "Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles," J. Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, "Highly Fluorescent, Water-Soluble, Size-Tunable Gold Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,077402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

N. R. Jana and X. G. Peng, "Single-Phase and Gram-Scale Routes toward Nearly Monodisperse Au and Other Noble Metal Nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14280-14281 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Luminescent Blinking from Silver Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 9989-9993 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. VanDuyne, "Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, "High Quantum Yield Blue Emission from Water-Soluble Au8 Nanodots," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 7780-7781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Noseung, J. B. Yoon, and J. B. Allen, "Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of CdSe Nanocrystals Dispersed in CHCl3 by Oxygen Passivation of Surface States," Nano Lett. 3, 747-749 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 67, 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, "Fluorescence Decay Time of Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 137401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Dahan, T. Laurence, F. Pinaud, D. S. Chemla, A. P. Alivisatos, M. Sauer, and S. Weiss, "Time-gated biological imaging by use of colloidal quantum dots," Opt. Lett. 26, 825-827 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, ""On"/"off" fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 1028-1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential "blinking" kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: A universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. I. Mork, and D. Schultz, "Single-target molecule detection with nonbleaching multicolor optical immunolabels,"Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 996-1001 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Photo-Activated Luminescence of CdSe Quantum Dot Monolayers," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137-12142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Fluorescent Biological Labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

M. Dahan, T. Laurence, F. Pinaud, D. S. Chemla, A. P. Alivisatos, M. Sauer, and S. Weiss, "Time-gated biological imaging by use of colloidal quantum dots," Opt. Lett. 26, 825-827 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Fluorescent Biological Labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, J. B.

M. Noseung, J. B. Yoon, and J. B. Allen, "Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of CdSe Nanocrystals Dispersed in CHCl3 by Oxygen Passivation of Surface States," Nano Lett. 3, 747-749 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anas, A.

V. Biju, T. Ioth, A. Anas, A. Sujith, and M. Ishikawa, "Semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoparticles," Bioanal. Chem. 391, 2469-2495 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benda, A.

A. Benda and M. Hof, "TCSPC upgrade of a confocal FCS microscope" Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biju, V.

V. Biju, T. Ioth, A. Anas, A. Sujith, and M. Ishikawa, "Semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoparticles," Bioanal. Chem. 391, 2469-2495 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bohnenberger, J.

G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, "Fluorescence Decay Time of Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 137401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bruchez, J. M.

J. M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Fluorescent Biological Labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buratto, S. K.

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Photo-Activated Luminescence of CdSe Quantum Dot Monolayers," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137-12142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carson, P. J.

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Photo-Activated Luminescence of CdSe Quantum Dot Monolayers," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137-12142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. H.

Chang, W. H.

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, C. H. Wu, C. A. Lin, W. H. Chang, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. H. Chan, and W. J. Parak, "Improvement of conversion efficiency for multi-junction solar cells by incorporation of Au nanoclusters," Opt. Express 16, 15754-15758 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Yuan, W. C. Chou, Y. N. Chen, C. A. Lin, and W. H. Chang, "Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement in colloidal CdSeTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

Chen, Y. N.

C. T. Yuan, W. C. Chou, Y. N. Chen, C. A. Lin, and W. H. Chang, "Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement in colloidal CdSeTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, W. C.

C. T. Yuan, W. C. Chou, Y. N. Chen, C. A. Lin, and W. H. Chang, "Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement in colloidal CdSeTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cordero, S. R.

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Photo-Activated Luminescence of CdSe Quantum Dot Monolayers," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137-12142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dahan, M.

Dickson, R. M.

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, "Highly Fluorescent, Water-Soluble, Size-Tunable Gold Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,077402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, "High Quantum Yield Blue Emission from Water-Soluble Au8 Nanodots," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 7780-7781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dulkeith, E.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, and T. A. Feldmann, "Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles," J. Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Estabrook, R. A.

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Photo-Activated Luminescence of CdSe Quantum Dot Monolayers," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137-12142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, T. A.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, and T. A. Feldmann, "Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles," J. Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fort, E.

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 67, 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, ""On"/"off" fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 1028-1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential "blinking" kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: A universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, A.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 67, 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, ""On"/"off" fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 1028-1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential "blinking" kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: A universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geddes, C. D.

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Luminescent Blinking from Silver Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 9989-9993 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gin, P.

J. M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Fluorescent Biological Labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gresillon, S.

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, I.

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Luminescent Blinking from Silver Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 9989-9993 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamann, H. F.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, ""On"/"off" fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 1028-1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential "blinking" kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: A universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hof, M.

A. Benda and M. Hof, "TCSPC upgrade of a confocal FCS microscope" Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ioth, T.

V. Biju, T. Ioth, A. Anas, A. Sujith, and M. Ishikawa, "Semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoparticles," Bioanal. Chem. 391, 2469-2495 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, M.

V. Biju, T. Ioth, A. Anas, A. Sujith, and M. Ishikawa, "Semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoparticles," Bioanal. Chem. 391, 2469-2495 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jana, N. R.

N. R. Jana and X. G. Peng, "Single-Phase and Gram-Scale Routes toward Nearly Monodisperse Au and Other Noble Metal Nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14280-14281 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. T.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 67, 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klar, T. A.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, and T. A. Feldmann, "Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles," J. Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kostcheev, S.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuno, M.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 67, 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, ""On"/"off" fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 1028-1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential "blinking" kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: A universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Luminescent Blinking from Silver Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 9989-9993 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurence, T.

Lee, C. H.

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerondel, G.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. K.

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. A.

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Yuan, W. C. Chou, Y. N. Chen, C. A. Lin, and W. H. Chang, "Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement in colloidal CdSeTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, C. H. Wu, C. A. Lin, W. H. Chang, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. H. Chan, and W. J. Parak, "Improvement of conversion efficiency for multi-junction solar cells by incorporation of Au nanoclusters," Opt. Express 16, 15754-15758 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippitz, M.

M. A. VanDijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Far-Field Optical Microscopy of Single Metal Nanoparticles," Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 594-601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. K.

Marcus, R. A.

J. Tang, and R. A. Marcus, "Diffusion-Controlled Electron Transfer Processes and Power-Law Statistics of Fluorescence Intermittency of Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 107401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tang, and R. A. Marcus, "Mechanisms of fluorescence blinking in semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 054704 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFarland, A. D.

A. D. McFarland and R. P. VanDuyne, "Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mews, A.

G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, "Fluorescence Decay Time of Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 137401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mooradian, A.

A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mork, J. I.

S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. I. Mork, and D. Schultz, "Single-target molecule detection with nonbleaching multicolor optical immunolabels,"Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 996-1001 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moronne, M.

J. M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Fluorescent Biological Labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nesbitt, D. J.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 67, 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, ""On"/"off" fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 1028-1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential "blinking" kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: A universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Niedereichholz, T.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, and T. A. Feldmann, "Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles," J. Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noseung, M.

M. Noseung, J. B. Yoon, and J. B. Allen, "Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of CdSe Nanocrystals Dispersed in CHCl3 by Oxygen Passivation of Surface States," Nano Lett. 3, 747-749 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Orrit, M.

M. A. VanDijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Far-Field Optical Microscopy of Single Metal Nanoparticles," Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 594-601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parak, W. J.

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, C. H. Wu, C. A. Lin, W. H. Chang, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. H. Chan, and W. J. Parak, "Improvement of conversion efficiency for multi-junction solar cells by incorporation of Au nanoclusters," Opt. Express 16, 15754-15758 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parfenov, A.

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Luminescent Blinking from Silver Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 9989-9993 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, X. G.

N. R. Jana and X. G. Peng, "Single-Phase and Gram-Scale Routes toward Nearly Monodisperse Au and Other Noble Metal Nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14280-14281 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petty, J. T.

J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, "High Quantum Yield Blue Emission from Water-Soluble Au8 Nanodots," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 7780-7781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinaud, F.

Potapova, I.

G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, "Fluorescence Decay Time of Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 137401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royer, P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, M.

Schlegel, G.

G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, "Fluorescence Decay Time of Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 137401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, D.

S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. I. Mork, and D. Schultz, "Single-target molecule detection with nonbleaching multicolor optical immunolabels,"Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 996-1001 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. I. Mork, and D. Schultz, "Single-target molecule detection with nonbleaching multicolor optical immunolabels,"Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 996-1001 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, J. L.

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, C. H. Wu, C. A. Lin, W. H. Chang, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. H. Chan, and W. J. Parak, "Improvement of conversion efficiency for multi-junction solar cells by incorporation of Au nanoclusters," Opt. Express 16, 15754-15758 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. I. Mork, and D. Schultz, "Single-target molecule detection with nonbleaching multicolor optical immunolabels,"Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 996-1001 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperling, R. A.

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strouse, G. F.

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Photo-Activated Luminescence of CdSe Quantum Dot Monolayers," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137-12142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sujith, A.

V. Biju, T. Ioth, A. Anas, A. Sujith, and M. Ishikawa, "Semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoparticles," Bioanal. Chem. 391, 2469-2495 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J.

J. Tang, and R. A. Marcus, "Diffusion-Controlled Electron Transfer Processes and Power-Law Statistics of Fluorescence Intermittency of Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 107401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tang, and R. A. Marcus, "Mechanisms of fluorescence blinking in semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 054704 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

VanDijk, M. A.

M. A. VanDijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Far-Field Optical Microscopy of Single Metal Nanoparticles," Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 594-601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

VanDuyne, R. P.

A. D. McFarland and R. P. VanDuyne, "Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. H.

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, C. H. Wu, C. A. Lin, W. H. Chang, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. H. Chan, and W. J. Parak, "Improvement of conversion efficiency for multi-junction solar cells by incorporation of Au nanoclusters," Opt. Express 16, 15754-15758 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, S.

M. Dahan, T. Laurence, F. Pinaud, D. S. Chemla, A. P. Alivisatos, M. Sauer, and S. Weiss, "Time-gated biological imaging by use of colloidal quantum dots," Opt. Lett. 26, 825-827 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Fluorescent Biological Labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. H.

Yang, M. D.

Yang, T. Y.

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, H. I.

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, C. H. Wu, C. A. Lin, W. H. Chang, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. H. Chan, and W. J. Parak, "Improvement of conversion efficiency for multi-junction solar cells by incorporation of Au nanoclusters," Opt. Express 16, 15754-15758 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, J. B.

M. Noseung, J. B. Yoon, and J. B. Allen, "Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of CdSe Nanocrystals Dispersed in CHCl3 by Oxygen Passivation of Surface States," Nano Lett. 3, 747-749 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, C. T.

C. T. Yuan, W. C. Chou, Y. N. Chen, C. A. Lin, and W. H. Chang, "Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement in colloidal CdSeTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zanella, M.

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, "Highly Fluorescent, Water-Soluble, Size-Tunable Gold Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,077402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, "Highly Fluorescent, Water-Soluble, Size-Tunable Gold Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,077402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, "High Quantum Yield Blue Emission from Water-Soluble Au8 Nanodots," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 7780-7781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

M. A. VanDijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Far-Field Optical Microscopy of Single Metal Nanoparticles," Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 594-601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

C. A. Lin, T. Y. Yang, C. H. Lee, S. H. Huang, R. A. Sperling, M. Zanella, J. K. Li, J. L. Shen, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. J. Parak, and W. H. Chang, "Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation of Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters toward Biological Labeling Applications," ACS Nano 3, 395-401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. T. Yuan, W. C. Chou, Y. N. Chen, C. A. Lin, and W. H. Chang, "Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement in colloidal CdSeTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bioanal. Chem. (1)

V. Biju, T. Ioth, A. Anas, A. Sujith, and M. Ishikawa, "Semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoparticles," Bioanal. Chem. 391, 2469-2495 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, "High Quantum Yield Blue Emission from Water-Soluble Au8 Nanodots," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 7780-7781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Jana and X. G. Peng, "Single-Phase and Gram-Scale Routes toward Nearly Monodisperse Au and Other Noble Metal Nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14280-14281 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, ""On"/"off" fluorescence intermittency of single semiconductor quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 1028-1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential "blinking" kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: A universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Tang, and R. A. Marcus, "Mechanisms of fluorescence blinking in semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 054704 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

S. R. Cordero, P. J. Carson, R. A. Estabrook, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Photo-Activated Luminescence of CdSe Quantum Dot Monolayers," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 12137-12142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Luminescent Blinking from Silver Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 9989-9993 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D (1)

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, and T. A. Feldmann, "Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles," J. Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

A. D. McFarland and R. P. VanDuyne, "Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Noseung, J. B. Yoon, and J. B. Allen, "Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of CdSe Nanocrystals Dispersed in CHCl3 by Oxygen Passivation of Surface States," Nano Lett. 3, 747-749 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, S. T. Johnson, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Modeling distributed kinetics in isolated semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 67, 125304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

J. Tang, and R. A. Marcus, "Diffusion-Controlled Electron Transfer Processes and Power-Law Statistics of Fluorescence Intermittency of Nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 107401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schlegel, J. Bohnenberger, I. Potapova, and A. Mews, "Fluorescence Decay Time of Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 137401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Surface Plasmon Characteristics of Tunable Photoluminescence in Single Gold Nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, "Highly Fluorescent, Water-Soluble, Size-Tunable Gold Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,077402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

S. Schultz, D. R. Smith, J. I. Mork, and D. Schultz, "Single-target molecule detection with nonbleaching multicolor optical immunolabels,"Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 996-1001 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Benda and M. Hof, "TCSPC upgrade of a confocal FCS microscope" Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Fluorescent Biological Labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Absorption and (b) fluorescence spectra of ensemble Au NCs in solution along with TEM images in the inset.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fluorescence intensity variations with illumination time in solution (a) and at ambient environments (b).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fluorescence intensity images of 4×4 µm 2 for single Au NCs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fluorescence time traces for single Au NCs for total measured time (a) and the initial time window of 5 s (b).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Blinking statistics of the on-times (a) and the off-times (b).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Fluorescence decay profile of single Au NCs, showing a single exponential decay. (b) Fluorescence decay profiles for high and low intensity regimes.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fluorescence lifetime images for single Au NCs (a) and single CdSe QDs (b).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Fluorescence lifetime distributions of all imaging pixel for Au NCs and CdSe QDs (a); for a selected single Au NCs and single CdSe QDs (b); for four Au NCs (c); and for four CdSe QDs (d), respectively.

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